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Author (down) Rufin, J.-C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title [Humanitarian action...and then? An interview of Jean-Christophe Rufin, ex vice president of Medecins sans Frontieres, president of Action contre la faim, Goncourt prize 2001] Type
  Year 2004 Publication Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique Abbreviated Journal Ann Chir Plast Esthet  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 331-338  
  Keywords *Altruism; Attitude of Health Personnel; Emergencies; Forecasting; Humans; Medical Missions, Official/*organization & administration; Needs Assessment; Philosophy, Medical; Physician Executives/organization & administration/*psychology  
  Abstract First dedicated to emergency situations, then more involved in long term duration development, humanitarian action is concerned by a crisis which appears absolutely necessary after 30 years of growing up. Many factors may contribute to that situation: structural professionalisation, official financial pressures, political influences, more ideology for less ideal behaviour, competition with rising of new ideas like alter mondialisation etc. It seems interesting in such a situation to get some advice about humanitarian future from a personality who has recognised responsibilities in both action and thoughts consideration.  
  Call Number Serial 518  
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Author (down) Roy, M.; Mailhot, J.-P.; Gosselin, N.; Paquette, S.; Peretz, I. file  url
openurl 
  Title Modulation of the startle reflex by pleasant and unpleasant music Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 71 Issue 1 Pages 37-42  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Auditory Perception/*physiology; Brain/*physiology; Discriminant Analysis; Electroencephalography/methods; Emotions/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Multivariate Analysis; *Music; Reaction Time/physiology; Reflex, Startle/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract The issue of emotional feelings to music is the object of a classic debate in music psychology. Emotivists argue that emotions are really felt in response to music, whereas cognitivists believe that music is only representative of emotions. Psychophysiological recordings of emotional feelings to music might help to resolve the debate, but past studies have failed to show clear and consistent differences between musical excerpts of different emotional valence. Here, we compared the effects of pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts on the startle eye blink reflex and associated body markers (such as the corrugator and zygomatic activity, skin conductance level and heart rate). The startle eye blink amplitude was larger and its latency was shorter during unpleasant compared with pleasant music, suggesting that the defensive emotional system was indeed modulated by music. Corrugator activity was also enhanced during unpleasant music, whereas skin conductance level was higher for pleasant excerpts. The startle reflex was the response that contributed the most in distinguishing pleasant and unpleasant music. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that emotions were felt in response to music, supporting the emotivist stance.  
  Call Number Serial 1747  
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Author (down) Rowland, L.P.; Shneider, N.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 344 Issue 22 Pages 1688-1700  
  Keywords *Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis/etiology/therapy; Environment; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Motor Neurons/pathology/physiology; Mutation; Suicide, Assisted; Superoxide Dismutase/*genetics/metabolism; Superoxide Dismutase-1  
  Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic, fatal neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. In this Seminar, we summarise current concepts about the origin of the disease, what predisposes patients to develop the disorder, and discuss why all cases of ALS are not the same. In the 150 years since Charcot originally described ALS, painfully slow progress has been made towards answering these questions. We focus on what is known about ALS and where research is heading—from the small steps of extending longevity, improving therapies, undertaking clinical trials, and compiling population registries to the overarching goals of establishing the measures that guard against onset and finding the triggers for this neurodegenerative disorder.  
  Call Number Serial 2048  
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Author (down) Rothgerber, H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Underlying differences between conscientious omnivores and vegetarians in the evaluation of meat and animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 251-258  
  Keywords Adult; Animal Welfare/ethics; Animals; Choice Behavior; Culture; *Diet; *Diet, Vegetarian; Female; Food Habits/*ethics; Food Preferences; Guilt; Humans; Male; *Meat; Middle Aged; Taste; Conscientious omnivores; Ethical meat eating; Humane meat; Meat disgust; Vegetarians; vegans  
  Abstract As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important options for those reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism/veganism (i.e., veg*nism), the avoidance of animal flesh/all animal products; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has recently received much attention in the social science literature, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as COs have been virtually nonexistent. The present research sought to investigate possible underlying attitudinal differences between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to veg*ns, COs evaluated animals less favorably, meat more favorably, and were lower in idealism, misanthropy, and ingroup identification. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences between COs and veg*ns in the perceived acceptability of killing animals for food were mediated by beliefs about animals and meat. The discussion largely speculates on the causal direction of these effects.  
