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Author (up) Aspinall, P.J. file  url
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  Title Describing the “white” ethnic group and its composition in medical research Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 47 Issue 11 Pages 1797-1808  
  Keywords Canada; Ethnic Groups/*classification; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification; Great Britain; Humans; *Minority Groups; *Research; Social Identification; State Medicine; United States  
  Abstract The routine use in medical research of an ostensibly homogeneous “white” category in ethnic group classifications has meant that white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though such groups are subject to discrimination and disadvantage common to other minority groups. The terms “white” and “Caucasian” are frequently and increasingly employed in the scientific literature in spite of widespread concern about the medicalization of race. Moreover, in Great Britain ethnic monitoring of hospital inpatients has revealed negligible interest in utilising codes that subdivide the white group. Yet recent research has shown, for example, substantially elevated age standardised limiting long-term illness rates in the first generation Irish and excess mortality in the second generation living in Britain. The health needs of these white minorities can only properly be identified through the availability of census denominator data of the kind now collected in the U.S. and Canadian decennial census questions on ethnic origin. The opportunity for government to make such provision in the forthcoming Great Britain 2001 Census should be seized whilst it is still available and recommendations for subdividing the “white” group are made.  
  Call Number Serial 105  
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Author (up) Benowitz, N.L.; Dains, K.M.; Dempsey, D.; Wilson, M.; Jacob, P. file  url
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  Title Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Abbreviated Journal Nicotine Tob Res  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages 772-783  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans/psychology; Aged; Carcinogens/analysis; Cotinine/blood; European Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nicotine/*blood/urine; Nitrosamines/urine; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/urine; Pyridines/urine; San Francisco; Smoking/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Tobacco Use Disorder/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Black smokers are reported to have higher lung cancer rates and greater tobacco dependence at lower levels of cigarette consumption compared to non-Hispanic White smokers. We studied the relationship between cigarettes per day (CPD) and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Black and White smokers. METHODS: In 128 Black and White smokers, we measured plasma nicotine and its main proximate metabolite cotinine, urine nicotine equivalents, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites. RESULTS: The dose-response between CPD and nicotine equivalents, and NNAL and PAH was flat for Black but positive for White smokers (Race x CPD interaction, all ps < .05). Regression estimates for the Race x CPD interactions were 0.042 (95% CI 0.013-0.070), 0.054 (0.023-0.086), and 0.028 (0.004-0.052) for urine nicotine equivalents, NNAL, and PAHs, respectively. In contrast there was a strong correlation between nicotine equivalents and NNAL and PAH independent of race. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure per individual cigarette was inversely related to CPD. This inverse correlation was stronger in Black compared to White smokers and stronger in menthol compared to regular cigarette smokers (not mutually adjusted). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that Blacks on average smoke cigarettes differently than White smokers such that CPD predicts smoke intake more poorly in Black than in White smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 368  
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Author (up) Buu, M.M.C.; Sanders, L.M.; Mayo, J.A.; Milla, C.E.; Wise, P.H. file  url
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  Title Assessing Differences in Mortality Rates and Risk Factors Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in California Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chest Abbreviated Journal Chest  
  Volume 149 Issue 2 Pages 380-389  
  Keywords Adolescent; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Cystic Fibrosis/*mortality; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Hispanic Americans; Humans; Infant; Male; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/*methods; Prevalence; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Survival Rate/trends; cystic fibrosis; ethnicity; health disparities; pediatric pulmonology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past 30 years, therapeutic advances have extended the median lifespan of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Hispanic patients are a vulnerable subpopulation with a high prevalence of risk factors for worse health outcomes. The consequences of these differences on health outcomes have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the difference in health outcomes, including mortality rate, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with CF. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of CF Foundation Patient Registry data of California residents with CF, diagnosed during or after 1991, from 1991 to 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported. The primary outcome was mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated from a Cox regression model, stratified by sex, and adjusted for socioeconomic status, clinical risk factors, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 1,719 patients, 485 (28.2%) self-identified as Hispanic. Eighty-five deaths occurred, with an overall mortality rate of 4.9%. The unadjusted mortality rate was higher among Hispanic patients than among non-Hispanic patients (9.1% vs 3.3%, P < .0001). Compared with non-Hispanic patients, Hispanic patients had a lower survival rate 18 years after diagnosis (75.9% vs 91.5%, P < .0001). Adjusted for socioeconomic status and clinical risk factors, Hispanic patients had an increased rate of death compared with non-Hispanic patients (hazard ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients with CF have a higher mortality rate than do non-Hispanic patients, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status and clinical severity. Further investigation into the mechanism for the measured difference in lung function will help inform interventions and improve the health of all patients with CF.  
