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Author (up) Buu, M.M.C.; Sanders, L.M.; Mayo, J.A.; Milla, C.E.; Wise, P.H.
Title Assessing Differences in Mortality Rates and Risk Factors Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in California Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Chest Abbreviated Journal Chest
Volume 149 Issue 2 Pages 380-389
Keywords Adolescent; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Cystic Fibrosis/*mortality; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Hispanic Americans; Humans; Infant; Male; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/*methods; Prevalence; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Survival Rate/trends; cystic fibrosis; ethnicity; health disparities; pediatric pulmonology
Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past 30 years, therapeutic advances have extended the median lifespan of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Hispanic patients are a vulnerable subpopulation with a high prevalence of risk factors for worse health outcomes. The consequences of these differences on health outcomes have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the difference in health outcomes, including mortality rate, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with CF. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of CF Foundation Patient Registry data of California residents with CF, diagnosed during or after 1991, from 1991 to 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported. The primary outcome was mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated from a Cox regression model, stratified by sex, and adjusted for socioeconomic status, clinical risk factors, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 1,719 patients, 485 (28.2%) self-identified as Hispanic. Eighty-five deaths occurred, with an overall mortality rate of 4.9%. The unadjusted mortality rate was higher among Hispanic patients than among non-Hispanic patients (9.1% vs 3.3%, P < .0001). Compared with non-Hispanic patients, Hispanic patients had a lower survival rate 18 years after diagnosis (75.9% vs 91.5%, P < .0001). Adjusted for socioeconomic status and clinical risk factors, Hispanic patients had an increased rate of death compared with non-Hispanic patients (hazard ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients with CF have a higher mortality rate than do non-Hispanic patients, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status and clinical severity. Further investigation into the mechanism for the measured difference in lung function will help inform interventions and improve the health of all patients with CF.
Call Number Serial 1377
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Author (up) Chen, P.; Jacobson, K.C.
Title Developmental trajectories of substance use from early adolescence to young adulthood: gender and racial/ethnic differences Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health
Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 154-163
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Sex Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--ethnology, etiology; United States; Young Adult
Abstract PURPOSE: The current study examined gender and racial/ethnic (Hispanics, non-Hispanic Caucasians, non-Hispanic African Americans, and non-Hispanic Asians) differences in developmental trajectories of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use from early adolescence to young adulthood using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 20,160) reported rates of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use between the ages of 12 and 34 years. Data analyses were completed using longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses. RESULTS: Levels of substance use increased from early adolescence to mid-20s, and then declined thereafter. Females showed higher levels of substance use in early adolescence, although males exhibited greater changes overtime and higher levels of use in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Overall, Hispanic youth had higher initial rates of substance use, whereas Caucasian adolescents showed higher rates of change and had the highest levels of substance use from mid-adolescence through the early 30s. Racial/ethnic differences largely disappeared after age 30, except that African Americans showed higher final levels of smoking and marijuana use than the other racial/ethnic groups. Results provide evidence for both similarities and differences in general patterns of development and in gender and racial/ethnic differences across different forms of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the current study suggest that the critical periods for intervention and prevention of substance use may differ across gender and race/ethnicity, and that future research needs to identify common and unique mechanisms underlying developmental patterns of different forms of substance use.
Call Number Serial 369
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Author (up) Durant, N.H.; Bartman, B.; Person, S.D.; Collins, F.; Austin, S.B.
Title Patient provider communication about the health effects of obesity Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Patient Education and Counseling Abbreviated Journal Patient Educ Couns
Volume 75 Issue 1 Pages 53-57
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity/*ethnology/*prevention & control; *Patient Education as Topic; *Professional-Patient Relations; United States
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of race/ethnicity and provider communication on overweight and obese patients' perceptions of the damage weight causes to their health. METHODS: The study included 1071 overweight and obese patients who completed the 2002 Community Health Center (CHC) User survey. We used logistic regression analyses to examine determinants of patients' perceptions of the impact of their weight on their health. Models were adjusted for covariates and weighting was used to account for the sampling design. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of respondents were overweight and 59% were obese. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were half as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to believe weight was damaging to their health while controlling for covariates. Overweight/obese CHC patients who were told they were overweight by healthcare providers were almost nine times more likely to perceive that weight was damaging to their health compared to those not told. CONCLUSIONS: We observed large racial/ethnic disparities in the perception that overweight is unhealthy but provider communication may be a powerful tool for helping patients understand that overweight is damaging to health. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Given obesity is a national epidemic, further attention to the role of patient provider communication in illness is essential with important implications for both health professional training and health care provision.
