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Author (up) Clayton, R.R.; Cattarello, A.M.; Johnstone, B.M. file  url
  Title The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (project DARE): 5-year follow-up results Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 307-318  
  Keywords Child; Curriculum; Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic; Female; Health Education/*methods; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Kentucky; Male; Models, Statistical; Peer Group; Program Evaluation; Prospective Studies; Regression Analysis; *School Health Services; Substance-Related Disorders/*prevention & control/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: This article reports the results of a 5-year, longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), a school-based primary drug prevention curriculum designed for introduction during the last year of elementary education. DARE is the most widely disseminated school-based prevention curriculum in the United States. METHOD: Twenty-three elementary schools were randomly assigned to receive DARE and 8 were designated comparison schools. Students in the DARE schools received 16 weeks of protocol-driven instruction and students in the comparison schools received a drug education unit as part of the health curriculum. All students were pretested during the 6th grade prior to delivery of the programs, posttested shortly after completion, and resurveyed each subsequent year through the 10th grade. Three-stage mixed effects regression models were used to analyze these data. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between intervention and comparison schools with respect to cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use during the 7th grade, approximately 1 year after completion of the program, or over the full 5-year measurement interval. Significant intervention effects in the hypothesized direction were observed during the 7th grade for measures of students' general and specific attitudes toward drugs, the capability to resist peer pressure, and estimated level of drug use by peers. Over the full measurement interval, however, average trajectories of change for these outcomes were similar in the intervention and comparison conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this 5-year prospective study are largely consonant with the results obtained from prior short-term evaluations of the DARE curriculum, which have reported limited effects of the program upon drug use, greater efficacy with respect to attitudes, social skills, and knowledge, but a general tendency for curriculum effects to decay over time. The results of this study underscore the need for more robust prevention programming targeted specifically at risk factors, the inclusion of booster sessions to sustain positive effects, and greater attention to interrelationships between developmental processes in adolescent substance use, individual level characteristics, and social context.  
  Call Number Serial 1562  
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Author (up) Durant, N.H.; Bartman, B.; Person, S.D.; Collins, F.; Austin, S.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Patient provider communication about the health effects of obesity Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Patient Education and Counseling Abbreviated Journal Patient Educ Couns  
  Volume 75 Issue 1 Pages 53-57  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity/*ethnology/*prevention & control; *Patient Education as Topic; *Professional-Patient Relations; United States  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of race/ethnicity and provider communication on overweight and obese patients' perceptions of the damage weight causes to their health. METHODS: The study included 1071 overweight and obese patients who completed the 2002 Community Health Center (CHC) User survey. We used logistic regression analyses to examine determinants of patients' perceptions of the impact of their weight on their health. Models were adjusted for covariates and weighting was used to account for the sampling design. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of respondents were overweight and 59% were obese. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were half as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to believe weight was damaging to their health while controlling for covariates. Overweight/obese CHC patients who were told they were overweight by healthcare providers were almost nine times more likely to perceive that weight was damaging to their health compared to those not told. CONCLUSIONS: We observed large racial/ethnic disparities in the perception that overweight is unhealthy but provider communication may be a powerful tool for helping patients understand that overweight is damaging to health. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Given obesity is a national epidemic, further attention to the role of patient provider communication in illness is essential with important implications for both health professional training and health care provision.  
  Call Number Serial 402  
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Author (up) Jorm, A.F. file  url
  Title Mental health literacy: empowering the community to take action for better mental health Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The American Psychologist Abbreviated Journal Am Psychol  
  Volume 67 Issue 3 Pages 231-243  
  Keywords Community Mental Health Services/*organization & administration; *Early Medical Intervention; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Literacy/*organization & administration; Health Services Needs and Demand/*trends; Humans; Mental Disorders/prevention & control/*psychology/therapy; Mental Health/*education; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology; Questionnaires  
  Abstract For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy) has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several countries for deficiencies in (a) the public's knowledge of how to prevent mental disorders, (b) recognition of when a disorder is developing, (c) knowledge of help-seeking options and treatments available, (d) knowledge of effective self-help strategies for milder problems, and (e) first aid skills to support others affected by mental health problems. Nevertheless, there is evidence that a range of interventions can improve mental health literacy, including whole-of-community campaigns, interventions in educational settings, Mental Health First Aid training, and information websites. There is also evidence for historical improvements in mental health literacy in some countries. Increasing the community's mental health literacy needs to be a focus for national policy and population monitoring so that the whole community is empowered to take action for better mental health.  
