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Author (up) Buckland, G.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Agudo, A.; Vilardell, M.; Berenguer, A.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Arriola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Basterretxea, M.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Cirera, L.; Dorronsoro, M.; Egues, N.; Huerta, J.M.; Larranaga, N.; Marin, P.; Martinez, C.; Molina, E.; Navarro, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M.-J.; Tormo, M.-J.; Moreno-Iribas, C.
Title Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC Cohort Study Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol
Volume 170 Issue 12 Pages 1518-1529
Keywords Adult; Aged; Body Weights and Measures; Coronary Disease/*epidemiology; *Diet, Mediterranean; Female; Health Behavior; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Spain/epidemiology
Abstract No known cohort study has investigated whether the Mediterranean diet can reduce incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events in a Mediterranean population. This study examined the relation between Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of incident CHD events in the 5 Spanish centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Analysis included 41,078 participants aged 29-69 years, recruited in 1992-1996 and followed up until December 2004 (mean follow-up:10.4 years). Confirmed incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events were analyzed according to Mediterranean diet adherence, measured by using an 18-unit relative Mediterranean diet score. A total of 609 participants (79% male) had a fatal or nonfatal confirmed acute myocardial infarction (n = 468) or unstable angina requiring revascularization (n = 141). After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized CHD risk factors, high compared with low relative Mediterranean diet score was associated with a significant reduction in CHD risk (hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77). A 1-unit increase in relative Mediterranean diet score was associated with a 6% reduced risk of CHD (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.97), with similar risk reductions by sex. Mediterranean diet adherence was associated with a significantly reduced CHD risk in this Mediterranean country, supporting its role in primary prevention of CHD in healthy populations.
Call Number Serial 135
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Author (up) Buffet-Bataillon, S.; Rabier, V.; Betremieux, P.; Beuchee, A.; Bauer, M.; Pladys, P.; Le Gall, E.; Cormier, M.; Jolivet-Gougeon, A.
Title Outbreak of Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit: contaminated unmedicated liquid soap and risk factors Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication The Journal of Hospital Infection Abbreviated Journal J Hosp Infect
Volume 72 Issue 1 Pages 17-22
Keywords Bacterial Typing Techniques; Case-Control Studies; Cross Infection/*epidemiology/microbiology; DNA Fingerprinting; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; *Disease Outbreaks; Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field; *Environmental Microbiology; Female; Genotype; Hand Disinfection/methods; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Infection Control/methods; Intensive Care Units, Neonatal; Male; Risk Factors; Serratia Infections/*epidemiology/microbiology; Serratia marcescens/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; *Soaps
Abstract This study describes an outbreak of Serratia marcescens and its investigation and control in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). During a three-month period, five infants were colonised or infected by a single strain of S. marcescens. A case-control study, culture surveys and pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis implicated a bottle soap dispenser as a reservoir of S. marcescens (P=0.032). Infants with S. marcescens colonisation or infection were also more likely to have been exposed to a central or percutaneous venous catheter (P=0.05) and had had longer exposure to endotracheal intubation (P=0.05). Soap dispensers are used in many hospitals and may be an unrecognised source of nosocomial infections. This potential source of infection could be reduced by using 'airless' dispensers which have no air intake for the distribution of soap. Prompt intervention and strict adherence to alcoholic hand disinfection were the key factors that led to the successful control of this outbreak.
Call Number Serial 1655
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Author (up) Burg, M.M.; Barefoot, J.; Berkman, L.; Catellier, D.J.; Czajkowski, S.; Saab, P.; Huber, M.; DeLillo, V.; Mitchell, P.; Skala, J.; Taylor, C.B.
