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Author (up) Lyness, K.S.; Thompson, D.E.
Title Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives Type Journal Article
Year 1997 Publication The Journal of Applied Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Psychol
Volume 82 Issue 3 Pages 359-375
Keywords Adult; *Career Mobility; Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Job Satisfaction; Male; Middle Aged; Organizational Culture; Salaries and Fringe Benefits; Social Justice
Abstract In this study the authors compare career and work experiences of executive women and men. Female (n = 51) and male (n = 56) financial services executives in comparable jobs were studied through archival information on organizational outcomes and career histories, and survey measures of work experiences. Similarities were found in several organizational outcomes, such as compensation, and many work attitudes. Important differences were found, however, with women having less authority, receiving fewer stock options, and having less international mobility than men. Women at the highest executive levels reported more obstacles than lower level women. The gender differences coupled with women's lower satisfaction with future career opportunities raise questions about whether women are truly above the glass ceiling or have come up against a 2nd, higher ceiling.
Call Number Serial 270
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Author (up) Machulda, M.M.; Ward, H.A.; Borowski, B.; Gunter, J.L.; Cha, R.H.; O'Brien, P.C.; Petersen, R.C.; Boeve, B.F.; Knopman, D.; Tang-Wai, D.F.; Ivnik, R.J.; Smith, G.E.; Tangalos, E.G.; Jack, C.R.J.
Title Comparison of memory fMRI response among normal, MCI, and Alzheimer's patients Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Neurology Abbreviated Journal Neurology
Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 500-506
Keywords Aged; Alzheimer Disease/complications/physiopathology/*psychology; *Brain Mapping; Cognition Disorders/complications/physiopathology/*psychology; Female; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Memory/physiology; Memory Disorders/etiology/physiopathology/*psychology; Mental Recall; Neuropsychological Tests; Photic Stimulation; ROC Curve; Somatosensory Cortex/pathology/*physiopathology
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an fMRI memory encoding task distinguishes among cognitively normal elderly individuals, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Twenty-nine subjects (11 normal, 9 MCI, 9 AD) were studied with an fMRI memory encoding task. A passive sensory task was also performed to assess potential intergroup differences in fMRI responsiveness. Activation in the medial temporal lobe for the memory task and in the anatomic rolandic area for the sensory task was studied. Intergroup comparisons were performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The ROC method provides rigorous control of artifactual false-positive “activation.” Subjects were tested for recall and recognition of the encoding task stimuli following the fMRI study. RESULTS: Medial temporal lobe activation was greater in normal subjects than MCI and AD patients (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04). There was no difference between AD and MCI patients in fMRI memory performance [corrected]. There was an association between fMRI memory activation (area under the ROC curve) and post-fMRI performance on recognition and free recall. There was no difference among the three groups on the sensory task. CONCLUSIONS: MCI and AD patients had less medial temporal lobe activation on the memory task than the normal subjects but similar activation as normal subjects on the sensory task. These findings suggest decreased medial temporal activation may be a specific marker of limbic dysfunction due to the neurodegenerative changes of AD. In addition, fMRI is sufficiently sensitive to detect changes in the prodromal, MCI, phase of the disease.
Call Number Serial 136
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Author (up) Malani, P.N.
Title National burden of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume 311 Issue 14 Pages 1438-1439
Keywords *Cost of Illness; Female; Humans; Male; *Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcal Infections/*epidemiology/*microbiology
Abstract In terms of both patient numbers and clinical effect, infections associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) present a significant challenge to clinicians. Serious S aureus infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, with the acquisition of methicillin resistance further limiting therapeutic options. In recent years, so-called community-acquired MRSA strains (USA300 strain) have proven highly virulent and particularly difficult to control.1 As such, novel approaches to MRSA prevention remain a priority.
Call Number Serial 1844
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Author (up) Mallett, K.A.; Varvil-Weld, L.; Turrisi, R.; Read, A.
