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Author (up) Birch, L.L.; Marlin, D.W. file  url
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  Title I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 353-360  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans  
  Abstract The relationship between frequency of exposure to foods and preference for those foods was investigated in two experiments. Participants in both studies were two-year-old children. In Experiment 1, each of six children received 20, 15, 10, 5 or 2 exposures of five initially novel cheeses during a 26-day series of familiarization trials in which one pair of foods was presented per day. In Experiment 2, eight children received 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 exposures to five initially novel fruits, following the same familiarization procedures, for 25 days. The particular food assigned to an exposure frequency was counterbalanced over subjects. Initial novelty was ascertained through food history information. Within ten days after the familiarization trials, children were given ten choice trials, comprising all possible pairs of the five foods. Thurstone scaling solutions were obtained for the series of choices: when the resulting scale values for the five stimuli were correlated with exposure frequency, values of r = 0·95, p < 0·02; r = 0·97, p < 0·01; and r = 0·94, p < 0·02 were obtained for the data of Experiments 1, 2, and the combined sample, respectively. A second analysis, employing subjects rather than stimuli as degrees of freedom, revealed that 13 of 14 subjects chose the more familiar stimulus in the sequence of ten choice trials at greater than the level expected by chance, providing evidence for effects within subjects as well as consistency across subjects. These results indicate that preference is an increasing function of exposure frequency. The data are consistent with the mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) as well as with the literature on the role of neophobia in food selection of animals other than man.

Subject Headings: Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans

Keywords: I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences
 
  Call Number Serial 2686  
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Author (up) Broberg, D.J.; Bernstein, I.L. file  url
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  Title Candy as a scapegoat in the prevention of food aversions in children receiving chemotherapy Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Cancer Abbreviated Journal Cancer  
  Volume 60 Issue 9 Pages 2344-2347  
  Keywords Adolescent; Antineoplastic Agents/*adverse effects; *Avoidance Learning; *Candy; Child; Child, Preschool; Conditioning (Psychology); *Food Preferences; Humans; Nausea/chemically induced/*psychology  
  Abstract The effectiveness of a method for reducing the incidence of chemotherapy-induced learned food aversions was examined. Candy (coconut or rootbeer Lifesavers) was used as a scapegoat and given between the consumption of a meal and the administration of chemotherapy to determine whether this would lead to a greater willingness to consume items in that meal at a future test. This procedure produced evidence that the scapegoat had a significant protective effect: children were twice as likely to eat some portion of their test meal at the time of assessment if they had received the scapegoat at conditioning than when there was no intervention. Thus, the consumption of strongly flavored candies before chemotherapy appears to be a simple and effective way to reduce the impact of chemotherapy on preference for normal menu items.  
  Call Number Serial 219  
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Author (up) Cohen, J.F.W.; Jahn, J.L.; Richardson, S.; Cluggish, S.A.; Parker, E.; Rimm, E.B. file  url
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  Title Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children's Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entree, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Abbreviated Journal J Acad Nutr Diet  
  Volume 116 Issue 1 Pages 123-128  
  Keywords Animals; Child; Diet; *Eating; Ethnic Groups; Female; *Food Preferences; *Food Services; Fruit; Humans; *Lunch; Male; Milk; Prospective Studies; *Schools; Students; Time Factors; Vegetables; Fruit intake; Lunch period length; Milk intake; School lunch; Vegetable intake  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There are currently no national standards for school lunch period length and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine plate-waste measurements from students in the control arm of the Modifying Eating and Lifestyles at School study (2011 to 2012 school year) to determine the association between amount of time to eat and school meal selection and consumption. DESIGN: We used a prospective study design using up to six repeated measures among students during the school year. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: One thousand and one students in grades 3 to 8 attending six participating elementary and middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20 to 30 minutes were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: School food selection and consumption were collected using plate-waste methodology. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Logistic regression and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to examine food selection and consumption. RESULTS: Compared with meal-component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs 57%; P<0.0001) when they had <20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entree, milk, or vegetable selections. Among those who selected a meal component, students with <20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entree (P<0.0001), 10% less of their milk (P<0.0001), and 12% less of their vegetable (P<0.0001) compared with students who had at least 25 minutes to eat. CONCLUSIONS: During the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entree, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time might reduce food waste and improve dietary intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1256  
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Author (up) Fisher, J.O.; Birch, L.L. file  url
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  Title Restricting access to foods and children's eating Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 32 Issue 3 Pages 405-419  
  Keywords Child Behavior/*psychology; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Male; *Mother-Child Relations; Nutritional Requirements; Obesity/psychology; Sex Factors  
  Abstract This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related “risk” factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, 35 girls) and their parents. Children's snack food intake was measured immediately following a meal, in a setting offering free access to palatable snack foods. Child and maternal reports of restricting children's access to those snack foods were obtained. In addition, information on child and parent adiposity as well as parents' restrained and disinhibited eating was used to examine “risk” factors for restricting access. For girls only, child and maternal reports of restricting access predicted girls' snack food intake, with higher levels of restriction predicting higher levels of snack food intake. Maternal restriction, in turn, was predicted by children's adiposity. Additionally, parents' own restrained eating style predicted maternal restriction of girls' access to snack foods.  
