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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
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  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Stine, O.C.; Johnson, J.A.; Keefer-Norris, A.; Perry, K.L.; Tigno, J.; Qaiyumi, S.; Stine, M.S.; Morris, J.G.J. file  url
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  Title Widespread distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in a confined animal feeding facility Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents Abbreviated Journal Int J Antimicrob Agents  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 348-352  
  Keywords Alleles; Animal Feed/microbiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Bacteria/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; Base Sequence; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Enterococcus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; Environmental Microbiology; Escherichia coli/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; Feces/microbiology; Food Microbiology; *Genes, Bacterial; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid; Sus scrofa/*microbiology; Tetracycline Resistance/*genetics  
  Abstract We sought to determine the distribution of resistance and the tetracycline resistance genes among bacteria isolated from a swine confined animal feeding facility where tetracycline-containing feed had been in use for over 20 years. Samples collected from feed, hogs, hog houses, waste lagoon, soil, surface water and well water were screened for the presence of (a) resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci and (b) tetracycline-resistant strains of all species. Genomic DNA was extracted from the latter strain collection and fragments from 16S rDNA and ten tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetH, tetL, tetM, tetS, tetT and rumB) were polymerase chain reaction-amplified and a partial nucleotide sequence was obtained. In this environment, 77% of E. coli and 68% of enterococci isolated were tetracycline resistant. Tetracycline resistance was found in 26 different bacterial genera and in 60 species. Single resistance gene alleles (as defined by nucleotide sequence) were present in multiple species. There was evidence of gene recombination and multiple different tetracycline resistance genes were present in single bacterial isolates. These data provide further evidence for the widespread distribution of resistance genes in microbial populations in settings in which there is ongoing subtherapeutic antimicrobial use.  
  Call Number Serial 1957  
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