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Author (down) Romano-Keeler, J.; Weitkamp, J.-H. file  url
  Title Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pediatric Research Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Res  
  Volume 77 Issue 1-2 Pages 189-195  
  Keywords Female; Fetus/*immunology/*microbiology; Humans; Immune System/*embryology/growth & development; Maternal-Fetal Exchange/*immunology; Microbiota/*immunology; *Models, Immunological; Placenta/*microbiology; Pregnancy; Microbiome  
  Abstract While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization.  
  Call Number Serial 2078  
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Author (down) Rollins, B.Y.; Loken, E.; Savage, J.S.; Birch, L.L. file  url
  Title Effects of restriction on children's intake differ by child temperament, food reinforcement, and parent's chronic use of restriction Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 73 Issue Pages 31-39  
  Keywords Appetite; Child, Preschool; *Diet; Eating; *Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Inhibition (Psychology); Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting; Parents; Pediatric Obesity/*etiology; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Risk Factors; Social Control, Informal; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Temperament  
  Abstract Parents' use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children's intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch's (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children's (3-5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child's inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children's regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that the use of restriction does not reduce children's consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.  
  Call Number Serial 1940  
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Author (down) Rogers, P.J.; Hill, A.J. file  url
  Title Breakdown of dietary restraint following mere exposure to food stimuli: interrelationships between restraint, hunger, salivation, and food intake Type
  Year 1989 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 387-397  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Diet, Reducing/*psychology; Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Humans; *Hunger; *Salivation; *Taste; Weight Loss  
  Abstract It was hypothesised that the hunger-enhancing effects of exposure to the sight and smell of palatable food would disinhibit eating in restrained eaters (self-reported dieters). In two experiments exposure to palatable food stimuli led to increases in motivational (hunger) ratings and salivation, and was followed by overeating in restrained subjects compared with the control condition (no food during exposure) and a condition in which nonpreferred food was presented during the exposure phase. The food intake of unrestrained subjects, on the other hand, was reduced following exposure to palatable food in the first experiment. This shows that breakdown of dietary restraint can be induced by food stimuli even when the food does not constitute a preload. Mere exposure to the sight and smell of palatable food is sufficient to precipitate loss of dieting motivation. The effects of exposure on hunger and salivation were, in general, unrelated to food intake or degree of dietary restraint. Therefore, changes in hunger do not appear to directly mediate increased food intake in dieters. Instead, it is tentatively suggested that anxiety resulting from exposure to liked food may play a role both in disinhibiting eating and suppressing salivation in restrained subjects.  
  Call Number Serial 1063  
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Author (down) Robine, J.-M.; Herrmann, F.R.; Arai, Y.; Willcox, D.C.; Gondo, Y.; Hirose, N.; Suzuki, M.; Saito, Y. file  url
  Title Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Experimental Gerontology Abbreviated Journal Exp Gerontol  
  Volume 47 Issue 9 Pages 660-671  
  Keywords Aged, 80 and over; Agriculture; Climate; Environment; Female; Geography; Humans; Japan; Longevity--physiology; Male; Mortality; Residence Characteristics; Seasons; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of physical geographic factors and climate conditions on human longevity. The centenarian rate (CR) in 2005 was computed for Japan's 47 prefectures, whose geography and climate vary greatly. Several pathways, such as excess winter mortality, land use and agricultural production, possibly linking physical and climate factors with extreme longevity, were explored. The probability of becoming a centenarian varies significantly among the Japanese prefectures. In particular, the computation of CR(70) demonstrated that the actual probability for individuals 70 years old in 1975 of becoming centenarians in 2005 was 3 times higher, on average, in Okinawa, both for males and females, than in Japan as a whole. About three quarters of the variance in CR(70) for females and half for males is explained by the physical environment and land use, even when variations in the level of socio-economic status between prefectures are controlled. Our analysis highlighted two features which might have played an important role in the longevity observed in Okinawa. First, there is virtually no winter in Okinawa. For instance, the mean winter temperature observed in 2005 was 17.2 degrees C. Second, today, there is almost no rice production in Okinawa compared to other parts of Japan. In the past, however, production was higher in Okinawa. If we consider that long term effects of harsh winters can contribute to the mortality differential in old age and if we consider that food availability in the first part of the 20th century was mainly dependent on local production, early 20th century birth cohorts in Okinawa clearly had different experiences in terms of winter conditions and in terms of food availability compared to their counterparts in other parts of Japan. This work confirms the impact of climate conditions on human longevity, but it fails to demonstrate a strong association between longevity and mountainous regions and/or air quality.  