Title Low perceived social support and post-myocardial infarction prognosis in the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease clinical trial: the effects of treatment Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Psychosomatic Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychosom Med
Volume 67 Issue 6 Pages 879-888
Keywords Cognitive Therapy; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity; Coronary Disease/*drug therapy/mortality; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Mortality; Myocardial Infarction/*diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Prognosis; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Factors; Secondary Prevention; *Social Support; Spouses/statistics & numerical data; Treatment Outcome
Abstract OBJECTIVE: In post hoc analyses, to examine in low perceived social support (LPSS) patients enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial (n = 1503), the pattern of social support following myocardial infarction (MI), the impact of psychosocial intervention on perceived support, the relationship of perceived support at the time of MI to subsequent death and recurrent MI, and the relationship of change in perceived support 6 months after MI to subsequent mortality. METHODS: Partner status (partner, no partner) and score (<12 = low support; >12 = moderate support) on the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were used post hoc to define four levels of risk. The resulting 4 LPSS risk groups were compared on baseline characteristics, changes in social support, and medical outcomes to a group of concurrently enrolled acute myocardial infarction patients without depression or LPSS (MI comparison group, n = 408). Effects of treatment assignment on LPSS and death/recurrent MI were also examined. RESULTS: All 4 LPSS risk groups demonstrated improvement in perceived support, regardless of treatment assignment, with a significant treatment effect only seen in the LPSS risk group with no partner and moderate support at baseline. During an average 29-month follow-up, the combined end point of death/nonfatal MI was 10% in the MI comparison group and 23% in the ENRICHD LPSS patients; LPSS conferred a greater risk in unadjusted and adjusted models (HR = 1.74-2.39). Change in ESSI score and/or improvement in perceived social support were not found to predict subsequent mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline LPSS predicted death/recurrent MI in the ENRICHD cohort, independent of treatment assignment. Intervention effects indicated a partner surrogacy role for the interventionist and the need for a moderate level of support at baseline for the intervention to be effective.
Call Number Serial 2057
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Author (up) Burt, S.A.; Barnes, A.R.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G.
Title Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Developmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychol
Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1668-1677
Keywords Adolescent; Adoption/psychology; Aggression/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Causality; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Female; Genotype; Humans; Internal-External Control; Juvenile Delinquency/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Social Environment
Abstract Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.
Call Number Serial 293
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Author (up) Buu, M.M.C.; Sanders, L.M.; Mayo, J.A.; Milla, C.E.; Wise, P.H.
Title Assessing Differences in Mortality Rates and Risk Factors Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in California Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Chest Abbreviated Journal Chest
Volume 149 Issue 2 Pages 380-389
Keywords Adolescent; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Cystic Fibrosis/*mortality; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Hispanic Americans; Humans; Infant; Male; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/*methods; Prevalence; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Survival Rate/trends; cystic fibrosis; ethnicity; health disparities; pediatric pulmonology
Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past 30 years, therapeutic advances have extended the median lifespan of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Hispanic patients are a vulnerable subpopulation with a high prevalence of risk factors for worse health outcomes. The consequences of these differences on health outcomes have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the difference in health outcomes, including mortality rate, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with CF. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of CF Foundation Patient Registry data of California residents with CF, diagnosed during or after 1991, from 1991 to 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported. The primary outcome was mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated from a Cox regression model, stratified by sex, and adjusted for socioeconomic status, clinical risk factors, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 1,719 patients, 485 (28.2%) self-identified as Hispanic. Eighty-five deaths occurred, with an overall mortality rate of 4.9%. The unadjusted mortality rate was higher among Hispanic patients than among non-Hispanic patients (9.1% vs 3.3%, P < .0001). Compared with non-Hispanic patients, Hispanic patients had a lower survival rate 18 years after diagnosis (75.9% vs 91.5%, P < .0001). Adjusted for socioeconomic status and clinical risk factors, Hispanic patients had an increased rate of death compared with non-Hispanic patients (hazard ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients with CF have a higher mortality rate than do non-Hispanic patients, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status and clinical severity. Further investigation into the mechanism for the measured difference in lung function will help inform interventions and improve the health of all patients with CF.