Title An examination of college students' willingness to experience consequences as a unique predictor of alcohol problems Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Psychol Addict Behav
Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 41-47
Keywords Adolescent; Alcohol Drinking/*prevention & control; Alcoholism/*prevention & control; *Attitude; Female; Humans; Male; Peer Group; Questionnaires; *Social Environment; Students; Universities
Abstract The focus of the study was to examine (1) the unique variance between willingness to experience specific consequences (e.g., vomit) and reported experience of the consequence after controlling for drinking, and (2) the relationships between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and willingness to experience specific consequences in the context of a structural equation model. Freshmen students (n = 167) from a large northeastern university were randomly selected to participate. Results indicated willingness to experience consequences accounted for significant variance across consequence outcomes controlling for drinking. Significant relationships were observed between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and students' willingness to experience consequences. Findings provide empirical support that alcohol-related consequences have multiple determinants and are not only a function of alcohol consumption. Prevention efforts may benefit from a more comprehensive approach that includes both drinking and consequence-specific constructs as targets of change.
Call Number Serial 203
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Author (up) Manly, T.; Hawkins, K.; Evans, J.; Woldt, K.; Robertson, I.H.
Title Rehabilitation of executive function: facilitation of effective goal management on complex tasks using periodic auditory alerts Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Neuropsychologia Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychologia
Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 271-281
Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Brain Injury, Chronic/physiopathology/*psychology/*rehabilitation; *Cognition; Cues; Female; Goals; Humans; Judgment; Male; Middle Aged; Task Performance and Analysis; Time Factors
Abstract The 'dysexecutive syndrome' represents a major challenge to functional recovery and adaptation following brain injury--and an important target for rehabilitation. Previous reports of everyday difficulties, and performance on complex, life-like tasks, indicate that an adequately represented goal may become neglected as patients become overly engaged in current activity. Here we examine whether the provision of brief auditory stimuli, acting to interrupt current activity and to cue patients to consider their overall goal, would improve performance in a complex task. Ten brain injured patients completed a modification of Shallice and Burgess' Six Elements task under two conditions. In the 'Hotel' test, the patients were asked to try and do some of each of five sub-tasks within 15 min. As the total time to complete all of the tasks would exceed an hour, the measure emphasises patients' ability to monitor the time, switch between the tasks and keep track of their intentions. Without the external auditory cues, the patients performed significantly more poorly than age- and IQ-matched control volunteers, a common error being to continue performing one task to the detriment of beginning or allocating sufficient time to others. When exposed to the interrupting tones, however, their performance was both significantly improved and no longer significantly different from the control group on important variables. The results have value in assessment in helping to attribute poor performance to 'goal neglect' rather than, for example, poor memory or comprehension. They also suggest that providing environmental support to one aspect of executive function may facilitate monitoring and behavioural flexibility--and therefore the useful expression of other skills that may be relatively intact.
Call Number Serial 429
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Author (up) Maples, W.C.; DeRosier, W.; Hoenes, R.; Bendure, R.; Moore, S.
Title The effects of cell phone use on peripheral vision Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.) Abbreviated Journal Optometry
Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 36-42
Keywords Adult; Aged; *Cell Phones; Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Quality of Life; Surveys and Questionnaires; Vision Disorders/*etiology; *Visual Fields
Abstract BACKGROUND: Cell phone use and its distraction on a person's cognitive ability to assess information from a complex visual task, such as driving, have been demonstrated. Does talking on a cell phone cause a decrease in visual field awareness? METHODS: Goldmann visual fields were measured twice, with and without a cell phone conversation taking place. A College of Optometrists in Vision Development quality-of-life questionnaire (COVD-QOL) was administered to identify visually related symptoms. RESULTS: Forty subjects (21 women and 19 men) aged 22 to 71 (mean age, 39.9 years) participated in the study. Significant overall constriction between the visual field isopters plotted during cell phone use, when compared with no cell phone use, was shown. Analysis of individuals with visual symptoms (COVD-QOL score of 20 or greater), were compared with those without visual symptoms (<20 on COVD-QOL). Both groups showed significant visual field constriction with cell phone use. The percentage of constriction was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Subjects with visual symptoms initially measured a more constricted visual field than did the nonvisual symptom group. The percentage of constriction of the nonvisual symptom group, while using a cell phone, was almost identical to the visual field constriction of the visual symptom group without cell phone use. CONCLUSION: Cell phone conversations tend to artificially constrict the peripheral awareness as measured by a visual field. This suggests that cell phone use while driving can decrease the perceptual visual field, making the driver less aware of the surroundings and more susceptible to accident.
