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Author (up) Bennett, J.W.; Bentley, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Seeing red: the story of prodigiosin Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Advances in Applied Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Adv Appl Microbiol  
  Volume 47 Issue Pages 1-32  
  Keywords Bacteriology/history; Bread/microbiology; History, 18th Century; History, 19th Century; History, 20th Century; Pigments, Biological/*chemistry/history/metabolism/pharmacology; Prodigiosin/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology; Serratia marcescens/*chemistry/metabolism  
  Abstract S. marcescens has played an important role in the history of bacterial taxonomy, in research on the transmission of bacterial aerosols, in the study of emerging nosocomial infections, and in the understanding of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The prodigiosin pigments have intrigued organic chemists and pharmacologists, and play roles in the treatment of infectious diseases such as malaria, and perhaps as immunosuppressant agents. Undecylprodiginine played an important role in the first cloning of a gene, playing a defined role in the biosynthesis of an antibiotic. An O-methyltransferase gene was isolated by complementation and the color of undecylprodiginine was used as the selectable phenotype. The regulation of prodigiosin biosynthesis is complex, being influenced by increased glucose levels and decreased by increased phosphate level. The antibiotic resistance of many strains of S. marcescens is a serious problem with rapid horizontal transfer of drug resistance by plasmids.  
  Call Number Serial 1639  
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Author (up) Brandt, A.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Polio, politics, publicity, and duplicity: ethical aspects in the development of the Salk vaccine Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication International Journal of Health Services : Planning, Administration, Evaluation Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Serv  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 257-270  
  Keywords Child; Drug Evaluation/methods; Federal Government; Government Regulation; History, 20th Century; *Human Experimentation; Humans; Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/*history; Politics; United States; Public Health Service  
  Abstract This paper is an historical account of the discovery, testing, and early distribution of the Salk polio vaccine. The discovery posed fundamental dilemmas of medical research, pharmaceutical production, and public health. This paper assesses the ethical problems which arose, and examines critically their resolution. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (March of Dimes) financed and directed the discovery of the vaccine, subsequent field trials, and early distribution. The Foundation's role is analyzed with special attention to the conflicts between its philanthropic and scientific functions. The reat public demand which the discovery of the vaccine generated created a need for federal control which was only partly met. The federal government did not have sufficient institutional and legal mechanisms to assure the safety of the vaccine and protect the public. This discussion illustrates the failure of the government to keep pace with medical technology.  
  Call Number Serial 187  
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Author (up) Changeux, J.-P. file  url
openurl 
  Title The concept of allosteric interaction and its consequences for the chemistry of the brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Biological Chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 288 Issue 38 Pages 26969-26986  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation/physiology; Brain Chemistry/*physiology; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; *Models, Biological; *Molecular Dynamics Simulation; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*metabolism; Portraits as Topic; Prokaryotic Cells/physiology; Allosteric Regulation; Membrane Proteins; Neurons; Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors; Synaptic Plasticity  
  Abstract Throughout this Reflections article, I have tried to follow up on the genesis in the 1960s and subsequent evolution of the concept of allosteric interaction and to examine its consequences within the past decades, essentially in the field of the neuroscience. The main conclusion is that allosteric mechanisms built on similar structural principles operate in bacterial regulatory enzymes, gene repressors (and the related nuclear receptors), rhodopsin, G-protein-coupled receptors, neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and so on from prokaryotes up to the human brain yet with important features of their own. Thus, future research on these basic cybernetic sensors is expected to develop in two major directions: at the elementary level, toward the atomic structure and molecular dynamics of the conformational changes involved in signal recognition and transduction, but also at a higher level of organization, the contribution of allosteric mechanisms to the modulation of brain functions.  
  Call Number Serial 1878  
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Author (up) Changeux, J.-P. file  url
openurl 
  Title The concept of allosteric interaction and its consequences for the chemistry of the brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Biological Chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 288 Issue 38 Pages 26969-26986  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation/physiology; Brain Chemistry/*physiology; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; *Models, Biological; *Molecular Dynamics Simulation; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*metabolism; Portraits as Topic; Prokaryotic Cells/physiology; Allosteric Regulation; Membrane Proteins; Neurons; Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors; Synaptic Plasticity  
  Abstract Throughout this Reflections article, I have tried to follow up on the genesis in the 1960s and subsequent evolution of the concept of allosteric interaction and to examine its consequences within the past decades, essentially in the field of the neuroscience. The main conclusion is that allosteric mechanisms built on similar structural principles operate in bacterial regulatory enzymes, gene repressors (and the related nuclear receptors), rhodopsin, G-protein-coupled receptors, neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and so on from prokaryotes up to the human brain yet with important features of their own. Thus, future research on these basic cybernetic sensors is expected to develop in two major directions: at the elementary level, toward the atomic structure and molecular dynamics of the conformational changes involved in signal recognition and transduction, but also at a higher level of organization, the contribution of allosteric mechanisms to the modulation of brain functions.  
