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Author (up) Bailey, A.; Le Couteur, A.; Gottesman, I.; Bolton, P.; Simonoff, E.; Yuzda, E.; Rutter, M. file  url
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  Title Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 63-77  
  Keywords Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Diseases in Twins/*genetics/psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Great Britain; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intelligence/genetics; Male; Models, Genetic; Personality Assessment; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment; Social Environment; Twins, Dizygotic/genetics/psychology; Twins, Monozygotic/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.  
  Call Number Serial 1112  
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Author (up) Baustian, J.; Mendelssohn, I.; Lin, Q.; Rapp, J. file  url
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  Title In situ burning restores the ecological function and structure of an oil-impacted coastal marsh Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage  
  Volume 46 Issue 5 Pages 781-789  
  Keywords Alkanes/analysis; Biodiversity; Chemical Hazard Release; *Ecosystem; Environmental Monitoring; Environmental Remediation/*methods; Fires; Louisiana; Petroleum/*analysis; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/analysis; Soil/chemistry; Soil Pollutants/analysis; Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis; *Wetlands  
  Abstract As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and below ground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.  
  Call Number Serial 130  
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Author (up) Bernauer, T.; Moser, P. file  url
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  Title Reducing Pollution of the River Rhine: The Influence of International Cooperation Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication The Journal of Environment & Development Abbreviated Journal The Journal of Environment & Development  
  Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 389-415  
  Keywords Transboundary; Pollution; Rhine; Heavy metals; Environmental cooperation; Reduction; Cleanup  
  Abstract In this article, we critically examine the widely held view that transboundary political and legal efforts to reduce pollution of the river Rhine by heavy metals have been a success story. In doing so, we seek to contribute to the analysis of the performance of transboundary environmental cooperation, and to gain insights that may be relevant to environmental cleanup efforts in other international river basins. We conclude that international efforts have only modestly and indirectly contributed to pollution reductions, and that, in the Rhine case, informal approaches to problem solving have been more effective than formal approaches. We also find that liability frameworks may contribute toward pollution reductions, but are, even under favorable conditions, of very limited effectiveness.  
  Call Number Serial 953  
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Author (up) Berzins, D.W.; Bundy, K.J. file  url
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  Title Bioaccumulation of lead in Xenopus laevis tadpoles from water and sediment Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Environment International Abbreviated Journal Environ Int  
  Volume 28 Issue 1-2 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Animals; Body Weight/drug effects; Environmental Pollutants/*pharmacokinetics/toxicity; Fresh Water/chemistry; Geologic Sediments/chemistry; Larva/*chemistry/growth & development; Lead/*pharmacokinetics/toxicity; Louisiana; *Xenopus  
  Abstract The overall objective of this research was to monitor the uptake kinetics of lead in an amphibian model and correlate metal content with embryo development. Based upon the concentration of lead found in the water and sediment of a Louisiana swamp adjacent to a Superfund site, a controlled laboratory experiment exploring lead uptake from water and sediment by Xenopus laevis tadpoles was conducted. For 5 weeks, tadpoles were exposed to water and a simulated sediment, kaolin, spiked with 1, 5, or 10 times the concentration of lead found in field water and sediment samples. Additionally, organisms were exposed to the 5 x condition for 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental controls consisted of unexposed tadpoles and ones exposed to lead originating from water or sediment exclusively. At the end of the exposure periods, developmental data, i.e., body weight and developmental stage, were recorded, and the tadpoles were analyzed for whole body lead concentration. Lead extraction was accomplished by dry ashing, and its amount was quantified polarographically. Results showed that lead inhibited the normal development of these amphibians, in a manner that generally was more severe as exposure level increased. The hindrance of tadpole development also coincided with an increase in whole body lead concentration at higher exposures. Temporally, at the 5 x exposure concentration, the mean lead level increased with time, but this difference was not statistically significant (P<.05). Additionally, control animals exposed to lead (either in water or in sediment) showed no statistical difference with regard to weight and lead uptake, indicating that lead originating from both water and sediment is incorporated into the tadpole. The controlled laboratory experimental protocol used here is thus capable of investigating the uptake of a single metal (Pb in this case) and determining its effect on the development of tadpoles while differentiating the significance of multiple sources of exposure.  