  Call Number Serial 1287  
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Author (down) Rothgerber, H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and adherence to diet Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 84 Issue Pages 196-203  
  Keywords Animal Welfare; Animals; *Attitude; Body Mass Index; Culture; *Diet; Diet Surveys; *Diet, Vegetarian; *Emotions; Female; *Food Habits; Food Industry; Guilt; Humans; Male; *Meat; *Morals; Seafood; Social Identification; Taste; Conscientious omnivores; Ethical meat eating; Humane meat; Meat disgust; Vegans; Vegetarians  
  Abstract As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism.  
  Call Number Serial 1288  
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Author (down) Rothbaum, B.O.; Price, M.; Jovanovic, T.; Norrholm, S.D.; Gerardi, M.; Dunlop, B.; Davis, M.; Bradley, B.; Duncan, E.J.; Rizzo, A.; Ressler, K.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The American Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Psychiatry  
  Volume 171 Issue 6 Pages 640-648  
  Keywords Adult; Afghan Campaign 2001-; Alprazolam/*therapeutic use; Anti-Anxiety Agents/*therapeutic use; Combined Modality Therapy; Cycloserine/*therapeutic use; Double-Blind Method; Extinction, Psychological/drug effects; Female; Humans; Iraq War, 2003-2011; Male; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/drug therapy/*therapy; Treatment Outcome; Veterans/*psychology; Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/*methods  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure augmented with D-cycloserine or alprazolam, compared with placebo, in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to military trauma. METHOD: After an introductory session, five sessions of virtual reality exposure were augmented with D-cycloserine (50 mg) or alprazolam (0.25 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial for 156 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD. RESULTS: PTSD symptoms significantly improved from pre- to posttreatment across all conditions and were maintained at 3, 6, and 12 months. There were no overall differences in symptoms between D-cycloserine and placebo at any time. Alprazolam and placebo differed significantly on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score at posttreatment and PTSD diagnosis at 3 months posttreatment; the alprazolam group showed a higher rate of PTSD (82.8%) than the placebo group (47.8%). Between-session extinction learning was a treatment-specific enhancer of outcome for the D-cycloserine group only. At posttreatment, the D-cycloserine group had the lowest cortisol reactivity and smallest startle response during virtual reality scenes. CONCLUSIONS: A six-session virtual reality treatment was associated with reduction in PTSD diagnoses and symptoms in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, although there was no control condition for the virtual reality exposure. There was no advantage of D-cycloserine for PTSD symptoms in primary analyses. In secondary analyses, alprazolam impaired recovery and D-cycloserine enhanced virtual reality outcome in patients who demonstrated within-session learning. D-cycloserine augmentation reduced cortisol and startle reactivity more than did alprazolam or placebo, findings that are consistent with those in the animal literature.  
  Call Number Serial 1309  
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Author (down) Rothbaum, B.O.; Kearns, M.C.; Price, M.; Malcoun, E.; Davis, M.; Ressler, K.J.; Lang, D.; Houry, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Early intervention may prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot civilian study with modified prolonged exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 72 Issue 11 Pages 957-963  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Female; Humans; Implosive Therapy/*methods; Life Change Events; Male; Middle Aged; Pilot Projects; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*prevention & control/psychology; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major public health concern with long-term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD before memory consolidation. METHODS: Patients (n = 137) were randomly assigned to receive three sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department compared with an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks postinjury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. RESULTS: Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours posttrauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks postinjury, p < .01, and at 12 weeks postinjury, p < .05, and significantly lower depressive symptoms at week 4 than the assessment group, p < .05. In a subgroup analysis, the intervention was the most effective at reducing PTSD in rape victims at week 4 (p = .004) and week 12 (p = .05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the emergency department is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms 1 and 3 months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately posttrauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR.  