Call Number Serial 402
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Author (up) Gundersen, D.A.; Delnevo, C.D.; Wackowski, O.
Title Exploring the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation, in a nationally representative sample of adults Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med
Volume 49 Issue 6 Pages 553-557
Keywords African Americans; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Ethnic Groups; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Health Surveys; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Menthol; Middle Aged; Smoking/*ethnology; Smoking Cessation/*ethnology; United States
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation in a nationally representative sample of adults. METHODS: Data from the 2005 U.S. National Health Interview Survey was analyzed. Our analyses were restricted to 7815 white, black, and Hispanic current and former cigarette smokers who indicated that they do not currently use other tobacco products and have made a quit attempt. We used multiple logistic regressions to test the relationship of menthol smoking and cessation controlling for various factors. RESULTS: Significant interaction effects were found indicating that the association between menthol smoking and cessation differs between whites and blacks, and whites and Hispanics. When blacks and Hispanics are collapsed as non-white, we found that non-white menthol smokers were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (adjusted odds ratio=0.55, p<0.01) compared to their non-menthol smoking counterparts. In contrast, among whites, menthol smokers were more likely to be former smokers than nonmenthol smokers (adjusted odds ratio=1.17, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide some support for the hypothesis that menthol smoking can lead to poorer cessation outcomes, but only for non-white smokers.
Call Number Serial 371
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Author (up) Hazuda, H.P.; Comeaux, P.J.; Stern, M.P.; Haffner, S.M.; Eifler, C.W.; Rosenthal, M.
Title A comparison of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans in epidemiologic research. Methodological findings from the San Antonio Heart Study Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol
Volume 123 Issue 1 Pages 96-112
Keywords Adult; Age Factors; *Epidemiologic Methods; Female; Hispanic Americans/*classification; Humans; Male; Mexico/ethnology; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Texas
Abstract Because the issue of how to empirically identify Mexican Americans in health-related research is still unresolved, the authors compared the performance of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans across five distinct population subgroups: men and women in two age strata, and residents in low, middle, and high socioeconomic neighborhoods. Individual surname had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in the pooled population sample and varied the most widely on these parameters across population subgroups. Parental surnames, which are available on vital statistics and could easily be added to other health records used in secondary analyses, offered a significant improvement over individual surname in classifying persons as Mexican American. The San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) algorithm, a nine-item indicator which uses parental surnames, birthplace of both parents, self-declared ethnic identity, and ethnic background of grandparents, had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and varied the least on these parameters across different sex, age, and socioeconomic status population subgroups. The performance of all indicators was lower at the higher socioeconomic status levels. The findings suggest that it may be useful to use parental surnames as an indicator for Mexican-American ethnicity in research involving vital statistics and to add parental surnames to other health records frequently used in secondary analyses. Since the SAHS algorithm can be adapted for use with non-Mexican origin Hispanic subgroups, it may be a useful indicator for Mexican-American (or other Hispanic) ethnicity in survey research.
Call Number Serial 1381
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Author (up) Hom, P.W.; Roberson, L.; Ellis, A.D.
Title Challenging conventional wisdom about who quits: revelations from corporate America Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Applied Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Psychol
Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 1-34
Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data; Canada; Career Mobility; Employee Performance Appraisal/statistics & numerical data; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Female; Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data; Humans; Industry/*manpower; Male; Middle Aged; Minority Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Personnel Turnover/*statistics & numerical data; *Sex Ratio; Socioeconomic Factors; United States
Abstract Findings from 20 corporations from the Attrition and Retention Consortium, which collects quit statistics about 475,458 professionals and managers, extended and disputed established findings about who quits. Multilevel analyses revealed that company tenure is curvilinearly related to turnover and that a job's past attrition rate strengthens the (negative) performance- exit relationship. Further, women quit more than men, while African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans quit more than White Americans, though racial differences disappeared after confounds were controlled for. African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American women quit more than men of the same ethnicities and White Americans, but statistical controls nullified evidence for dual discrimination toward minority women. Greater corporate flight among women and minorities during early employment nonetheless hampers progress toward a more diversified workforce in corporate America.
Call Number Serial 273
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