  Call Number Serial 1690  
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Author (up) Goldfield, G.S.; Adamo, K.B.; Rutherford, J.; Legg, C. file  url
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  Title Stress and the relative reinforcing value of food in female binge eaters Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 93 Issue 3 Pages 579-587  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/*physiopathology/*psychology; Computer Simulation; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology; Functional Laterality; Humans; Psychological Theory; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Stress, Psychological/*physiopathology  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session (after 3-minutes of anticipation of giving a speech) or a control day (after 3-minutes of reading magazines), with order of conditions counterbalanced. Subjects were divided into four groups based on scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and changes in perceived stress: Binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=12), binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=10), non-binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=6), non-binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=9). Dietary restraint, hunger, disinhibition, and hedonics were measured by self-report. Body composition was estimated by body mass index (BMI=weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared). The relative reinforcing value of snack food was influenced differently by binge status and stress reactivity in the stress and control conditions (p<0.05). Binge eaters who reacted to stress earned more snack food points (p<0.001) in stress condition, but non-binge eaters who showed high stress reactivity earned less points for snack food in stress condition (p<0.05). This same pattern of results remained after statistically controlling for body mass index (BMI) and dietary restraint. Findings suggest that reactivity to interpersonal or ego-related stress increases the relative reinforcing value of food in binge eaters but decreases the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-binge eaters, and these findings appear to be independent of dietary restraint and BMI.  
  Call Number Serial 1827  
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Author (up) Hoefling, A.; Strack, F. file  url
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  Title Hunger induced changes in food choice. When beggars cannot be choosers even if they are allowed to choose Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 54 Issue 3 Pages 603-606  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; Food; Food Deprivation/physiology; Food Preferences/*physiology; Humans; Hunger/*physiology; Male; Satiation/physiology; Taste; Time Factors  
  Abstract The present work was to examine the influence of food deprivation on food choice. For this purpose hungry versus satiated subjects were presented with a series of choices between two snacks in a complete block design of pairwise comparisons. Snacks systematically varied with respect to subjects' idiosyncratic taste preferences (preferred versus un-preferred snack), portion size (large portion versus very small portion), and availability in terms of time (immediately available versus available only after a substantial time delay). Food choices were analyzed with a conjoint analysis which corroborated the assumption that food deprivation decreases the relative importance of taste preference and increases the importance of immediate availability of food.  
  Call Number Serial 1262  
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Author (up) Hurling, R.; Shepherd, R. file  url
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  Title Eating with your eyes: effect of appearance on expectations of liking Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 167-174  
  Keywords Animals; Cooking; Female; Fishes; Food; Food Preferences/*psychology; Hot Temperature; Humans; Questionnaires; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract It was hypothesised that consumers' expectations of liking for a food would be affected by its appearance both when raw and when cooked and that the impact of these expectations on actual liking for the product after eating would vary with consumer awareness of internal body states (private body consciousness). We found that consumers' expectations of liking for the food generated by the appearance of the cooked product was related to expectation of liking from viewing the raw product. Under some conditions, consumers liked a food less after consumption if a raw product that generated low expectation of liking had been presented beforehand. There was no evidence that private body consciousness modified the consumers' susceptibility to expectation effects. It was concluded that expectations of liking for a food generated by appearance both when raw and cooked influenced final evaluation of the product during consumption.  