  Call Number Serial 1888  
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Author (up) Egas, D.A.; Wirth, M.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Fundamentals of protein separations: 50 years of nanotechnology, and growing Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry (Palo Alto, Calif.) Abbreviated Journal Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 833-855  
  Keywords Animals; Antigens/chemistry; Chromatography/methods; Colloids/chemistry; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; Immunoassay/methods; Kinetics; Nanostructures/chemistry; Nanotechnology/*methods; Proteins/chemistry/*isolation & purification; Proteomics/methods  
  Abstract The separation of proteins in biology samples has long been recognized as an important and daunting endeavor that continues to have enormous impact on human health. Today's technology for protein separations has its origins in the early nanotechnology of the 1950s and 1960s, and the methods include immunoassays and other affinity extractions, electrophoresis, and chromatography. What is different today is the need to resolve and identify many low-abundance proteins within complex biological matrices. Multidimensional separations are the rule, high speed is needed, and the separations must be able to work with mass spectrometry for protein identification. Hybrid approaches that combine disparate separation tools (including recognition, electrophoresis, and chromatography) take advantage of the fact that no single class of separation can resolve the proteins in a biological matrix. Protein separations represent a developing area technologically, and understanding the principles of protein separations from a molecular and nanoscale viewpoint will enable today's researchers to invent tomorrow's technology.  
  Call Number Serial 441  
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Author (up) Guzman, M.G.; Kouri, G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: lessons and challenges Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Virol  
  Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 1-13  
  Keywords Americas/epidemiology; Animals; Dengue/*epidemiology/history/physiopathology/virology; Dengue Virus/classification/growth & development/isolation & purification; History, 20th Century; Humans; Severe Dengue/*epidemiology/history/physiopathology/virology  
  Abstract The incidence of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) has increased significantly over the last decades. Yearly, an estimated 50-100 million cases of DF and about 250000-500000 cases of DHF occur worldwide. The epidemiological situation in Latin America now resembles that in Southeast Asia. Here, the main clinical, epidemiological and virological observations in the American region are presented and compared with those previously reported from Southeast Asia. During 2002, more than 30 Latin American countries reported over 1000000 DF cases. DHF occurred in 20 countries with more than 17000 DHF cases, including 225 fatalities. The co-circulation of multiple serotypes has been reported from many countries. In the Americas, DHF is observed both in children and adults; secondary infection by a different dengue virus serotype has been confirmed as an important risk factor for this severe form of the disease. However, some new risk factors such as the interval of dengue virus infections and the ethnicity and underlying chronic conditions of the patient have also been identified. The sequence of dengue virus infections and association with certain genotypes are further factors of importance. We also discuss the control and prevention strategies. In conclusion, without urgent action for the prevention and control of dengue/DHF and its vector, the current situation will worsen and, more dramatically, there is a risk of the urbanization of yellow fever.  
  Call Number Serial 1039  
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Author (up) Hartmann, U. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Sigmund Freud and his impact on our understanding of male sexual dysfunction Type
  Year 2009 Publication The Journal of Sexual Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Sex Med  
  Volume 6 Issue 8 Pages 2332-2339  
  Keywords Erectile Dysfunction/*history; *Famous Persons; History, 19th Century; History, 20th Century; Humans; Impotence, Vasculogenic/history; Male; Psychoanalysis/*history; Sexual Behavior/*history; Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/*history  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential thinkers and theorists of the 20th century. His groundbreaking work laid the foundation to many concepts and theories relevant to modern sexual medicine. AIM: To evaluate Freud's approaches to the understanding of male sexual dysfunction both in their historical context and with respect to their significance for contemporary research and therapy of sexual problems. METHODS: After a brief biographical sketch, two of Freud's writings, the widely acclaimed “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality” from 1905, and a short article entitled “The Most Prevalent Form of Degradation in Erotic Life” from 1912, were analyzed, especially for their relevance to present treatment concepts of male sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: In Freud's clinical practice “psychical impotence” was a highly prevalent complaint. In his view, this dysfunction was caused by an inhibition due to an unresolved neurotic fixation leading to an arrest of the libidinal development. The result is a splitting of the tender and the sensual dimension of sexuality, most notably in the so-called madonna-whore complex. The degree of this dissociation (total or partial) determines the severity of the ensuing sexual dysfunction. In Freud's rather pessimistic view, the erotic life of civilized people tends to be characterized by some degree of this condition. CONCLUSIONS: While some of Freud's theories are obsolete today, many parts of his work appear to be astonishingly modern, even in the light of current neurobiological research and recent models of sexual dysfunction. Above all, Freud was an extremely gifted observer of human behavior who shows us that in many cases, sexual dysfunctions are no isolated phenomena, but have their roots in biographically based intrapsychic or interpersonal conflicts.  