  Call Number Serial 972  
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Author (up) Kelder, S.H.; Perry, C.L.; Lytle, L.A.; Klepp, K.I. file  url
  Title Community-wide youth nutrition education: long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Health Education Research Abbreviated Journal Health Educ Res  
  Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 119-131  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology/*prevention & control; Child; Cohort Studies; Curriculum; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Food Habits; *Health Education; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Male; Minnesota; North Dakota; Nutritional Sciences/*education; Program Evaluation; Risk Factors; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The Class of 1989 was part of the Minnesota Heart Health Program, a research and demonstration project designed to reduce cardiovascular disease in three intervention communities. This paper describes the long-term outcomes of a school- and community-based intervention on healthy eating behaviors in one intervention and matched reference community. Beginning in the sixth grade (1983), seven annual waves of behavioral measurements were taken from both communities (baseline N = 2376). Self-reported data were collected at each time period including measures of knowledge and preferences for certain foods, and food salting behavior. Data were analyzed using an ANCOVA model adjusting for baseline dependent variable differences, with the school as the unit of analysis. Knowledge, healthy food choices and restraint in food salting behavior variables were significantly higher throughout most of the follow-up period in the intervention community for females. Males also indicated greater knowledge of healthier choices in the intervention community and greater restraint in salting behavior but results are less conclusive for healthy food choices. These results suggest that multiple intervention components such as behavioral education in schools coupled with community-wide health promotion strategies can produce modest but lasting improvement in adolescent knowledge and choices of heart healthy foods and less frequent food salting practices, and that this improvement is most notable among females.  
  Call Number Serial 1596  
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Author (up) Lanigan, J.D. file  url
  Title The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Child: Care, Health and Development Abbreviated Journal Child Care Health Dev  
  Volume 37 Issue 3 Pages 368-376  
  Keywords Child Development; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Drinking; Eating/*psychology; Exercise/*psychology; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Information Dissemination/methods; Male; Motor Activity; Obesity/epidemiology/prevention & control; Preventive Health Services; Qualitative Research  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. METHODS: This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities.  
  Call Number Serial 2127  
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Author (up) Launiala, A.; Kulmala, T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The importance of understanding the local context: women's perceptions and knowledge concerning malaria in pregnancy in rural Malawi Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 111-117  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Malaria/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Malawi; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Questionnaires; Rural Population  
  Abstract A current problem of malaria prevention programmes is that not enough attention is paid to understanding the local socio-cultural context prior to programme implementation. The aim of this study is to discover how Yao women in rural Malawi understand and explain malaria in pregnancy, how they perceive it and what type of knowledge they have on it. Women's knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy is also investigated. At first phase a total of 34 in-depth interviews were conducted. At second phase a KAP survey (n=248) was conducted for cross-validation of the qualitative information. The findings showed that there is neither a vernacular word for malaria nor malaria in pregnancy. Women used a local word, malungo, to refer to malaria. Malungo is an ambiguous disease term because of its multiple meanings which are used interchangeably to refer to many types of feverish illnesses of various causes, not only malaria. Most women did not perceive malungo during pregnancy as a serious illness. There were several other diseases from anaemia, STDs to cholera etc. that were perceived to be more dangerous than malungo. The local meaning of malungo also entailed an assumption that it is a common but fairly harmless illness. Women had limited knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy, the best-known adverse effect being miscarriage (28%, 52/189). A socio-cultural understanding of the implementation context is prerequisite for planning meaningful programmes for the pregnant women in rural Africa.  