  Call Number Serial 482  
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Author (down) Roberts, A.L.; McLaughlin, K.A.; Conron, K.J.; Koenen, K.C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Adulthood stressors, history of childhood adversity, and risk of perpetration of intimate partner violence Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication American Journal of Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Prev Med  
  Volume 40 Issue 2 Pages 128-138  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Adult Survivors of Child Abuse/*psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Domestic Violence/*trends; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; Risk Assessment/methods; Sexual Partners/*psychology; *Stress, Psychological; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: More than half a million U.S. women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course. PURPOSE: This paper examines the role of “stress sensitization,” whereby adult stressors increase risk for IPV perpetration most strongly in people with a history of childhood adversity. METHODS: The study investigated a possible interaction effect between adulthood stressors and childhood adversities in risk of IPV perpetration, specifically, whether the difference in risk of IPV perpetration associated with past-year stressors varied by history of exposure to childhood adversity. Analyses were conducted in 2010 using de-identified data from 34,653 U.S. adults from the 2004-2005 follow-up wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. RESULTS: There was a significant stress sensitization effect. For men with high-level childhood adversity, past-year stressors were associated with an 8.8 percentage point (pp) increased risk of perpetrating compared to a 2.3 pp increased risk among men with low-level adversity. Women with high-level childhood adversity had a 14.3 pp increased risk compared with a 2.5 pp increased risk in the low-level adversity group. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with recent stressors and histories of childhood adversity are at particularly elevated risk of IPV perpetration; therefore, prevention efforts should target this population. Treatment programs for IPV perpetrators, which have not been effective in reducing risk of perpetrating, may benefit from further investigating the role of stress and stress reactivity in perpetration.  
  Call Number Serial 225  
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Author (down) Rizzolatti, G.; Fabbri-Destro, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The mirror system and its role in social cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Current Opinion in Neurobiology Abbreviated Journal Curr Opin Neurobiol  
  Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 179-184  
  Keywords Animals; Cognition/*physiology; Goals; Humans; Motor Cortex/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Neurons/cytology/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Social Perception  
  Abstract Experiments in monkeys have shown that coding the goal of the motor acts is a fundamental property of the cortical motor system. In area F5, goal-coding motor neurons are also activated by observing motor acts done by others (the 'classical' mirror mechanism); in area F2 and area F1, some motor neurons are activated by the mere observation of goal-directed movements of a cursor displayed on a computer screen (a 'mirror-like' mechanism). Experiments in humans and monkeys have shown that the mirror mechanism enables the observer to understand the intention behind an observed motor act, in addition to the goal of it. Growing evidence shows that a deficit in the mirror mechanism underlies some aspects of autism.  
  Call Number Serial 492  
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Author (down) Richmond, B.G.; Aiello, L.C.; Wood, B.A. file  url
  Title Early hominin limb proportions Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Journal of Human Evolution Abbreviated Journal J Hum Evol  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 529-548  
  Keywords Animals; Anthropology, Physical; Anthropometry; Biological Evolution; Femur--anatomy & histology; Hominidae--anatomy & histology; Humans; Humerus--anatomy & histology; Locomotion; Primates--anatomy & histology  
  Abstract Recent analyses and new fossil discoveries suggest that the evolution of hominin limb length proportions is complex, with evolutionary reversals and a decoupling of proportions within and between limbs. This study takes into account intraspecific variation to test whether or not the limb proportions of four early hominin associated skeletons (AL 288-1, OH 62, BOU-VP-12/1, and KNM-WT 15000) can be considered to be significantly different from one another. Exact randomization methods were used to compare the differences between pairs of fossil skeletons to the differences observed between all possible pairs of individuals within large samples of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Although the difference in humerofemoral proportions between OH 62 and AL 288-1 does not exceed variation in the extant samples, it is rare. When humerofemoral midshaft circumferences are compared, the difference between OH 62 and AL 288-1 is fairly common in extant species. This, in combination with error associated with the limb lengths estimates, suggests that it may be premature to consider H. (or Australopithecus) habilis as having more apelike limb proportions than those in A. afarensis. The humerofemoral index of BOU-VP-12/1 differs significantly from both OH 62 and AL 288-1, but not from KNM-WT 15000. Published length estimates, if correct, suggest that the relative forearm length of BOU-VP-12/1 is unique among hominins, exceeding those of the African apes and resembling the proportions in Pongo. Evidence that A. afarensis exhibited a less apelike upper:lower limb design than A. africanus (and possibly H. habilis) suggests that, if A. afarensis is broadly ancestral to A. africanus, the latter did not simply inherit primitive morphology associated with arboreality, but is derived in this regard. The fact that the limb proportions of OH 62 (and possibly KNM-ER 3735) are no more human like than those of AL 288-1 underscores the primitive body design of H. habilis.  