  Call Number Serial 474  
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Author (up) Hornykiewicz, O. file  url
openurl 
  Title Basic research on dopamine in Parkinson's disease and the discovery of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway: the view of an eyewitness Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuro-Degenerative Diseases Abbreviated Journal Neurodegener Dis  
  Volume 5 Issue 3-4 Pages 114-117  
  Keywords Animals; Antiparkinson Agents/history/therapeutic use; Corpus Striatum/drug effects/metabolism/*physiopathology; Dopamine/deficiency/*history/*physiology; History, 20th Century; Humans; Levodopa/history/therapeutic use; Neural Pathways/drug effects/physiopathology; Parkinson Disease/drug therapy/*history/physiopathology; Substantia Nigra/drug effects/*metabolism/*physiopathology  
  Abstract The article recapitulates some of the historical facts that led up to the recognition of dopamine (DA) as a biologically active substance in the brain and its crucial role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Three events to which the writer has been an eyewitness are specially highlighted and placed in their proper historical perspective: (1) the discovery of the striatal DA deficit in the PD brain; (2) the development of the DA replacement treatment with L-dopa, and (3) the 'birth' of the nigrostriatal DA pathway. The opposition to the new observations and their unexpected and far-reaching consequences will be illustrated by briefly discussing the strongly negative opinions expressed by some famous brain scientists of the day about the relationship between the substantia nigra, PD, and the DA-containing nigrostriatal fiber connection.  
  Call Number Serial 1497  
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Author (up) Horwitz, A.V. file  url
openurl 
  Title Distinguishing distress from disorder as psychological outcomes of stressful social arrangements Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Health (London, England : 1997) Abbreviated Journal Health (London)  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 273-289  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis; Behavioral Research/*history; Community Psychiatry/*history; Depression/diagnosis; Diagnosis, Differential; History, 20th Century; Humans; Life Change Events; Mental Disorders/*diagnosis; Military Psychiatry/history; Psychological Theory; Public Policy; *Social Conditions; Stress, Psychological/*diagnosis; World War II  
  Abstract Some studies in the sociology of stress conceptualize their outcome variables as distress, while others treat the same outcomes as mental disorder. This article focuses on the importance of distinguishing between the two. It argues that there are fundamental differences between distress that arises in non-disordered persons and genuine mental disorder but that studies of stress typically fail to distinguish between these conditions. The article outlines the historical developments that led the field to conflate distress and disorder. Finally, it indicates some advantages for research, treatment and policy that can accrue when distress that is initiated and maintained by social conditions is distinguished from mental disorders that are dysfunctions of internal psychological mechanisms.  
  Call Number Serial 2159  
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Author (up) Lopez-Munoz, F.; Alamo, C.; Dudley, M.; Rubio, G.; Garcia-Garcia, P.; Molina, J.D.; Okasha, A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Psychiatry and political-institutional abuse from the historical perspective: the ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 791-806  
  Keywords Ethics, Medical--history; Euthanasia; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Holocaust--ethics, history; Human Rights Abuses--ethics, history; Humans; Political Systems--history; Psychiatry--ethics, history  
  Abstract Sixty years ago at the Nuremberg Trials, 23 Nazi leaders were tried as war criminals, in what was known as “The Doctors' Trial”. This trial exposed a perverse system of the criminal use of medicine in the fields of public health and human research. These practices, in which racial hygiene constituted one of the fundamental principles and euthanasia programmes were the most obvious consequence, violated the majority of known bioethical principles. Psychiatry played a central role in these programmes, and the mentally ill were the principal victims. The aim of the present work is to review, from the historical perspective, the antecedents of the shameful euthanasia programmes for the mentally ill, the procedures involved in their implementation and the use of mentally ill people as research material. The Nuremberg Code, a direct consequence of the Doctors' Trial, is considered to be the first international code of ethics for research with human beings, and represented an attempt to prevent any repeat of the tragedy that occurred under Nazism. Nevertheless, the last 60 years have seen continued government-endorsed psychiatric abuse and illegitimate use of psychoactive drugs in countries such as the Soviet Union or China, and even in some with a long democratic tradition, such as the United States. Even today, the improper use of psychiatry on behalf of governments is seen to be occurring in numerous parts of the globe: religious repression in China, enforced hospitalization in Russia, administration of psychoactive drugs in immigrant detention centres in Australia, and the application of the death penalty by lethal injection and psychiatric participation in coercive interrogation at military prisons, in relation to the USA. The Declaration of Madrid in 1996 constituted the most recent attempt to eradicate, from the ethical point of view, these horrendous practices. Various strategies can be used to combat such abuses, though it is uncertain how effective they are in preventing them.  
  Call Number Serial 36  
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