  Call Number Serial 1183  
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Author (up) Bjork, J.; Albin, M.; Grahn, P.; Jacobsson, H.; Ardo, J.; Wadbro, J.; Ostergren, P.-O.; Skarback, E. file  url
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  Title Recreational values of the natural environment in relation to neighbourhood satisfaction, physical activity, obesity and wellbeing Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health  
  Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages e2-e2  
  Keywords Recreational values; Physical activity; Obesity; Environment  
  Abstract Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate associations between recreational values of the close natural environment and neighbourhood satisfaction, physical activity, obesity and wellbeing.

Methods: Data from a large public health survey distributed as a mailed questionnaire in suburban and rural areas of southern Sweden were used (N &#8202;=&#8202; 24 819; 59% participation rate). Geocoded residential addresses and the geographical information system technique were used to assess objectively five recreational values of the close natural environment: serene, wild, lush, spacious and culture.

Results: On average, a citizen of the Scania region, inner city areas excluded, only had access to 0.67 recreational values within 300 metres distance from their residence. The number of recreational values near the residence was strongly associated with neighbourhood satisfaction and physical activity. The effect on satisfaction was especially marked among tenants and the presence of recreational values was associated with low or normal body mass index in this group. A less marked positive association with vitality among women was observed. No evident effect on self-rated health was detectable.

Conclusions: Immediate access to natural environments with high recreational values was rare in the study population and was distributed in an inequitable manner. Moreover, such access was associated with a positive assessment of neighbourhood satisfaction and time spent on physical activity, which can be expected to reduce obesity and increase vitality by having a buffering effect on stress.
 
  Call Number Serial 2130  
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Author (up) Bornovalova, M.A.; Hicks, B.M.; Iacono, W.G.; McGue, M. file  url
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  Title Familial transmission and heritability of childhood disruptive disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The American Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Psychiatry  
  Volume 167 Issue 9 Pages 1066-1074  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Antisocial Personality Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Diseases in Twins/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Family/psychology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Male; Minnesota/epidemiology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Social Environment; Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence of a link between parental substance use disorders and antisocial behavior and childhood disruptive disorders in offspring, but it is unclear whether this transmission is specific to particular disorders or if a general liability accounts for familial resemblance. The authors examined whether the association between parental externalizing disorders and childhood disruptive disorders in preadolescent offspring is a result of the transmission of general or disorder-specific liabilities and estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to variation in these general and specific liability indicators. METHOD: Participants were 1,069 families consisting of 11-year-old twins and their biological mother and father. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously estimate the general and specific transmission effects of four parental externalizing disorders (conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence) on childhood disruptive disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder). RESULTS: Parent-child resemblance was accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to externalizing disorders, and this general liability was highly heritable. Specific effects were also detected, but for sibling rather than parental transmission. Specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects were detected for each childhood disruptive disorder, but only conduct disorder exhibited a significant shared environmental effect. CONCLUSIONS: A highly heritable general liability accounts for the parent-child transmission of externalizing psychopathology from parents to their preadolescent offspring. This general liability should be a focus of research for both etiology and intervention.  
  Call Number Serial 97  
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Author (up) Bourgeon, J.-M.; Treguer, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Killing two birds with one stone: US and EU biofuel programmes Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication European Review of Agricultural Economics Abbreviated Journal European Review of Agricultural Economics  
  Volume 37 Issue 3 Pages 369-394  
  Keywords Biofuels; Income support; Dual energy market; Environmental enforcement  
  Abstract The United States and the European Union have been implementing sizeable biofuel support programmes since the beginning of the decade. Supporting the biofuel industry raises the price of the agricultural feedstock, and hence increases the farmer revenue and reduces the need for direct income support. Thus, for a given objective of agricultural income, the regulator is able to operate a partial substitution between agricultural decoupled payments and the support to the biofuel industry (subsidies or mandatory blending). We detail these effects and derive the biofuel and the environmental policies that maximise social welfare. We also show that for high levels of biofuel production, cross-compliance provisions are a more expensive way of enforcing the environmental policy than fining farmers.  