Call Number Serial 1725
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Author (up) Marin, M.; Slaby, S.; Marchand, G.; Demuynck, S.; Friscourt, N.; Gelaude, A.; Lemiere, S.; Bodart, J.-F.
Title Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation is affected by metal chlorides Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association With BIBRA Abbreviated Journal Toxicol In Vitro
Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 1124-1131
Keywords Animals; Cell Cycle/drug effects; Cell Differentiation/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Chlorides/*toxicity; Female; Metals, Heavy/*toxicity; Oocytes/cytology/*drug effects/physiology; Progesterone/pharmacology; Xenopus laevis; Ecotoxicology; Maturation; Metal chlorides; Oocyte; Xenopus laevis
Abstract Few studies have been conducted using Xenopus laevis germ cells as oocytes, though these cells offer many advantages allowing both electrophysiological studies and morphological examination. Our aim was to investigate the effects of metal (cadmium, lead, cobalt and zinc) exposures using cell biology approaches. First, cell survival was evaluated with both phenotypical and electrophysiological approaches. Secondly, the effect of metals on oocyte maturation was assessed with morphological observations and electrophysiological recordings. From survival experiments, our results showed that metal chlorides did not affect cell morphology but strongly depolarized X. laevis oocyte resting potential. In addition, cadmium chloride was able to inhibit progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. By contrast, zinc, but also to a lesser extent cadmium, cobalt and lead, were able to enhance spontaneous oocyte maturation in the absence of progesterone stimulation. Finally, electrophysiological recordings revealed that some metal chlorides (lead, cadmium) exposures could disturb calcium signaling in X. laevis oocyte by modifying calcium-activated chloride currents. Our results demonstrated the high sensitivity of X. laevis oocytes toward exogenous metals such as lead and cadmium. In addition, the cellular events recorded might have a predictive value of effects occurring later on the ability of oocytes to be fertilized. Together, these results suggest a potential use of this cellular lab model as a tool for ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated fresh waters.
Call Number Serial 1182
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Author (up) Marin, M.; Slaby, S.; Marchand, G.; Demuynck, S.; Friscourt, N.; Gelaude, A.; Lemiere, S.; Bodart, J.-F.
Title Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation is affected by metal chlorides Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association With BIBRA Abbreviated Journal Toxicol In Vitro
Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 1124-1131
Keywords Animals; Cell Cycle/drug effects; Cell Differentiation/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Chlorides/*toxicity; Female; Metals, Heavy/*toxicity; Oocytes/cytology/*drug effects/physiology; Progesterone/pharmacology; Xenopus laevis; Ecotoxicology; Maturation; Metal chlorides; Oocyte; Xenopus laevis
Abstract Few studies have been conducted using Xenopus laevis germ cells as oocytes, though these cells offer many advantages allowing both electrophysiological studies and morphological examination. Our aim was to investigate the effects of metal (cadmium, lead, cobalt and zinc) exposures using cell biology approaches. First, cell survival was evaluated with both phenotypical and electrophysiological approaches. Secondly, the effect of metals on oocyte maturation was assessed with morphological observations and electrophysiological recordings. From survival experiments, our results showed that metal chlorides did not affect cell morphology but strongly depolarized X. laevis oocyte resting potential. In addition, cadmium chloride was able to inhibit progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. By contrast, zinc, but also to a lesser extent cadmium, cobalt and lead, were able to enhance spontaneous oocyte maturation in the absence of progesterone stimulation. Finally, electrophysiological recordings revealed that some metal chlorides (lead, cadmium) exposures could disturb calcium signaling in X. laevis oocyte by modifying calcium-activated chloride currents. Our results demonstrated the high sensitivity of X. laevis oocytes toward exogenous metals such as lead and cadmium. In addition, the cellular events recorded might have a predictive value of effects occurring later on the ability of oocytes to be fertilized. Together, these results suggest a potential use of this cellular lab model as a tool for ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated fresh waters.
