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Author (up) Lanigan, J.D.
Title The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Child: Care, Health and Development Abbreviated Journal Child Care Health Dev
Volume 37 Issue 3 Pages 368-376
Keywords Child Development; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Drinking; Eating/*psychology; Exercise/*psychology; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Information Dissemination/methods; Male; Motor Activity; Obesity/epidemiology/prevention & control; Preventive Health Services; Qualitative Research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. METHODS: This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities.
Call Number Serial 2127
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Author (up) Lash, T.L.; Lien, E.A.; Sorensen, H.T.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.
Title Genotype-guided tamoxifen therapy: time to pause for reflection? Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication The Lancet Oncology Abbreviated Journal Lancet Oncol
Volume 10 Issue 8 Pages 825-833
Keywords Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/*therapeutic use; Breast Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/genetics; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*genetics; Female; Genotype; Humans; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics; Tamoxifen/metabolism/*therapeutic use; Tumor Markers, Biological/genetics
Abstract Tamoxifen remains a cornerstone of adjuvant therapy for patients with early stage breast cancer and oestrogen-receptor-positive tumours. Accurate markers of tamoxifen resistance would allow prediction of tamoxifen response and personalisation of combined therapies. Recently, it has been suggested that patients with inherited non-functional alleles of the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 might be poor candidates for adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, because women with these variant alleles have reduced concentrations of the tamoxifen metabolites that most strongly bind the oestrogen receptor. In some studies, women with these alleles have a higher risk of recurrence than women with two functional alleles. However, dose-setting studies with clinical and biomarker outcomes, studies associating clinical outcomes with serum concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites, and a simple model of receptor binding, all suggest that tamoxifen and its metabolites should reach concentrations sufficient to achieve the therapeutic effect regardless of CYP2D6 inhibition. Ten epidemiology studies on the association between CYP2D6 genotype and breast cancer recurrence report widely heterogeneous results with relative-risk estimates outside the range of reasonable bounds. None of the explanations proposed for the heterogeneity of these results adequately account for the variability and no design feature sets apart any study or subset of studies as most likely to be accurate. The studies reporting a positive association might receive the most attention, because they report a result consistent with the profile of metabolite concentrations; not because they are more reliable by design. We argue that a recommendation for CYP2D6 genotyping of candidates for tamoxifen therapy, and its implicit conclusion regarding the association between genotype and recurrence risk, is premature.
Call Number Serial 197
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Author (up) Launiala, A.; Kulmala, T.
Title The importance of understanding the local context: women's perceptions and knowledge concerning malaria in pregnancy in rural Malawi Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop
Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 111-117
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Malaria/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Malawi; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Questionnaires; Rural Population
Abstract A current problem of malaria prevention programmes is that not enough attention is paid to understanding the local socio-cultural context prior to programme implementation. The aim of this study is to discover how Yao women in rural Malawi understand and explain malaria in pregnancy, how they perceive it and what type of knowledge they have on it. Women's knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy is also investigated. At first phase a total of 34 in-depth interviews were conducted. At second phase a KAP survey (n=248) was conducted for cross-validation of the qualitative information. The findings showed that there is neither a vernacular word for malaria nor malaria in pregnancy. Women used a local word, malungo, to refer to malaria. Malungo is an ambiguous disease term because of its multiple meanings which are used interchangeably to refer to many types of feverish illnesses of various causes, not only malaria. Most women did not perceive malungo during pregnancy as a serious illness. There were several other diseases from anaemia, STDs to cholera etc. that were perceived to be more dangerous than malungo. The local meaning of malungo also entailed an assumption that it is a common but fairly harmless illness. Women had limited knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy, the best-known adverse effect being miscarriage (28%, 52/189). A socio-cultural understanding of the implementation context is prerequisite for planning meaningful programmes for the pregnant women in rural Africa.
