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Author (up) Fabbro, F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The bilingual brain: cerebral representation of languages Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 211-222  
  Keywords Brain/*anatomy & histology/*physiology; Functional Laterality/physiology; Humans; *Language; *Multilingualism  
  Abstract The present article deals with theoretical and experimental aspects of language representation in the multilingual brain. Two general approaches were adopted in the study of the bilingual brain. The study of bilingual aphasics allows us to describe dissociations and double dissociations between the different subcomponents of the various languages. Furthermore, symptoms peculiar to bilingual aphasia were reported (pathological mixing and switching and translations disorders) which allowed the correlation of some abilities specific to bilinguals with particular neurofunctional systems. Another approach to the study of the bilingual brain is of the experimental type, such as electrophysiological investigations (electrocorticostimulation during brain surgery and event-related potentials) and functional neuroanatomy studies (positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging). Functional neuroanatomy studies investigated the brain representation of languages when processing lexical and syntactic stimuli and short stories. Neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies evidenced a similar cerebral representation of L1 and L2 lexicons both in early and late bilinguals. The representation of grammatical aspects of languages seems to be different between the two languages if L2 is acquired after the age of 7, with automatic processes and correctness being lower than those of the native language. These results are in line with a greater representation of the two lexicons in the declarative memory systems, whereas morphosyntactic aspects may be organized in different systems according to the acquisition vs learning modality.  
  Call Number Serial 541  
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Author (up) Holle, H.; Obleser, J.; Rueschemeyer, S.-A.; Gunter, T.C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Integration of iconic gestures and speech in left superior temporal areas boosts speech comprehension under adverse listening conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 875-884  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Brain Mapping; Comprehension/*physiology; Environment; Female; Functional Laterality/physiology; *Gestures; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Photic Stimulation; Speech/*physiology; Speech Perception/*physiology; Temporal Lobe/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Iconic gestures are spontaneous hand movements that illustrate certain contents of speech and, as such, are an important part of face-to-face communication. This experiment targets the brain bases of how iconic gestures and speech are integrated during comprehension. Areas of integration were identified on the basis of two classic properties of multimodal integration, bimodal enhancement and inverse effectiveness (i.e., greater enhancement for unimodally least effective stimuli). Participants underwent fMRI while being presented with videos of gesture-supported sentences as well as their unimodal components, which allowed us to identify areas showing bimodal enhancement. Additionally, we manipulated the signal-to-noise ratio of speech (either moderate or good) to probe for integration areas exhibiting the inverse effectiveness property. Bimodal enhancement was found at the posterior end of the superior temporal sulcus and adjacent superior temporal gyrus (pSTS/STG) in both hemispheres, indicating that the integration of iconic gestures and speech takes place in these areas. Furthermore, we found that the left pSTS/STG specifically showed a pattern of inverse effectiveness, i.e., the neural enhancement for bimodal stimulation was greater under adverse listening conditions. This indicates that activity in this area is boosted when an iconic gesture accompanies an utterance that is otherwise difficult to comprehend. The neural response paralleled the behavioral data observed. The present data extends results from previous gesture-speech integration studies in showing that pSTS/STG plays a key role in the facilitation of speech comprehension through simultaneous gestural input.  
  Call Number Serial 502  
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Author (up) Piccirilli, M.; Sciarma, T.; Luzzi, S. file  url
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  Title Modularity of music: evidence from a case of pure amusia Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry  
  Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 541-545  
  Keywords Adult; Auditory Perceptual Disorders/pathology/*physiopathology/psychology; Brain/pathology; Functional Laterality/physiology; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; *Music; Neuropsychological Tests  
  Abstract A case of pure amusia in a 20 year old left handed non-professional musician is reported. The patient showed an impairment of music abilities in the presence of normal processing of speech and environmental sounds. Furthermore, whereas recognition and production of melodic sequences were grossly disturbed, both the recognition and production of rhythm patterns were preserved. This selective breakdown pattern was produced by a focal lesion in the left superior temporal gyrus. This case thus suggests that not only linguistic and musical skills, but also melodic and rhythmic processing are independent of each other. This functional dissociation in the musical domain supports the hypothesis that music components have a modular organisation. Furthermore, there is the suggestion that amusia may be produced by a lesion located strictly in one hemisphere and that the superior temporal gyrus plays a crucial part in melodic processing.  
  Call Number Serial 333  
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Author (up) Puumala, T.; Sirvio, J. file  url
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  Title Changes in activities of dopamine and serotonin systems in the frontal cortex underlie poor choice accuracy and impulsivity of rats in an attention task Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 83 Issue 2 Pages 489-499  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/*physiology; Brain Chemistry/physiology; Dopamine/*metabolism; Functional Laterality/physiology; Homovanillic Acid/metabolism; Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/metabolism; Impulsive Behavior/*metabolism; Male; Norepinephrine/metabolism; Prefrontal Cortex/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Reaction Time/physiology; Serotonin/*metabolism  
  Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether differences in the function of monoaminergic systems could account for the variability in attention and impulsive behaviour between rats tested in the five-choice serial reaction time task in a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ability of a rat to sustain its attention in this task can be assessed by measuring choice accuracy (percent correct responses) to visual stimuli, whereas the percentage of premature responses indicates the level of impulsivity. Following training with the five-choice serial reaction time task, rats were decapitated and brain pieces taken for neurochemical determination. Levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, the dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid and the 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were determined in the frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum and hippocampus. Multivariate regression analysis with a stepwise method revealed that the indeces of utilization of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine) in the left frontal cortex and dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine) in the right frontal cortex together accounted for 49% of the variability in attentional performance between subjects. According to the regression analysis, a negative correlation existed between the left frontal cortex 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine and choice accuracy, and a positive correlation was observed between 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio and choice accuracy on the opposite hemisphere. Additionally, right frontal cortex serotonin utilization was found to correlate positively with the proportion of premature hole responses and this relation accounted for about 24% of the variability in this index of impulsivity between animals. These data indicate that frontal cortex dopamine and serotonin play an important role in the modulation of attention and response control.  
  Call Number Serial 391  
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