  Call Number Serial 159  
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Author (up) Izquierdo, A.; Darling, C.; Manos, N.; Pozos, H.; Kim, C.; Ostrander, S.; Cazares, V.; Stepp, H.; Rudebeck, P.H. file  url
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  Title Basolateral amygdala lesions facilitate reward choices after negative feedback in rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
  Volume 33 Issue 9 Pages 4105-4109  
  Keywords Amygdala/injuries/*physiology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Choice Behavior/*physiology; Conditioning, Operant/*physiology; Discrimination Learning/drug effects/physiology; Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/toxicity; *Feedback/drug effects; Food Preferences/drug effects/physiology; Ibotenic Acid/toxicity; Male; Photic Stimulation; Prefrontal Cortex/injuries/physiology; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Reversal Learning; *Reward  
  Abstract The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) constitute part of a neural circuit important for adaptive, goal-directed learning. One task measuring flexibility of response to changes in reward is discrimination reversal learning. Damage to OFC produces well documented impairments on various forms of reversal learning in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Recent reports show that BLA, though highly interconnected with OFC, may be differentially involved in reversal learning. In the present experiment, we compared the effects of bilateral, ibotenic acid lesions of OFC or BLA (or SHAM) on visual discrimination and reversal learning. Specifically, we used pairwise visual discrimination methods, as is commonly administered in non-human primate studies, and analyzed how animals use positive and negative trial-by-trial feedback, domains not previously explored in a rat study. As expected, OFC lesions displayed significantly slower reversal learning than SHAM and BLA rats across sessions. Rats with BLA lesions, conversely, showed facilitated reversal learning relative to SHAM and OFC groups. Furthermore, a trial-by-trial analysis of the errors committed showed the BLA group benefited more from incorrectly performed trials (or negative feedback) on future choices than either SHAM or OFC rats. This provides evidence that BLA and OFC are involved in updating responses to changes in reward contingency and that the roles are distinct. Our results are discussed in relation to a competitive framework model for OFC and BLA in reward processing.  
  Call Number Serial 1970  
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Author (up) Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; De Graaf, C. file  url
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  Title Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 235-245  
  Keywords Adult; Child, Preschool; Diet Surveys; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Feeding Behavior/physiology/psychology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology/*psychology; Humans; Male; Parents/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Taste/physiology  
  Abstract We investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1+/-0.5 years) performed a rank-order and paired-comparison test of preference for five orangeades, which differed in sucrose concentration (0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.42, 0.61 M sucrose). Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning restriction rules and their children's consumption of MDS-containing foods. Stronger restriction rules were related to a lower consumption of beverages that contained MDS and to a lower consumption of MDS-containing foods during breakfast and lunch. The most freedom to choose foods that contain MDS was given during the afternoon. Fifty-five percent of the children who were highly restricted showed a preference for the highest concentration of sucrose in orangeade. None of these children preferred the orangeade with the lowest concentration of sucrose. While 19% of the children who were little restricted preferred the beverage with the lowest concentration of sucrose, 33% preferred the beverage with the highest concentration. These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules.  
  Call Number Serial 1942  
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Author (up) Rollins, B.Y.; Loken, E.; Savage, J.S.; Birch, L.L. file  url
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  Title Effects of restriction on children's intake differ by child temperament, food reinforcement, and parent's chronic use of restriction Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 73 Issue Pages 31-39  
  Keywords Appetite; Child, Preschool; *Diet; Eating; *Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Inhibition (Psychology); Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting; Parents; Pediatric Obesity/*etiology; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Risk Factors; Social Control, Informal; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Temperament  
  Abstract Parents' use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children's intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch's (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children's (3-5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child's inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children's regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that the use of restriction does not reduce children's consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.  
  Call Number Serial 1940  
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