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Author (up) Bandgar, B.P.; Gawande, S.S.; Bodade, R.G.; Gawande, N.M.; Khobragade, C.N. file  url
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  Title Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of pyrazole chalcones as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Bioorg Med Chem  
  Volume 17 Issue 24 Pages 8168-8173  
  Keywords Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Antioxidants/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Chalcones/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology; Flavonoids; Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors  
  Abstract A novel series of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-propenone (3) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-ethanone (1) and substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2). Substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2) were prepared by Vilsmeir-Haack reaction on acetophenonephenylhydrazones to offer the target compounds. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-6 inhibitory assays), antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging assay) and antimicrobial activities (agar diffusion method) against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Of 10 compounds screened, compounds 3a, 3c and 3g exhibited promising IL-6 inhibitory (35-70% inhibition, 10 microM), free radical scavenging (25-35% DPPH activity) and antimicrobial activities (MIC 100 microg/mL and 250 microg/mL) at varied concentrations. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and in silico drug relevant properties (HBD, HBA, PSA, cLogP, molecular weight, E(HOMO) and E(LUMO)) further confirmed that the compounds are potential lead compounds for future drug discovery study. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated theoretically and experimentally and revealed to be nontoxic except 3d and 3j.  
  Call Number Serial 1466  
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Author (up) Gaetke, L.M.; Chow, C.K. file  url
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  Title Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Toxicology Abbreviated Journal Toxicology  
  Volume 189 Issue 1-2 Pages 147-163  
  Keywords Animals; Antioxidants/metabolism/*pharmacology; Ascorbic Acid/metabolism/therapeutic use; Copper/metabolism/*toxicity; *Flavonoids; Humans; Hydroxyl Radical/metabolism; Oxidative Stress/drug effects/*physiology; Phenols/metabolism/therapeutic use; Polymers/metabolism/therapeutic use; Polyphenols; Thioctic Acid/metabolism/therapeutic use; Vitamin E/metabolism/therapeutic use; Zinc/metabolism/therapeutic use; beta Carotene/metabolism/therapeutic use  
  Abstract Copper (Cu) is an integral part of many important enzymes involved in a number of vital biological processes. Although normally bound to proteins, Cu may be released and become free to catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Data obtained from in vitro and cell culture studies are largely supportive of Cu's capacity to initiate oxidative damage and interfere with important cellular events. Oxidative damage has been linked to chronic Cu-overload and/or exposure to excess Cu caused by accidents, occupational hazards, and environmental contamination. Additionally, Cu-induced oxidative damage has been implicated in disorders associated with abnormal Cu metabolism and neurodegenerative changes. Interestingly, a deficiency in dietary Cu also increases cellular susceptibility to oxidative damage. A number of nutrients have been shown to interact with Cu and alter its cellular effects. Vitamin E is generally protective against Cu-induced oxidative damage. While most in vitro or cell culture studies show that ascorbic acid aggravates Cu-induced oxidative damage, results obtained from available animal studies suggest that the compound is protective. High intakes of ascorbic acid and zinc may provide protection against Cu toxicity by preventing excess Cu uptake. Zinc also removes Cu from its binding site, where it may cause free radical formation. Beta-carotene, alpha-lipoic acid and polyphenols have also been shown to attenuate Cu-induced oxidative damage. Further studies are needed to better understand the cellular effects of this essential, but potentially toxic, trace mineral and its functional interaction with other nutrients.  
  Call Number Serial 1049  
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Author (up) Hardin, A.; Crandall, P.G.; Stankus, T. file  url
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  Title Essential Oils and Antioxidants Derived From Citrus By-Products in Food Protection and Medicine: An Introduction and Review of Recent Literature Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Agricultural & Food Information Abbreviated Journal Journal of Agricultural & Food Information  
  Volume 11 Issue 2 Pages 99-122  
  Keywords Alpha-pinene; Antibiotics; Antioxidants; Auraptene; Bergamot essential oils; Cancer chemoprevention; Cancer chemotherapy; Citral; Citronellal; Citrus by-products; Citrus essential oils; Citrus peel; D-limonene; Flavones; Flavonoids; Food protection; Food spoilage; Functional foods; Grapefruit essential oils; Hesperidin; Lemon essential oils; Lime essential oils; Limonoids; Linalool; Naringenin; Neral; Nutraceuticals; Orange essential oils; Polyphenols; Quercetin; Tangeretin; Tangerine essential oils  
  Abstract After a brief overview of the general production, market value, and uses of citrus by-products, this literature review will focus on the most highly refined “pharmaceutical grade” citrus oils and antioxidants that have been derived from peels or other fruit parts. Citrus oils have been used as a part of the perfume industry and in the practice of alternative medicine for a long time, but now there is a great deal of mainstream food processing and drug industry interest in them owing to the rediscovery or confirmation of some of their beneficial properties, as well their development for entirely new applications. Their roles as antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and cancer chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents appear promising.  
  Call Number Serial 989  
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Author (up) Hasler, A.; Sticher, O.; Meier, B. file  url
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  Title Identification and determination of the flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba by high-performance liquid chromatography Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication Journal of Chromatography A Abbreviated Journal Journal of Chromatography A  
  Volume 605 Issue 1 Pages 41-48  
  Keywords Chromatographic; Flavonoids; Biloba  
  Abstract Qualitative and quantitative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic methods have been developed for the separation and determination of the flavonoids found in the leaves and therapeutically used extracts of Ginkgo biloba. The first method includes hydrolysis of the flavonoids and subsequent quantitative chromatographic assay of the obtained aglycones and qualitative analysis of the biflavones. The second method is a “fingerprint” procedure to identify unambiguously 33 flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba.  
  Call Number Serial 1083  
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Author (up) Nasir Abbas Bukhari, S.; Jasamai, M.; Jantan, I.; Ahmad, W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Review of Methods and Various Catalysts Used for Chalcone Synthesis Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Mroc  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 73-83  
  Keywords Chalcones; anti- inflammatory; anticancer; claisen-schmidt condensation; flavonoids  
  Abstract Chalcones are the main precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Chalcones comprise of a three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. These are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with acetophenones in the presence of catalyst. They go through a variety of chemical reactions and are found beneficial in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and an assortment of heterocyclic compounds. Chalcones play pivotal role in synthesizing a range of remedial compounds. They have exhibited impressive curative efficacy for the treatment of numerous diseases. Chalcone based derivatives have gained focus since they possess simple structures and sundry pharmacological actions. A number of techniques and schemes have been reported for the synthesis of these compounds. Amongst all the stated methods, Aldol condensation and Claisen-Schmidt condensation still hold high position. Other renowned techniques include Suzuki reaction, Witting reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation with cinnamoyl chloride, Photo-Fries rearrangement of phenyl cinnamates etc. These innovative techniques employ various catalysts and reagents including SOCl2 natural phosphate, lithium nitrate, amino grafted zeolites, zinc oxide, water, Na2CO3, PEG400, silicasulfuric acid, ZrCl4 and ionic liquid etc. The development of improved strategies for the synthesis of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds is still in demand. Briefly, we have explained the methods and catalysts used in the synthesis of chalcones in a review form to provide information for the development of new-fangled processes aiming better yield, less reaction time and minimum side effects.  
  Call Number Serial 1237  
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