  Call Number Serial 1305  
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Author (down) Ross, R.S.; Sherrill, K.R.; Stern, C.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The hippocampus is functionally connected to the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex during context dependent decision making Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 1423 Issue Pages 53-66  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Brain Mapping; Corpus Striatum/blood supply/*physiology; Decision Making/*physiology; Face; Female; Functional Laterality; Hippocampus/blood supply/*physiology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Neural Pathways/blood supply/*physiology; Oxygen/blood; Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology; Photic Stimulation/methods; Prefrontal Cortex/blood supply/*physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Statistics as Topic; Young Adult  
  Abstract Many of our everyday actions are only appropriate in certain situations and selecting the appropriate behavior requires that we use current context and previous experience to guide our decisions. The current study examined hippocampal functional connectivity with prefrontal and striatal regions during a task that required participants to make decisions based on the contextual retrieval of overlapping sequential representations. Participants learned four sequences comprised of six faces each. An overlapping condition was created by having two sequences with two identical faces as the middle images. A non-overlapping condition contained two sequences that did not share any faces between them. Hippocampal functional connectivity was assessed during the presentation period and at the critical choice, where participants had to make a contextually dependent decision. The left hippocampus showed significantly increased functional connectivity with dorsal and ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex during the presentation period of the overlapping compared to the non-overlapping condition after participants knew the sequences. At the critical choice point of the overlapping condition, the left hippocampus showed stronger functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex. These functional connectivity results suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in decision making by predicting the possibilities of what might come next, allowing orbitofrontal and striatal regions to evaluate the expected choice options in order to make the correct action at the choice point.  
  Call Number Serial 152  
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Author (down) Rosenberg, D.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Web of deceit: a literature review of Munchausen syndrome by proxy Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Child Abuse & Neglect Abbreviated Journal Child Abuse Negl  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 547-563  
  Keywords Adult; *Child Abuse; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers/psychology; *Munchausen Syndrome/diagnosis  
  Abstract Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a form of child abuse wherein the mother falsifies illness in her child through simulation and/or production of illness, and presents the child for medical care, disclaiming knowledge as to etiology of the problem. From the literature, 117 cases of MSBP were reviewed. The most common presentations of MSBP were bleeding, seizures, central nervous system depression, apnea, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and rash. Short-term morbidity rate was 100%; long-term morbidity rate was 8%. Mortality rate was 9%. Failure to thrive was associated with MSBP in 14% of cases. All perpetrators of MSBP were the mothers. The origins of this type of aberrant maternal behavior remain abstruse, as do the long-term psychological effects on the child victims. Guidelines for medical, social service, and legal management are provided.  
  Call Number Serial 155  
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Author (down) Romero, C.D.; Chopin, S.F.; Buck, G.; Martinez, E.; Garcia, M.; Bixby, L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Antibacterial properties of common herbal remedies of the southwest Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J Ethnopharmacol  
  Volume 99 Issue 2 Pages 253-257  
  Keywords Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Gram-Negative Bacteria/*drug effects; Gram-Positive Bacteria/*drug effects; Humans; Medicine, Traditional; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; *Phytotherapy; Plant Components, Aerial; Plant Extracts/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Plant Roots; *Plants, Medicinal; Texas  
  Abstract Curanderismo, widely practiced in the southwest, is an alternative medical system that has been neglected by scientific research. This project analyzed the antibiotic properties of 23 common herbal remedies used in South Texas to treat wounds and infections. Ethanolic tinctures and aqueous extracts of each plant were prepared and applied to blank diffusion disks. These disks were desiccated and used in Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility tests on three bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Control disks contained solvent only. The efficacy of the tinctures and aqueous extracts was compared to that of commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion disks. No inhibition was observed with the aqueous extracts. The various tincture-saturated disks produced zones of clearance ranging from 1 to 5 mm. Ten plants consistently inhibited bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus. None of the plants tested produced consistent inhibition of the two Gram-negative species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. No zones of clearance were produced by the solvent-only control disks. The zones of clearance produced by commercial antibiotics were, on average, larger and more uniform than those produced by the tincture disks. Thus, it appears that some of the herbal remedies used in folk medicine are potentially effective antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus.  
  Call Number Serial 1529  
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