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Author (up) Gathmann, B.; Brand, M.; Schiebener, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title One executive function never comes alone: monitoring and its relation to working memory, reasoning, and different executive functions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Cognitive Processing Abbreviated Journal Cogn Process  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 13-29  
  Keywords Adult; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Thinking/*physiology; Balanced Switching Task; Cognitive control; Executive functions; Monitoring; Working memory  
  Abstract Monitoring is involved in many daily tasks and is described in several theoretical approaches of executive functioning. This study investigated the relative relationship of cognitive processes that are theoretically relevant to monitoring, such as concept formation, reasoning, working memory, and general cognitive control functions. Data from 699 participants who performed the Balanced Switching Task, aiming at capturing monitoring, were used. Subsamples also performed standard tasks assessing the processes assumed to be related to monitoring. Structural equation modeling revealed that general cognitive control processes are particularly relevant. They mediate the relationship between working memory, reasoning, and monitoring. Updating and maintaining information, as well as concluding from information which strategies can guide behavior toward predefined goals, is required for the ability to exert general cognitive control, which again may be relevant for implementing strategies in a goal-directed way. Together, these processes seem to be necessary to adequately monitor behavior in complex tasks.  
  Call Number Serial 2009  
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Author (up) Hobson, C.W.; Scott, S.; Rubia, K. file  url
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  Title Investigation of cool and hot executive function in ODD/CD independently of ADHD Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry  
  Volume 52 Issue 10 Pages 1035-1043  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis/*psychology; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*psychology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/*psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Executive Function/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Social Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in 'cool' abstract-cognitive, and 'hot' reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fifty-nine adolescents with a history of early-onset oppositional problems, 28 with pure ODD/CD symptoms and 31 with ADHD with or without ODD/CD, and 34 healthy controls were administered a task battery measuring motor response inhibition, sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and reward-related decision-making. Findings were analysed using dimensional and group analyses. RESULTS: In group analyses both groups with and without ADHD were impaired in EF measures. Dimensional analyses, however, showed that ODD/CD but not ADHD was related to hot EF based on increased risky decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task. ODD/CD was also independently related to aspects of cool EF independently of ADHD, namely slower speeds of inhibitory responding and increased intra-subject variability. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show EF deficits associated with ODD/CD independently of ADHD, and implicate reward-related abnormalities in theories of antisocial behaviour development.  
  Call Number Serial 100  
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Author (up) Liu-Ambrose, T.; Nagamatsu, L.S.; Hsu, C.L.; Bolandzadeh, N. file  url
openurl 
  Title Emerging concept: 'central benefit model' of exercise in falls prevention Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication British Journal of Sports Medicine Abbreviated Journal Br J Sports Med  
  Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 115-117  
  Keywords Accidental Falls/*prevention & control; Aged; Executive Function/*physiology; Exercise/physiology; Exercise Therapy/*methods; Humans; Risk Factors  
  Abstract Falls are a common geriatric syndrome and are the third leading cause of chonic disability worldwide. Falls are not random events and occur, at least in part, due to impaired physiological function, such as impaired balance, and cognitive impairment. The clinical syndrome of falls is important for Sports and Exercise Medicine Clinicians as there is Level 1 evidence that targeted exercise prescription is an effective intervention strategy. The widely accepted dogma is that improved physical function, balance and muscle strength, underlies the effectiveness of the exercise in reducing falls. However, findings from randomised controlled trials suggest that exercise reduce falls via mechanisms other than improved physiological function. The authors propose that improved cognitive function – specifically, executive functions – and associated functional plasticity may be an important yet underappreciated mechanism by which the exercise reduces falls in older adults.  
  Call Number Serial 2032  
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Author (up) Shaheen, S. file  url
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  Title How child's play impacts executive function--related behaviors Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Applied Neuropsychology. Child Abbreviated Journal Appl Neuropsychol Child  
  Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 182-187  
  Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/rehabilitation; Autistic Disorder/physiopathology/rehabilitation; Child; Child, Preschool; Developmental Disabilities/physiopathology/rehabilitation; *Evidence-Based Medicine; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Infant; Kinesthesis; Learning/*physiology; Play Therapy/*methods; *Play and Playthings; Treatment Outcome; Teams; Tools of the Mind; executive function; interventions; play; self-regulation  
  Abstract Executive functions refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive functioning be impacted by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions impact development of executive function in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively impact executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive function (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.  
  Call Number Serial 2007  
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