Call Number Serial 164
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Author (up) Lawrance, A.K.; Deng, L.; Rozen, R.
Title Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency and low dietary folate reduce tumorigenesis in Apc min/+ mice Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Gut Abbreviated Journal Gut
Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 805-811
Keywords Adenoma/metabolism/*pathology; Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein/*genetics/metabolism; Animals; Apoptosis; Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism/*pathology; DNA Methylation; *Diet; Female; Folic Acid/*administration & dosage/adverse effects; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Genotype; Homocysteine/blood; Male; Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/*deficiency; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Mutant Strains; Pregnancy; Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Random Allocation; Thymine Nucleotides/analysis; Uridine Triphosphate/analysis; Weaning
Abstract BACKGROUND: Clinical studies suggest that mild methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency and high dietary folate may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer. There is concern, however, that high folate intake (a consequence of food fortification) may enhance tumour growth in individuals with pre-existing tumours or genetic predisposition to tumorigenesis. AIM: To determine if Mthfr deficiency and low dietary folate influence tumorigenesis in mice genetically predisposed to form numerous intestinal adenomas (Apc(min/+)). METHODS: Male Apc(min/+) mice were mated with Mthfr(+/-) and/or Mthfr(+/+) females. Diets with variable folate content were administered either pre-natally or at weaning; tumours were counted in offspring at 10 weeks of age. Plasma homocysteine and levels of apoptosis, DNA methylation and nucleotide ratios (dUTP:dTTP) in normal (pre-neoplastic) intestine were measured. RESULTS: Apc(min/+) mice fed high folate diets from weaning developed more adenomas than those fed the folic acid-deficient diet (FADD) or the control diet (CD); Mthfr deficiency did not affect adenoma number. However, when the FADD and CD were administered to dams prior to conception, throughout pregnancy and continued in offspring post-weaning, Apc(min/+) offspring fed FADD developed fewer adenomas than those fed CD. Mthfr(+/-) genotype of the mother or of the offspring also reduced adenoma numbers in the Apc(min/+) offspring. Adenoma number was inversely correlated with plasma homocysteine (r = -0.49, p<0.005, intestinal dUTP/dTTP ratios (r = -0.42, p = 0.05), and levels of intestinal apoptosis (r = -0.36, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Low dietary folate and Mthfr deficiency reduce adenoma formation in mice predisposed to tumorigenesis, possibly through increased apoptosis consequent to hyperhomocysteinaemia and nucleotide imbalances.
Call Number Serial 305
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Author (up) Lawrance, A.K.; Racine, J.; Deng, L.; Wang, X.; Lachapelle, P.; Rozen, R.
Title Complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in mice is associated with impaired retinal function and variable mortality, hematological profiles, and reproductive outcomes Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease Abbreviated Journal J Inherit Metab Dis
Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 147-157
Keywords Animals; Female; Growth Disorders/blood/genetics/physiopathology; Homocystinuria/blood/complications/mortality/physiopathology; Individuality; Male; Metabolome/genetics; Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/blood/deficiency/genetics; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Muscle Spasticity/blood/complications/mortality/physiopathology; Pregnancy; Psychotic Disorders/blood/complications/mortality/physiopathology; Reproduction/genetics/*physiology; Retinal Diseases/*etiology/genetics; Survival Analysis
Abstract Severe deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with homocystinuria can result in early demise or later-onset neurological impairment, including developmental delay, motor dysfunction, and seizures. We previously characterized BALB/c Mthfr (-/-)mice as a model for this disorder and have recently backcrossed the disrupted allele onto the C57Bl/6 background to examine the variable phenotypes in MTHFR deficiency. Compared with BALB/c Mthfr (-/-)mice, C57Bl/6 Mthfr (-/-)mice have enhanced survival rates (81% vs 26.5%). Four-day-old BALB/c mutant pups had lower body, brain, and spleen weights relative to their wild-type counterparts compared with C57Bl/6 mutants. Pregnant BALB/c Mthfr (+/-)mice had increased resorptions and embryonic delays compared with wild-type littermates, whereas these outcomes in C57Bl/6 c Mthfr (+/-)mice were similar to those of wild-type C57Bl/6 mice. BALB/c-mutant pups had altered hematological profiles (higher hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white blood cell counts, with lower platelet counts) compared with C57Bl/6 mutants. Mutants of both strains had similar degrees of hepatic steatosis, hepatic activity of betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase, and altered cerebellar histology. Electroretinograms (ERG) in C57Bl/6 Mthfr (-/-)mice revealed decreased amplitude of scotopic and photopic waves in 6-week-old mice, with normalized ERGs at 13 weeks. Plasma homocysteine was modestly higher in C57Bl/6 compared with BALB/c mice. Our results emphasize the variable presentation of MTHFR deficiency in different genetic backgrounds and suggest that plasma homocysteine is not a predictor of severity. In addition, our novel findings of decreased spleen weights, thrombocytopenia, and impaired retinal function warrant investigation in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency or other forms of homocystinuria.
