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Author Frank, G.K.; Bailer, U.F.; Henry, S.E.; Drevets, W.; Meltzer, C.C.; Price, J.C.; Mathis, C.A.; Wagner, A.; Hoge, J.; Ziolko, S.; Barbarich-Marsteller, N.; Weissfeld, L.; Kaye, W.H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Increased dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography and [11c]raclopride Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 58 Issue 11 Pages 908-912  
  Keywords Adult; Algorithms; Anorexia/*metabolism/psychology/*radionuclide imaging; Dopamine Antagonists/*diagnostic use; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neostriatum/radionuclide imaging; Nucleus Accumbens/radionuclide imaging; Positron-Emission Tomography; Raclopride/*diagnostic use; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism; Receptors, Dopamine D3/*metabolism; Reward  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence support the possibility that disturbances of dopamine (DA) function could contribute to alterations of weight, feeding, motor activity, and reward in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: To assess possibly trait-related disturbances but avoid confounding effects of malnutrition, 10 women who were recovered from AN (REC AN) were compared with 12 healthy control women (CW). Positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride was used to assess DA D2/D3 receptor binding. RESULTS: The women who were recovered from AN had significantly higher [(11)C]raclopride binding potential in the antero-ventral striatum than CW. For REC AN, [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance in the dorsal caudate and dorsal putamen. CONCLUSIONS: These data lend support for the possibility that decreased intrasynaptic DA concentration or increased D2/D3 receptor density or affinity is associated with AN and might contribute to the characteristic harm avoidance or increased physical activity found in AN. Most intriguing is the possibility that individuals with AN might have a DA related disturbance of reward mechanisms contributing to altered hedonics of feeding behavior and their ascetic, anhedonic temperament.  
  Call Number Serial 90  
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Author Faseru, B.; Choi, W.S.; Krebill, R.; Mayo, M.S.; Nollen, N.L.; Okuyemi, K.S.; Ahluwalia, J.S.; Cox, L.S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among treatment-seeking African American light smokers Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 36 Issue 12 Pages 1321-1324  
  Keywords African Americans/*psychology; Age Factors; Carbon Monoxide/analysis; Depressive Disorder/ethnology; Female; Humans; Kansas/epidemiology; Male; *Menthol; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Smoking/*ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/ethnology; *Tobacco  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (</=10 cigarettes per day). METHODS: Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified. RESULTS: Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population.  
  Call Number Serial 370  
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Author Foote, H.W.; Hamer, J.D.; Roland, M.M.; Landy, S.R.; Smitherman, T.A. file  url
  Title Psychological flexibility in migraine: A study of pain acceptance and values-based action Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache Abbreviated Journal Cephalalgia  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 317-324  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Chronic Pain/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Migraine Disorders/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Migraine; acceptance; acceptance and commitment therapy; disability; headache; psychological flexibility  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Studies of musculoskeletal pain patients confirm that acceptance of pain and values-based action are strong predictors of pain-related disability and that interventions fostering “psychological flexibility” confer positive outcomes. However, data on these processes in migraine remain limited. This cross-sectional study examined relations between components of psychological flexibility and headache among treatment-seeking migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 103 adults (M age = 41.5 (11.9) years; 88.2% female) with ICHD-confirmed migraine (71.8% episodic, 28.2% chronic) across three clinics completed measures of psychological flexibility and headache-related disability. Hierarchical regressions quantified relations between acceptance/values-based action and headache variables after first controlling for pain severity and gender. RESULTS: Acceptance of pain and values-based action accounted for 10% of unique variance in headache severity (DeltaR(2) p = 0.006) and up to 20% in headache-related disability (DeltaR(2) ps = 0.02 and < 0.001) but were weakly related to headache frequency. Psychological flexibility was more strongly associated with MIDAS-measured disability than was headache severity or headache frequency. Significant effects were typically of medium-to-large size and driven primarily by values-based action. CONCLUSIONS: Paralleling results from the broader chronic pain literature, pain acceptance and values-based action play significant roles in headache pain and disability. Further study of interventions targeting these processes may enhance existing treatments.  