Call Number Serial 1377
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Author (up) Calhoun, W.J.; Ameredes, B.T.; King, T.S.; Icitovic, N.; Bleecker, E.R.; Castro, M.; Cherniack, R.M.; Chinchilli, V.M.; Craig, T.; Denlinger, L.; DiMango, E.A.; Engle, L.L.; Fahy, J.V.; Grant, J.A.; Israel, E.; Jarjour, N.; Kazani, S.D.; Kraft, M.; Kunselman, S.J.; Lazarus, S.C.; Lemanske, R.F.; Lugogo, N.; Martin, R.J.; Meyers, D.A.; Moore, W.C.; Pascual, R.; Peters, S.P.; Ramsdell, J.; Sorkness, C.A.; Sutherland, E.R.; Szefler, S.J.; Wasserman, S.I.; Walter, M.J.; Wechsler, M.E.; Boushey, H.A.
Title Comparison of physician-, biomarker-, and symptom-based strategies for adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in adults with asthma: the BASALT randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume 308 Issue 10 Pages 987-997
Keywords Administration, Inhalation; Adrenal Cortex Hormones--administration & dosage; Adult; Asthma--complications, drug therapy, physiopathology; Biological Markers--analysis; Breath Tests; Double-Blind Method; Female; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Male; Middle Aged; Nitric Oxide--analysis; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Respiratory Function Tests; Treatment Failure
Abstract CONTEXT: No consensus exists for adjusting inhaled corticosteroid therapy in patients with asthma. Approaches include adjustment at outpatient visits guided by physician assessment of asthma control (symptoms, rescue therapy, pulmonary function), based on exhaled nitric oxide, or on a day-to-day basis guided by symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy based on exhaled nitric oxide or day-to-day symptoms is superior to guideline-informed, physician assessment-based adjustment in preventing treatment failure in adults with mild to moderate asthma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized, parallel, 3-group, placebo-controlled, multiply-blinded trial of 342 adults with mild to moderate asthma controlled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy (n = 114 assigned to physician assessment-based adjustment [101 completed], n = 115 to biomarker-based [exhaled nitric oxide] adjustment [92 completed], and n = 113 to symptom-based adjustment [97 completed]), the Best Adjustment Strategy for Asthma in the Long Term (BASALT) trial was conducted by the Asthma Clinical Research Network at 10 academic medical centers in the United States for 9 months between June 2007 and July 2010. INTERVENTIONS: For physician assessment-based adjustment and biomarker-based (exhaled nitric oxide) adjustment, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids was adjusted every 6 weeks; for symptom-based adjustment, inhaled corticosteroids were taken with each albuterol rescue use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was time to treatment failure. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in time to treatment failure. The 9-month Kaplan-Meier failure rates were 22% (97.5% CI, 14%-33%; 24 events) for physician assessment-based adjustment, 20% (97.5% CI, 13%-30%; 21 events) for biomarker-based adjustment, and 15% (97.5% CI, 9%-25%; 16 events) for symptom-based adjustment. The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs biomarker-based adjustment was 1.2 (97.5% CI, 0.6-2.3). The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs symptom-based adjustment was 1.6 (97.5% CI, 0.8-3.3). CONCLUSION: Among adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma controlled with low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy, the use of either biomarker-based or symptom-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids was not superior to physician assessment-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids in time to treatment failure.
Call Number Serial 548
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Author (up) Campbell, P.; Jordan, K.P.; Dunn, K.M.