  Call Number Serial 1377  
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Author (up) Chen, P.; Jacobson, K.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Developmental trajectories of substance use from early adolescence to young adulthood: gender and racial/ethnic differences Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health  
  Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 154-163  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Sex Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--ethnology, etiology; United States; Young Adult  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The current study examined gender and racial/ethnic (Hispanics, non-Hispanic Caucasians, non-Hispanic African Americans, and non-Hispanic Asians) differences in developmental trajectories of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use from early adolescence to young adulthood using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 20,160) reported rates of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use between the ages of 12 and 34 years. Data analyses were completed using longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses. RESULTS: Levels of substance use increased from early adolescence to mid-20s, and then declined thereafter. Females showed higher levels of substance use in early adolescence, although males exhibited greater changes overtime and higher levels of use in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Overall, Hispanic youth had higher initial rates of substance use, whereas Caucasian adolescents showed higher rates of change and had the highest levels of substance use from mid-adolescence through the early 30s. Racial/ethnic differences largely disappeared after age 30, except that African Americans showed higher final levels of smoking and marijuana use than the other racial/ethnic groups. Results provide evidence for both similarities and differences in general patterns of development and in gender and racial/ethnic differences across different forms of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the current study suggest that the critical periods for intervention and prevention of substance use may differ across gender and race/ethnicity, and that future research needs to identify common and unique mechanisms underlying developmental patterns of different forms of substance use.  
  Call Number Serial 369  
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Author (up) Durant, N.H.; Bartman, B.; Person, S.D.; Collins, F.; Austin, S.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Patient provider communication about the health effects of obesity Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Patient Education and Counseling Abbreviated Journal Patient Educ Couns  
  Volume 75 Issue 1 Pages 53-57  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity/*ethnology/*prevention & control; *Patient Education as Topic; *Professional-Patient Relations; United States  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of race/ethnicity and provider communication on overweight and obese patients' perceptions of the damage weight causes to their health. METHODS: The study included 1071 overweight and obese patients who completed the 2002 Community Health Center (CHC) User survey. We used logistic regression analyses to examine determinants of patients' perceptions of the impact of their weight on their health. Models were adjusted for covariates and weighting was used to account for the sampling design. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of respondents were overweight and 59% were obese. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were half as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to believe weight was damaging to their health while controlling for covariates. Overweight/obese CHC patients who were told they were overweight by healthcare providers were almost nine times more likely to perceive that weight was damaging to their health compared to those not told. CONCLUSIONS: We observed large racial/ethnic disparities in the perception that overweight is unhealthy but provider communication may be a powerful tool for helping patients understand that overweight is damaging to health. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Given obesity is a national epidemic, further attention to the role of patient provider communication in illness is essential with important implications for both health professional training and health care provision.  
  Call Number Serial 402  
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Author (up) Gundersen, D.A.; Delnevo, C.D.; Wackowski, O. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Exploring the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation, in a nationally representative sample of adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
  Volume 49 Issue 6 Pages 553-557  
  Keywords African Americans; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Ethnic Groups; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Health Surveys; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Menthol; Middle Aged; Smoking/*ethnology; Smoking Cessation/*ethnology; United States  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation in a nationally representative sample of adults. METHODS: Data from the 2005 U.S. National Health Interview Survey was analyzed. Our analyses were restricted to 7815 white, black, and Hispanic current and former cigarette smokers who indicated that they do not currently use other tobacco products and have made a quit attempt. We used multiple logistic regressions to test the relationship of menthol smoking and cessation controlling for various factors. RESULTS: Significant interaction effects were found indicating that the association between menthol smoking and cessation differs between whites and blacks, and whites and Hispanics. When blacks and Hispanics are collapsed as non-white, we found that non-white menthol smokers were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (adjusted odds ratio=0.55, p<0.01) compared to their non-menthol smoking counterparts. In contrast, among whites, menthol smokers were more likely to be former smokers than nonmenthol smokers (adjusted odds ratio=1.17, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide some support for the hypothesis that menthol smoking can lead to poorer cessation outcomes, but only for non-white smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 371  
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Author (up) Hom, P.W.; Roberson, L.; Ellis, A.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Challenging conventional wisdom about who quits: revelations from corporate America Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Applied Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Psychol  
  Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 1-34  
  Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data; Canada; Career Mobility; Employee Performance Appraisal/statistics & numerical data; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Female; Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data; Humans; Industry/*manpower; Male; Middle Aged; Minority Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Personnel Turnover/*statistics & numerical data; *Sex Ratio; Socioeconomic Factors; United States  
  Abstract Findings from 20 corporations from the Attrition and Retention Consortium, which collects quit statistics about 475,458 professionals and managers, extended and disputed established findings about who quits. Multilevel analyses revealed that company tenure is curvilinearly related to turnover and that a job's past attrition rate strengthens the (negative) performance- exit relationship. Further, women quit more than men, while African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans quit more than White Americans, though racial differences disappeared after confounds were controlled for. African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American women quit more than men of the same ethnicities and White Americans, but statistical controls nullified evidence for dual discrimination toward minority women. Greater corporate flight among women and minorities during early employment nonetheless hampers progress toward a more diversified workforce in corporate America.  