  Call Number Serial 2062  
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Author Fergusson, D.M.; Boden, J.M.; Horwood, L.J. file  url
  Title The developmental antecedents of illicit drug use: evidence from a 25-year longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend  
  Volume 96 Issue 1-2 Pages 165-177  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Abuse/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cohort Studies; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/psychology; Humans; Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Models, Statistical; New Zealand/epidemiology; Parents/psychology; Peer Group; Prospective Studies; Psychology, Adolescent/statistics & numerical data; Psychology, Child; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Social Adjustment; Street Drugs/*adverse effects; Substance-Related Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: The present study examined the developmental antecedents of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. METHODS: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult illicit drug use and abuse/dependence; cannabis use to age 25; measures of parental adjustment; measures of exposure to childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and interparental violence; novelty-seeking; childhood and early adolescent adjustment and substance use; and affiliation with substance-using peers. RESULTS: Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence from ages 16 to 25 were significantly associated (all p values<.05) with a range of parental adjustment measures; exposure to abuse in childhood; individual factors; and measures of childhood and early adolescent adjustment. Analyses using repeated measures logistic regression models suggested that parental illicit drug use, gender, novelty-seeking, and childhood conduct disorder predicted later illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Further analyses revealed that these pathways to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were mediated via cannabis use, affiliation with substance-using peers, and alcohol use during ages 16-25. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that the illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were associated with a range of early life circumstances and processes that put individuals at greater risk of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. However, the use of cannabis in late adolescence and early adulthood emerged as the strongest risk factor for later involvement in other illicit drugs.  
  Call Number Serial 1682  
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Author Lanigan, J.D. file  url
  Title The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Child: Care, Health and Development Abbreviated Journal Child Care Health Dev  
  Volume 37 Issue 3 Pages 368-376  
  Keywords Child Development; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Drinking; Eating/*psychology; Exercise/*psychology; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Information Dissemination/methods; Male; Motor Activity; Obesity/epidemiology/prevention & control; Preventive Health Services; Qualitative Research  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. METHODS: This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities.  
  Call Number Serial 2127  
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Author Cohen, J.F.W.; Jahn, J.L.; Richardson, S.; Cluggish, S.A.; Parker, E.; Rimm, E.B. file  url
  Title Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children's Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entree, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Abbreviated Journal J Acad Nutr Diet  
  Volume 116 Issue 1 Pages 123-128  
  Keywords Animals; Child; Diet; *Eating; Ethnic Groups; Female; *Food Preferences; *Food Services; Fruit; Humans; *Lunch; Male; Milk; Prospective Studies; *Schools; Students; Time Factors; Vegetables; Fruit intake; Lunch period length; Milk intake; School lunch; Vegetable intake  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: There are currently no national standards for school lunch period length and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine plate-waste measurements from students in the control arm of the Modifying Eating and Lifestyles at School study (2011 to 2012 school year) to determine the association between amount of time to eat and school meal selection and consumption. DESIGN: We used a prospective study design using up to six repeated measures among students during the school year. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: One thousand and one students in grades 3 to 8 attending six participating elementary and middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20 to 30 minutes were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: School food selection and consumption were collected using plate-waste methodology. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Logistic regression and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to examine food selection and consumption. RESULTS: Compared with meal-component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs 57%; P<0.0001) when they had <20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entree, milk, or vegetable selections. Among those who selected a meal component, students with <20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entree (P<0.0001), 10% less of their milk (P<0.0001), and 12% less of their vegetable (P<0.0001) compared with students who had at least 25 minutes to eat. CONCLUSIONS: During the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entree, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time might reduce food waste and improve dietary intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1256  