Call Number Serial 1380
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Author (up) Matheson, F.I.; LaFreniere, M.C.; White, H.L.; Moineddin, R.; Dunn, J.R.; Glazier, R.H.
Title Influence of neighborhood deprivation, gender and ethno-racial origin on smoking behavior of Canadian youth Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med
Volume 52 Issue 5 Pages 376-380
Keywords Adolescent; Canada/epidemiology; Censuses; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; *Poverty Areas; Sex Factors; Smoking/*epidemiology/*ethnology
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deprived neighborhoods play an important role in adult smoking behavior, but little research exists about youth on this topic. This study explored the relationship between deprivation and youth smoking to examine whether this association differs by gender and ethno-racial origin. METHODS: Individual-level data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000-2005) were combined with neighborhood-level data from the 2001 Canada Census to assess smoking among youth aged 12-18 (n = 15,615). RESULTS: Youth who were female (OR = 1.27, 95%CI:1.16-1.38), White (OR = 1.95, 95%CI:1.71-2.21) and living in deprived neighborhoods (OR = 1.22, 95%CI:1.16-1.28) were more likely to smoke. In multilevel models, White females were more likely to smoke relative to non-White females and males (OR = 1.42, 95%CI:1.06-1.89). Youth with a strong sense of community belonging and living in deprived neighborhoods were at increased risk of smoking (OR = 1.18, 95%CI:1.06-1.32). The individual-level risk factor, household smoker, contributed substantially to youth smoking reducing the bivariate association between material deprivation and smoking by 33%. CONCLUSION: White females, youth cohabiting with other smokers and youth living in poor neighborhoods with a strong sense of community belonging, are at an increased risk of smoking. Future anti-smoking efforts might have greater impact if they target at-risk youth as well as household members who cohabit with youth.
Call Number Serial 374
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Author (up) Maughan, B.; Rowe, R.; Messer, J.; Goodman, R.; Meltzer, H.
Title Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in a national sample: developmental epidemiology Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry
Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 609-621
Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety/epidemiology; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comorbidity; Conduct Disorder/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Depression/epidemiology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence
Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite an expanding epidemiological evidence base, uncertainties remain over key aspects of the epidemiology of the 'antisocial' disorders in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data on a nationally representative sample of 10,438 5-15-year-olds drawn from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey to examine age trends, gender ratios and patterns of comorbidity in DSM-IV Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). RESULTS: CD was significantly more common in boys than girls, and increased in prevalence with age. Among children who met diagnostic criteria for CD, status violations and other non-aggressive conduct problems increased with age, while aggressive symptoms became less common. Gender differences in ODD varied by reporter. Estimates of age trends in ODD depended heavily on treatment of overlaps with CD. Following DSM-IV guidelines (where ODD is not diagnosed in the presence of CD), rates of ODD fell with age; if that constraint was released, clinically significant rates of oppositionality persisted at similar levels from early childhood to middle adolescence. CD and ODD showed high levels of overlap, and both diagnoses showed substantial comorbidity with other non-antisocial disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large-scale study confirm and extend previous findings in the epidemiology of the disruptive behaviour disorders.
Call Number Serial 99
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