  Call Number Serial 164  
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Author (up) Muturi, N.; Mwangi, S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Older adults' perspectives on HIV/AIDS prevention strategies for rural Kenya Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Health Communication Abbreviated Journal Health Commun  
  Volume 26 Issue 8 Pages 712-723  
  Keywords Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology/prevention & control/psychology; Aged; Community-Based Participatory Research/methods; Culture; Female; Focus Groups; HIV Infections/epidemiology/prevention & control/*psychology; Health Behavior; Health Communication; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Literacy; Humans; Kenya/epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; *Perception; Risk Assessment; *Rural Population; Sexual Behavior  
  Abstract HIV/AIDS is devastating sub-Saharan Africa with great impact in the rural communities. Though prevention is the mainstay of various responses to the epidemic, communication strategies used to influence risk perception and motivate behavior change are culturally inappropriate, hence the lack of success. The bulk of prevention efforts target the 15-49 age group, resulting in limited knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS in adults over age 50 who are considered at a lower or no risk of infection. This paper addresses older adults as a key segment of the population in HIV/AIDS prevention given the increasing number that is living with the disease or newly infected. Many older adults are also caregivers of those infected and affected by the disease. As cultural, social, political, and opinion leaders in rural Kenya, older adults are in a position to influence attitudes and behaviors of their community members, but they have not been involved in the current intervention strategies. Through application of a participatory and culture-centered approach, the study sought views of older adults on the factors contributing to the epidemic in rural Kenya and their opinions on effective prevention strategies that are culturally appropriate. Several recommendations are made for a culture-specific HIV/AIDS prevention intervention for rural Kenya.  
  Call Number Serial 387  
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Author (up) Rashed, S.; Johnson, H.; Dongier, P.; Moreau, R.; Lee, C.; Crepeau, R.; Lambert, J.; Jefremovas, V.; Schaffer, C. file  url
  Title Determinants of the Permethrin Impregnated Bednets (PIB) in the Republic of Benin: the role of women in the acquisition and utilization of PIBs Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 49 Issue 8 Pages 993-1005  
  Keywords *Bedding and Linens/utilization; Benin; Female; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; *Health Promotion; Humans; Insecticides/therapeutic use; Malaria/*prevention & control; Male; Permethrin; Pyrethrins/therapeutic use  
  Abstract An important aspect of malaria control strategies has been the use of prophylactic measures such as impregnated bednets; however, adoption of this strategy has been slow and uneven. This study considers the factors determining Permethrin Impregnated Bednets (PIB) use in the context of a PIB promotion project in a rural area of Benin undertaken between 1992 and 1995. Quantitative data, on socio-demographic characteristics, malaria knowledge, attitudes, and practices, were gathered from 191 households of PIB users and non-users for comparative purposes using a questionnaire format. Qualitative data were collected from 23 focus group discussion sessions and 16 semi structured interviews. Women's income, men's educational level, and women's participation in communal organizations were the principal variables distinguishing user households from non-user households. Recourse to non-western medicine and, in particular, to medicinal teas which are considered preventive or curative correlates negatively with PIB use. The qualitative data shows that informants consider exposure to the sun, especially while engaged in agriculture work, a principal cause of malaria, and that PIB adoption is not considered justified in a context where there is a quasi chronic shortage of financial resources and where confidence in the efficacy of non-western medicine prevails. Because they have primary responsibility for the health of their families and are more aware of children's vulnerability to malaria, women are more inclined than men to want to buy PIBs. However, because the household head, who is most often male, sets family consumption priorities using family income, women often have to resort to using their own income, which is often considerably lower than that of men, to buy PIBs. Support for community initiatives which are directed to women's work, linked with intensive effort to sensitize men to the mechanisms of malaria transmission and the principal groups at risk, is seen as a means to increase PIB acquisition and use.  
  Call Number Serial 166  
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Author (up) Reimer, R.A.; Gerrard, M.; Gibbons, F.X. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Psychology & Health Abbreviated Journal Psychol Health  
  Volume 25 Issue 8 Pages 943-959  
  Keywords *African Americans; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Smoking; United States  
  Abstract Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 376  
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Author (up) Simmons, D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The role of ethnography in STI and HIV/AIDS education and promotion with traditional healers in Zimbabwe Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Health Promotion International Abbreviated Journal Health Promot Int  
  Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 476-483  
  Keywords *Anthropology, Cultural; Community Health Workers/*education; Consumer Health Information; Female; HIV Infections/*prevention & control; *Health Education; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Promotion; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; *Medicine, African Traditional; Sexually Transmitted Diseases/*prevention & control; Zimbabwe  
  Abstract This article explores the utility of ethnography in accounting for healers' understandings of HIV/AIDS-and more generally sexually transmitted infections-and the planning of HIV/AIDS education interventions targeting healers in urban Zimbabwe. I argue that much of the information utilized for planning and implementing such programs is actually based on rapid research procedures (usually single-method survey-based approaches) that do not fully capture healers' explanatory frameworks. This incomplete information then becomes authoritative knowledge about local 'traditions' and forms the basis for the design and implementation of training programs. Such decontextualization may, in turn, affect program effectiveness.  
  Call Number Serial 388  
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