Call Number Serial 307
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Author (up) Leaf, P.J.; Bruce, M.L.; Tischler, G.L.; Holzer, C.E. 3rd
Title The relationship between demographic factors and attitudes toward mental health services Type Journal Article
Year 1987 Publication Journal of Community Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Community Psychol
Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 275-284
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Catchment Area (Health); Connecticut; Data Collection; *Demography; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Health Services/*utilization; Middle Aged; *Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Socioeconomic Factors; Statistics as Topic
Abstract Considerable effort has been exerted in recent years toward educating the public concerning mental illness and the efficacy of various treatment modalities. Most previous studies of attitudes have focused solely on attitudes toward the mentally ill. In this study we investigated attitudes toward mental health services and found that most people are positively disposed toward the use of these services. Attitudes toward the use of mental health services were affected by the age, sex, race, education, and income of the subjects. In general, differences of attitude lie in the direction that would tend to inhibit utilization among those most at risk.
Call Number Serial 973
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Author (up) Leckie, G.J.
Title 'They Never Trusted Me to Drive': Farm girls and the gender relations of agricultural information transfer Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Gender, Place & Culture Abbreviated Journal Gender, Place & Culture
Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 309-326
Keywords Gender relations; Female farmers
Abstract This research explores the ways in which the gender relations of family farming influence the transfer of agricultural information and knowledge resources to farm girls, a rarely studied population. The study is based on a sample of 32 female farmers from southern Ontario, who were interviewed extensively about their experiences growing up on family farms, and about their lives as adult farmers. Their accounts underscore the fact that the gendered division of labour evident on North American farms constrains the information passed on to farm girls (and women) in particular ways. Farm girls do not share fully in the occupational inheritance of agriculture – they are frequently excluded or marginalised from important agricultural resources, including information. This exclusion comes about through the ongoing social processes of agrarian patriarchal culture, operating both inside and outside of the agri-family unit. In particular, the study illustrates how the social construction of agriculture is heavily reinforced by certain types of myth-making, which work to disadvantage farm girls and women.
Call Number Serial 1591
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Author (up) Leis, H.P.J.