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Author Clayton, R.R.; Cattarello, A.M.; Johnstone, B.M. file  url
  Title The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (project DARE): 5-year follow-up results Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 307-318  
  Keywords Child; Curriculum; Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic; Female; Health Education/*methods; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Kentucky; Male; Models, Statistical; Peer Group; Program Evaluation; Prospective Studies; Regression Analysis; *School Health Services; Substance-Related Disorders/*prevention & control/psychology  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: This article reports the results of a 5-year, longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), a school-based primary drug prevention curriculum designed for introduction during the last year of elementary education. DARE is the most widely disseminated school-based prevention curriculum in the United States. METHOD: Twenty-three elementary schools were randomly assigned to receive DARE and 8 were designated comparison schools. Students in the DARE schools received 16 weeks of protocol-driven instruction and students in the comparison schools received a drug education unit as part of the health curriculum. All students were pretested during the 6th grade prior to delivery of the programs, posttested shortly after completion, and resurveyed each subsequent year through the 10th grade. Three-stage mixed effects regression models were used to analyze these data. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between intervention and comparison schools with respect to cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use during the 7th grade, approximately 1 year after completion of the program, or over the full 5-year measurement interval. Significant intervention effects in the hypothesized direction were observed during the 7th grade for measures of students' general and specific attitudes toward drugs, the capability to resist peer pressure, and estimated level of drug use by peers. Over the full measurement interval, however, average trajectories of change for these outcomes were similar in the intervention and comparison conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this 5-year prospective study are largely consonant with the results obtained from prior short-term evaluations of the DARE curriculum, which have reported limited effects of the program upon drug use, greater efficacy with respect to attitudes, social skills, and knowledge, but a general tendency for curriculum effects to decay over time. The results of this study underscore the need for more robust prevention programming targeted specifically at risk factors, the inclusion of booster sessions to sustain positive effects, and greater attention to interrelationships between developmental processes in adolescent substance use, individual level characteristics, and social context.  
  Call Number Serial 1562  
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Author Son, J.-Y.; Lee, J.-T.; Anderson, G.B.; Bell, M.L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The impact of heat waves on mortality in seven major cities in Korea Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 120 Issue 4 Pages 566-571  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Bayes Theorem; Cardiovascular Diseases--epidemiology, etiology, mortality; Cause of Death; Child; Child, Preschool; Cities; Female; Hot Temperature--adverse effects; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Linear Models; Male; Middle Aged; Republic of Korea--epidemiology; Respiratory Tract Diseases--epidemiology, etiology, mortality; Seasons; Socioeconomic Factors; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Understanding the health impacts of heat waves is important, especially given anticipated increases in the frequency, duration, and intensity of heat waves due to climate change. OBJECTIVES: We examined mortality from heat waves in seven major Korean cities for 2000 through 2007 and investigated effect modification by individual characteristics and heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). METHODS: Heat waves were defined as >/= 2 consecutive days with daily mean temperature at or above the 98th percentile for the warm season in each city. We compared mortality during heat-wave days and non-heat-wave days using city-specific generalized linear models. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate overall effects within and across all cities. In addition, we estimated effects of heat wave characteristics and effects according to cause of death and examined effect modification by individual characteristics for Seoul. RESULTS: Overall, total mortality increased 4.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): -6.1%, 15.4%] during heat waves compared with non-heat-wave days, with an 8.4% increase (95% CI: 0.1%, 17.3%) estimated for Seoul. Estimated mortality was higher for heat waves that were more intense, longer, or earlier in summer, although effects were not statistically significant. Estimated risks were higher for women versus men, older versus younger residents, those with no education versus some education, and deaths that occurred out of hospitals in Seoul, although differences among strata of individual characteristics were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support evidence of mortality impacts from heat waves and have implications for efforts to reduce the public health burden of heat waves.  
