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Author (up) Anderson, J.L.; Albergotti, L.; Ellebracht, B.; Huey, R.B.; Phillips, P.C. file  url
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  Title Does thermoregulatory behavior maximize reproductive fitness of natural isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication BMC Evolutionary Biology Abbreviated Journal BMC Evol Biol  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 157  
  Keywords Acclimatization; Animals; Body Temperature Regulation; Caenorhabditis elegans--genetics, physiology; Genetic Fitness; Temperature  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: A central premise of physiological ecology is that an animal's preferred body temperature should correspond closely with the temperature maximizing performance and Darwinian fitness. Testing this co-adaptational hypothesis has been problematic for several reasons. First, reproductive fitness is the appropriate measure, but is difficult to measure in most animals. Second, no single fitness measure applies to all demographic situations, complicating interpretations. Here we test the co-adaptation hypothesis by studying an organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) in which both fitness and thermal preference can be reliably measured. RESULTS: We find that natural isolates of C. elegans display a range of mean thermal preferences and also vary in their thermal sensitivities for fitness. Hot-seeking isolates CB4854 and CB4857 prefer temperatures that favor population growth rate (r), whereas the cold-seeking isolate CB4856 prefers temperatures that favor Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS). CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between fitness and thermal preference in natural isolates of C. elegans are driven primarily by isolate-specific differences in thermal preference. If these differences are the result of natural selection, then this suggests that the appropriate measure of fitness for use in evolutionary ecology studies might differ even within species, depending on the unique ecological and evolutionary history of each population.  
  Call Number Serial 261  
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Author (up) Christiansen, S.; Oettingen, G.; Dahme, B.; Klinger, R. file  url
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  Title A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: a randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 149 Issue 3 Pages 444-452  
  Keywords Adult; Chronic Disease; Cognitive Therapy/*methods; Exercise Therapy/*methods; Exercise Tolerance/*physiology; Female; *Goals; Humans; Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional; Low Back Pain/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Male; Middle Aged; Muscle Weakness/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Pain Measurement/methods; Physical Fitness/*physiology; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The present study tested a short intervention using goal-pursuit strategies to increase physical capacity in pain patients. Sixty chronic back pain patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Both groups followed a 3-week conventional back pain program at an outpatient back pain center. Instead of routine treatment, the intervention group received a one-hour intervention consisting of a combination of (a) a goal-setting strategy (i.e., mental contrasting, MC) aimed at commitment to improved physical capacity, (b) a short cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented problem-solving approach (CBT) to help patients overcome the obstacles associated with improving physical capacity, and (c) a goal-pursuit strategy, i.e., implementation intentions (II) aimed at performing physical exercise regularly. At two follow-ups (3 weeks after discharge and 3 months after returning home) the MCII-CBT group had increased its physical capacity significantly more than the control group as measured by both behavioral measures (ergometer, lifting) and subjective ratings. Findings are discussed with relation to the use of the intervention as a specific treatment to increase chronic pain patients' motivation to be physically active.  
  Call Number Serial 2070  
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Author (up) den Hollander, M.; Gwynne, D.T. file  url
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  Title Female fitness consequences of male harassment and copulation in seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
  Volume 78 Issue 5 Pages 1061-1070  
  Keywords Bruchid; Callosobruchus maculatus; Fitness; Nuptial gift; Polyandry; Seed beetle; Sexual harassment  
  Abstract Despite widespread evidence for the benefits of polyandry, there are costs associated with each mating for females, and for many species, it is unknown whether the costs of extra matings outweigh the benefits. In the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), costs might come from male harassment during mating attempts or from injuries that females sustain during copulation. Benefits of mating might come from nutrients or water transferred in the ejaculate. If mating is costly overall, male presence (sexual harassment) and multiple mating in C. maculatus is expected to reduce female fitness. Females were housed with differing numbers of males (1�4) and differing opportunities for copulation. When females were both harassed by and could remate with more than one male, they had lower lifetime reproductive rates and reduced life span relative to monandrous females. These results indicate that when females are continually exposed to multiple males, the direct benefits of multiple mating do not compensate for the costs.  
  Call Number Serial 1696  
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Author (up) Hug, S.-M.; Hartig, T.; Hansmann, R.; Seeland, K.; Hornung, R. file  url
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  Title Restorative qualities of indoor and outdoor exercise settings as predictors of exercise frequency Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Health & Place Abbreviated Journal Health Place  
  Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 971-980  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; *Environment Design; Exercise/*psychology; Female; *Fitness Centers; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Motor Activity; Urban Health; Young Adult  
  Abstract Positive environmental determinants of exercise frequency remain poorly understood. Knowing that people often value exercise for psychological restoration, we investigated the restorative quality of indoor and outdoor exercise settings as predictors of exercise frequency. We surveyed 319 members of fitness centers in Zurich that offer indoor and outdoor exercise alternatives. Outdoor settings were rated as more restorative. For each type of environment, restorative quality predicted the frequency of exercise in the past 30 days, independent of socio-demographic characteristics, expectations of exercise benefits, and personal barriers. We discuss the results with regard to the provision of exercise settings for urban populations.  
  Call Number Serial 1806  
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Author (up) Laan, D.J.; Leidy, H.J.; Lim, E.; Campbell, W.W. url  doi
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  Title Effects and reproducibility of aerobic and resistance exercise on appetite and energy intake in young, physically active adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme Abbreviated Journal Appl Physiol Nutr Metab  
  Volume 35 Issue 6 Pages 842-847  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Appetite Regulation--physiology; Body Mass Index; Cross-Over Studies; Energy Intake--physiology; Exercise--physiology; Female; Humans; Hunger; Male; Oxygen Consumption--physiology; Physical Fitness; Reproducibility of Results; Resistance Training; Young Adult  
  Abstract Appetite and meal energy intake (MEI) following aerobic (AEx) and resistance (REx) exercises were evaluated in 19 young, active adults. The participants completed duplicate 35-min sessions of AEx, REx, and sedentary control, and consumed an ad libitum pasta meal 30 min postsession. Hunger transiently decreased after AEx but was not influenced by REx. MEI was 14% to 18% higher after AEx and REx than control. These findings are consistent with exercise-stimulated ingestive behavior, not anorexia of exercise.  
  Call Number Serial 35  
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