Title The role of tamoxifen in the prevention and treatment of benign and malignant breast lesions: a chemopreventive Type Journal Article
Year 1993 Publication International Surgery Abbreviated Journal Int Surg
Volume 78 Issue 2 Pages 176-182
Keywords Breast/drug effects/metabolism; Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy/etiology/metabolism/*prevention & control; Estrogens/metabolism; Female; Fibrocystic Breast Disease/drug therapy/prevention & control; Humans; Receptors, Estrogen/drug effects/metabolism; Receptors, Progesterone/drug effects/metabolism; Tamoxifen/adverse effects/pharmacology/*therapeutic use
Abstract Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) has been in use for over 20 years and currently is probably the most prescribed anti-cancer medication in the world. It is an orally effective, synthetic, non-steroidal, estrogen antagonist and agonist agent. In studies and trials it has been shown to have only limited side effects. It has produced regressions in women with fibrocystic changes, including precancerous ones, and in those with metastatic breast cancer, where its benefits were first observed. It has increased disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates when given as an adjuvant systemic type of therapy in women with early breast cancers, and it has reduced the incidence of contralateral breast cancers. In addition there are reports indicating its long term use, especially in postmenopausal women, may produce overall health benefits. Over the years an increasing body of data has emerged allowing for viable hypotheses about the possible use of tamoxifen in the prophylaxis of breast cancer, namely that when administered in long-term therapy it may reduce the incidence of breast cancer in women so treated, that it may provide overall health benefits, particularly in postmenopausal women, and that its benefits should far outweigh any risks from its relatively limited side effects. However, carefully designed and conducted clinical trials are needed to test the safety of tamoxifen and its ability to prevent breast cancer before it is advocated for the prophylactic treatment of healthy women to prevent breast cancer, even realizing the increasing magnitude of the breast cancer problem.
Call Number Serial 467
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Author (up) Levenson, J.S.; D'Amora, D.A.; Hern, A.L.
Title Megan's Law and its impact on community re-entry for sex offenders Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Behavioral Sciences & the law Abbreviated Journal Behav Sci Law
Volume 25 Issue 4 Pages 587-602
Keywords Adult; Aged; Child; Child Abuse, Sexual/*legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & control; Connecticut; Data Collection; Female; Humans; Indiana; Male; *Mandatory Reporting; Middle Aged; Registries; *Residence Characteristics; *Social Adjustment
Abstract Community notification, known as “Megan's Law,” provides the public with information about known sex offenders in an effort to assist parents and potential victims to protect themselves from dangerous predators. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of community notification on the lives of registered sex offenders. Two hundred and thirty-nine sex offenders in Connecticut and Indiana were surveyed. The negative consequences that occurred with the greatest frequency included job loss, threats and harassment, property damage, and suffering of household members. A minority of sex offenders reported housing disruption or physical violence following community notification. The majority experienced psychosocial distress such as depression, shame, and hopelessness. Recommendations are made for community notification policies that rely on empirically derived risk assessment classification systems in order to better inform the public about sex offenders' danger while minimizing the obstacles that interfere with successful community reintegration.
Call Number Serial 1964
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Author (up) Lewinsohn, P.M.; Striegel-Moore, R.H.; Seeley, J.R.
Title Epidemiology and natural course of eating disorders in young women from adolescence to young adulthood Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
Volume 39 Issue 10 Pages 1284-1292
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*epidemiology/psychology; Bulimia/diagnosis/*epidemiology/psychology; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Oregon/epidemiology; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data; Psychopathology; Sampling Studies
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of eating disorders (ED) in a community sample of adolescent girls; to compare the clinical characteristics of full-syndrome (FS) and partial-syndrome (PS) ED cases; and to provide information about the continuity between adolescent ED and young adult psychopathology. METHOD: A randomly selected sample of high school girls were assessed during adolescence (n = 891) and a year later (n = 810), and a stratified subset (n = 538) was assessed during their 24th year. The assessments included the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation, level of functioning, mental health treatment utilization, history of suicide attempt, and physical symptoms. RESULTS: The incidence of ED was less than 2.8% by age 18, and 1.3% for ages 19 through 23. Comorbidity with other psychopathology (89.5%), but especially depression, was very high. FS- and PS-ED groups differed significantly from a no-disorder comparison group on most outcome measures, and more than 70% of the adolescent FS- and PS-ED cases met criteria for an Axis I disorder in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: FS- and PS-ED are associated with substantial comorbidity, treatment seeking, impaired functioning, and risk for psychopathology in young adulthood.
Call Number Serial 94
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