  Call Number Serial 273  
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Author (up) Laveist, T.A.; Thorpe, R.J.J.; Mance, G.A.; Jackson, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Overcoming confounding of race with socio-economic status and segregation to explore race disparities in smoking Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Addiction (Abingdon, England) Abbreviated Journal Addiction  
  Volume 102 Suppl 2 Issue Pages 65-70  
  Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Baltimore/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Humans; *Prejudice; Prevalence; Smoking/epidemiology/*ethnology; *Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract AIMS: We examined the nature of racial disparities in smoking status within a sample that accounts for two major confounding factors in health disparities research--racial segregation and socio-economic status. Also, we sought to determine the generalizability of our sample. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study in south-west Baltimore, MD (EHDIC-SWB) and a subsample of respondents in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) that was matched to EHIDC-SWB. The final matched data set sample size was 2948 adults (1474 EHDIC-SWB; 1474 matched NHIS). MEASUREMENTS: Our outcome variables were life-time and current smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked daily. Independent variables include race, age gender, educational attainment and income. FINDINGS: In the adjusted models, whites had greater odds than blacks of current smoking and reported smoking more cigarettes in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but there were no race differences in current smoking status or in the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the NHIS. The prevalence rates for both life-time and current smoking were substantially greater in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but in comparisons of blacks and whites across samples we found that the magnitude of the difference between the samples was greatest for whites. CONCLUSIONS: Unadjusted national estimates of race disparities as reported in national reports may be biased because of differential risk exposure among people of different race groups. Race differences in social and environmental contexts account partially for racial differences in smoking patterns.  
  Call Number Serial 373  
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Author (up) Newman, L.A.; Kaljee, L.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Health Disparities and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women: A Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication JAMA Surgery Abbreviated Journal JAMA Surg  
  Volume 152 Issue 5 Pages 485-493  
  Keywords Africa South of the Sahara/ethnology; Africa, Eastern/ethnology; Africa, Western/ethnology; African Americans/ethnology/genetics/*statistics & numerical data; Anthropology, Medical; Diet; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics/*statistics & numerical data; Female; Health Services Accessibility; *Health Status Disparities; Humans; Incidence; Life Style; Socioeconomic Factors; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/*ethnology/genetics/mortality; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract Importance: Variation in cancer incidence and outcome has well-documented correlations with racial/ethnic identity. In the United States, the possible genetic and ancestral hereditary explanations for these associations are confounded by socioeconomic, cultural, and lifestyle patterns. Differences in the breast cancer burden of African American compared with European/white American women represent one of the most notable examples of disparities in oncology related to racial/ethnic identity. Elucidating the source of these associations is imperative in achieving the promise of the national Precision Medicine Initiative. Observations: Population-based breast cancer mortality rates have been higher for African American compared with white American women since the early 1980s, largely reflecting declines in mortality that have been disproportionately experienced among white American patients and at least partly explained by the advent of endocrine therapy that is less effective in African American women because of the higher prevalence of estrogen receptor-negative disease. The increased risk of triple-negative breast cancer in African American women as well as western, sub-Saharan African women compared with white American, European, and east African women furthermore suggests that selected genetic components of geographically defined African ancestry are associated with hereditary susceptibility for specific patterns of mammary carcinogenesis. Disentangling health care access barriers, as well as reproductive, lifestyle, and dietary factors from genetic contributions to breast cancer disparities remains challenging. Epigenetics and experiences of societal inequality (allostatic load) increase the complexity of studying breast cancer risk related to racial/ethnic identity. Conclusions and Relevance: Oncologic anthropology represents a transdisciplinary field of research that can combine the expertise of population geneticists, multispecialty oncologists, molecular epidemiologists, and behavioral scientists to eliminate breast cancer disparities related to racial/ethnic identity and advance knowledge related to the pathogenesis of triple-negative breast cancer.  
  Call Number Serial 2123  
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Author (up) Reimer, R.A.; Gerrard, M.; Gibbons, F.X. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Psychology & Health Abbreviated Journal Psychol Health  
  Volume 25 Issue 8 Pages 943-959  
  Keywords *African Americans; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Smoking; United States  
  Abstract Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 376  
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