  Call Number Serial 486  
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Author Stein, M.B.; Kennedy, C.M.; Twamley, E.W. file  url
  Title Neuropsychological function in female victims of intimate partner violence with and without posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 52 Issue 11 Pages 1079-1088  
  Keywords Adult; Attention; Case-Control Studies; Crime Victims--psychology; Domestic Violence; Female; Humans; Language; Memory; Neuropsychological Tests; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic--psychology  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Various aspects of neuropsychologic function have been reported to be abnormal in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the majority of these data come from studies of seriously ill, treatment-seeking samples with substantial substance use comorbidity. Few studies have included similarly trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD, and fewer still have focused on women. METHODS: Thirty-nine female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; 22 without lifetime PTSD and 17 with current PTSD), and 22 nonvictimized comparison (NC) subjects were administered tests of attention, working memory, visuoconstruction, language ability, learning and memory, and executive functioning. RESULTS: The IPV and NC subjects did not demonstrate statistically significant differences on most neuropsychologic tests, with the exception of those in the realm of working memory, visuoconstruction, and executive functioning. The IPV subjects, regardless of PTSD status, had poorer performance on tasks of speeded, sustained auditory attention and working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) and response inhibition (Stroop). The IPV subjects with PTSD performed worse than NCs on a set-shifting task (Trail Making Test, Part B). No consistent relationships were noted between neuropsychologic functioning and severity of childhood abuse or domestic violence experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive deficits in IPV subjects were confined to measures of working memory, visuoconstruction, and executive function; were subtle; and were not uniformly worse among those with current PTSD. This pattern, however, is consistent with frontal-subcortical dysfunction in traumatized women. The clinical significance of these findings deserves further study.  
  Call Number Serial 53  
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Author Ruokolainen, L.; von Hertzen, L.; Fyhrquist, N.; Laatikainen, T.; Lehtomaki, J.; Auvinen, P.; Karvonen, A.M.; Hyvarinen, A.; Tillmann, V.; Niemela, O.; Knip, M.; Haahtela, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Hanski, I. file  url
  Title Green areas around homes reduce atopic sensitization in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Allergy Abbreviated Journal Allergy  
  Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 195-202  
  Keywords Adolescent; Agriculture; Allergens/immunology; Child; Child, Preschool; Environment; *Environmental Exposure; Estonia/epidemiology; Female; Finland/epidemiology; *Forests; *Housing; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Immediate/*epidemiology/*etiology; Immunoglobulin E/blood/immunology; Infant; Male; Microbiome; Microbiota; Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Skin/immunology/microbiology; Young Adult; Proteobacteria; allergen-specific IgE; biodiversity hypothesis; farming environment; skin microbiota  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Western lifestyle is associated with high prevalence of allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory disorders. To explain this association, we tested the 'biodiversity hypothesis', which posits that reduced contact of children with environmental biodiversity, including environmental microbiota in natural habitats, has adverse consequences on the assembly of human commensal microbiota and its contribution to immune tolerance. METHODS: We analysed four study cohorts from Finland and Estonia (n = 1044) comprising children and adolescents aged 0.5-20 years. The prevalence of atopic sensitization was assessed by measuring serum IgE specific to inhalant allergens. We calculated the proportion of five land-use types--forest, agricultural land, built areas, wetlands and water bodies--in the landscape around the homes using the CORINE2006 classification. RESULTS: The cover of forest and agricultural land within 2-5 km from the home was inversely and significantly associated with atopic sensitization. This relationship was observed for children 6 years of age and older. Land-use pattern explained 20% of the variation in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria on the skin of healthy individuals, supporting the hypothesis of a strong environmental effect on the commensal microbiota. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of green environment (forest and agricultural land) around homes was inversely associated with the risk of atopic sensitization in children. The results indicate that early-life exposure to green environments is especially important. The environmental effect may be mediated via the effect of environmental microbiota on the commensal microbiota influencing immunotolerance.  
  Call Number Serial 1985  
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