Title The role of relationship quality and perceived partner responses with pain and disability in those with back pain Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.) Abbreviated Journal Pain Med
Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 204-214
Keywords Adjustment Disorders/*epidemiology/*psychology/rehabilitation; Adult; Aged; Caregivers/*psychology; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity/trends; Cross-Sectional Studies; Empathy; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Low Back Pain/*epidemiology/*psychology/rehabilitation; Male; Middle Aged; *Social Support; Spouses/*psychology
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations of key constructs of relationship quality (cohesion, consensus, and satisfaction) and perceived partner responses to pain behavior (e.g., solicitous and negative responses) with the outcomes of pain and disability in those with long-term low back pain, and to explore the role of the patient's depressive symptom mood state on those associations. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires on pain intensity, disability, relationship quality, perceived partner reactions to pain, and depressive symptoms were collected from participants (N = 174) taking part in a longitudinal study on low back pain within a primary care sample. RESULTS: Participants reporting more consensus (e.g., agreement about sexual intimacy, level of affection) in their relationships had significantly higher pain intensity (P = 0.03), and solicitous partner responses (P = 0.04) were significantly positively associated with disability levels. However, the findings for pain intensity were only present in those with higher levels of depression, while the association of solicitous responses with disability was only significant in those with lower levels of depression, indicating a suppression effect of depression on pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms play a significant role in determining the associations between relationship quality, perceived partner reactions, and pain and disability. The relationship construct of consensus and perceived solicitous responses were associated with pain and disability. These findings illustrate the importance of social context and patient mood state on the outcomes for those with low back pain.
Call Number Serial 2069
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Author (up) Caspers, K.M.; Yucuis, R.; Troutman, B.; Spinks, R.
Title Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy Abbreviated Journal Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy
Volume 1 Issue Pages 32
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adoption/*psychology; Adult; Aged; Behavior; Community Mental Health Services/*utilization; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; *Object Attachment; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Patient Participation/*statistics & numerical data; Psychometrics; Stress, Psychological; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/*psychology/*therapy; Young Adult
Abstract BACKGROUND: Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. METHODS: Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. RESULTS: Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.
Call Number Serial 1721
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Author (up) Cattaneo, L.; Fabbri-Destro, M.; Boria, S.; Pieraccini, C.; Monti, A.; Cossu, G.; Rizzolatti, G.
Title Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 104 Issue 45 Pages 17825-17830
Keywords Autistic Disorder--physiopathology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comprehension--physiology; Electromyography; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intention; Male; Motor Activity; Perception--physiology; Reference Values
Abstract Experiments in monkeys demonstrated that many parietal and premotor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show a markedly different activation when this act is part of actions that have different goals (e.g., grasping for eating vs. grasping for placing). Many of these “action-constrained” neurons have mirror properties firing selectively to the observation of the initial motor act of the actions to which they belong motorically. By activating a specific action chain from its very outset, this mechanism allows the observers to have an internal copy of the whole action before its execution, thus enabling them to understand directly the agent's intention. Using electromyographic recordings, we show that a similar chained organization exists in typically developing children, whereas it is impaired in children with autism. We propose that, as a consequence of this functional impairment, high-functioning autistic children may understand the intentions of others cognitively but lack the mechanism for understanding them experientially.
Call Number Serial 18
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Author (up) Cavedini, P.; Bassi, T.; Ubbiali, A.; Casolari, A.; Giordani, S.; Zorzi, C.; Bellodi, L.
Title Neuropsychological investigation of decision-making in anorexia nervosa Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res
Volume 127 Issue 3 Pages 259-266
Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*psychology; Body Mass Index; Bulimia/epidemiology/psychology; Cognition Disorders/*diagnosis/*etiology; *Decision Making; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Gambling/psychology; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Severity of Illness Index
Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) could be considered a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder in which an impairment of the cognitive domain related to decision-making was found. We explored this function in AN patients, as well as possible differences between restricting type and binge/purge type, with the aim of examining the hypothesis that AN is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Decision-making was assessed in 59 inpatients with AN and 82 control subjects using the Gambling task, which simulates real-life decision-making by assessing the ability to balance immediate rewards against long-term negative consequences. We confirmed the supposed deficit of decision-making in AN. However, restricting and binge eating/purge subtypes showed different patterns of decision-making impairment. Poor performance on the Gambling task is not a mere consequence of starvation and does not appear to be related to illness severity. The decision-making deficiency that some AN patients show is linked to those individual features that contribute to the phenomenological expression of the disorder.
Call Number Serial 91
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