  Call Number Serial 871  
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Author (up) Boyd, W.A.; Cole, R.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Williams, P.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title The effects of metals and food availability on the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry / SETAC Abbreviated Journal Environ Toxicol Chem  
  Volume 22 Issue 12 Pages 3049-3055  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Assay; Cadmium/*toxicity; *Caenorhabditis elegans; Copper/*toxicity; *Environmental Exposure; *Feeding Behavior; Lead/*toxicity; Sensitivity and Specificity; Starvation; Water Pollutants/*toxicity  
  Abstract Caenorhabditis elegans, a nonparasitic soil nematode, was used to assess the combined effects of metal exposures and food availability on behavior. Movement was monitored using a computer tracking system after exposures to Cu, Pb, or Cd while feeding was measured as a change in optical density (deltaOD) of bacteria suspensions over the exposure period. After 24-h exposures at high and low bacteria concentrations, movement was decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion by Pb and Cd but feeding reductions were not directly proportional to exposure concentrations. Copper exposure induced concentration-dependent declines in feeding and movement regardless of bacteria concentration. The impact of 24-h metal exposures was apparently reduced by increasing food availability. Therefore, exposures were shortened to 4 h in an attempt to minimize starvation effects on movement. Although nematodes were immobilized following 24 h of food depravation, worms deprived of food during the 4-h exposure continued to feed and move after exposure. A bead-ingestion assay after 4-h exposures was also used as an additional means of assessing the effects of metals on feeding behavior. Ingestion was significantly reduced by all concentrations of metals tested, indicating its sensitivity as a sublethal assay. Feeding (deltaOD) during exposures exhibited similar trends as ingestion but was slightly less sensitive, while movement was the least sensitive assay of 4-h metal exposures to C. elegans. Assessment of multiple sublethal endpoints allowed for the determination of the separate and interactive effects of metals and food availability on C. elegans behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 1031  
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Author (up) Buchanan, C.M.; Maccoby, E.E.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
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  Title Caught between parents: adolescents' experience in divorced homes Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 62 Issue 5 Pages 1008-1029  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Anxiety/psychology; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/psychology; *Personality Development; Social Environment  
  Abstract This study examined adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents to see whether this construct helps to explain (1) variability in their postdivorce adjustment and (2) associations between family/child characteristics and adolescent adjustment. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old (N = 522) were interviewed by telephone 4 1/2 years after their parents' separation. Feeling caught between parents was related to high parental conflict and hostility and low parental cooperation. Being close to both parents was associated with low feelings of being caught. The relation between time spent with each parent and feeling caught depended on the coparenting relationship. Adolescents in dual residence were especially likely to feel caught when parents were in high conflict, and especially unlikely to feel caught when parents cooperated. Feeling caught was related to poor adjustment outcomes. Parental conflict was only related to adjustment outcomes indirectly, through adolescents' feelings of being caught.  
  Call Number Serial 281  
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Author (up) Buffet-Bataillon, S.; Rabier, V.; Betremieux, P.; Beuchee, A.; Bauer, M.; Pladys, P.; Le Gall, E.; Cormier, M.; Jolivet-Gougeon, A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Outbreak of Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit: contaminated unmedicated liquid soap and risk factors Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication The Journal of Hospital Infection Abbreviated Journal J Hosp Infect  
  Volume 72 Issue 1 Pages 17-22  
  Keywords Bacterial Typing Techniques; Case-Control Studies; Cross Infection/*epidemiology/microbiology; DNA Fingerprinting; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; *Disease Outbreaks; Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field; *Environmental Microbiology; Female; Genotype; Hand Disinfection/methods; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Infection Control/methods; Intensive Care Units, Neonatal; Male; Risk Factors; Serratia Infections/*epidemiology/microbiology; Serratia marcescens/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; *Soaps  
  Abstract This study describes an outbreak of Serratia marcescens and its investigation and control in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). During a three-month period, five infants were colonised or infected by a single strain of S. marcescens. A case-control study, culture surveys and pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis implicated a bottle soap dispenser as a reservoir of S. marcescens (P=0.032). Infants with S. marcescens colonisation or infection were also more likely to have been exposed to a central or percutaneous venous catheter (P=0.05) and had had longer exposure to endotracheal intubation (P=0.05). Soap dispensers are used in many hospitals and may be an unrecognised source of nosocomial infections. This potential source of infection could be reduced by using 'airless' dispensers which have no air intake for the distribution of soap. Prompt intervention and strict adherence to alcoholic hand disinfection were the key factors that led to the successful control of this outbreak.  
  Call Number Serial 1655  
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