  Call Number Serial 50  
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Author (down) Ribeiro, G.; Swindell, R. file  url
  Title The Christie Hospital tamoxifen (Nolvadex) adjuvant trial for operable breast carcinoma--7-yr results Type
  Year 1985 Publication European Journal of Cancer & Clinical Oncology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol  
  Volume 21 Issue 8 Pages 897-900  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Breast Neoplasms/mortality/surgery/*therapy; Clinical Trials as Topic; Combined Modality Therapy; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Lymphatic Metastasis; Menopause; Middle Aged; Ovary/radiation effects; Tamoxifen/*therapeutic use  
  Abstract The Christie Hospital Tamoxifen Trial was a randomised trial to assess the efficacy of tamoxifen (Nolvadex) as an adjunct to surgical treatment for operable breast carcinoma. From 1 November 1976 to 1 June 1982 1005 patients were registered, of whom 961 are evaluable. Following surgery, premenopausal women were randomly allocated to either tamoxifen (TAM) 20 mg/day for 1 yr or to have an irradiation menopause. Postmenopausal women had TAM 20 mg/day for 1 yr or no further treatment (controls). The analysis at 7 yr shows that there is no statistically significant difference in the overall survival for premenopausal women between those given TAM and those given ovarian irradiation. Similarly for the postmenopausal women there was no significant difference in overall survival between the TAM and control groups. However, if the series of 961 patients is analysed as a whole and allowance is made for node status then the TAM-treated patients show a significant survival benefit (P = 0.05). There was also a statistically significant delay in first relapse for the TAM-treated patients (P = 0.04); with a particularly marked reduction in distant metastases in postmenopausal patients (P = 0.06). TAM was extremely well tolerated, with very few side-effects.  
  Call Number Serial 466  
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Author (down) Reynolds, P.P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Title VII innovations in American medical and dental education: responding to 21st century priorities for the health of the American public Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Abbreviated Journal Acad Med  
  Volume 83 Issue 11 Pages 1015-1020  
  Keywords Academic Medical Centers/economics; Education, Medical, Graduate/economics; Education, Medical, Undergraduate/economics/methods; Family Practice/economics/*education; Financing, Government/legislation & jurisprudence; General Practice, Dental/economics/*education; Humans; *Medically Underserved Area; *Patient Care Team; Patient-Centered Care; *Professional Competence; Training Support/*legislation & jurisprudence; United States  
  Abstract The Title VII Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry grant program has been an engine for innovation by providing funds to develop and implement new curricula, new models of care delivery, and new methods of fellowship and faculty development. During period one, 1963-1975, the disciplines of family medicine and physicians assistants (PAs) first received funding to establish residency programs in family medicine and student training for PAs. Other innovations included interdisciplinary training and curricula in substance abuse and nutrition. During period two, 1976-1991, Title VII funds supported implementation of general dental residency programs. In family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics, ambulatory care training was expanded with a focus on community-oriented primary care and preventive medicine, as well as curricula in ethics, distance learning, behavioral health, and what is now called evidence-based medicine. During period two, Title VII also helped build the infrastructure of primary care through funding to recruit faculty, to expand training sites into community settings, and to incorporate topics relevant to primary care. During period three, 1992-present, innovations shifted to areas of clinical relevance or national priority, training in the care of vulnerable populations, and design of educational strategies to eliminate health disparities, often through collaborative partnerships between medicine, dentistry, and public health. This article focuses on three areas that reflect much of the current work of Title VII grantees: clinical skills and practice improvement, interdisciplinary models of training and patient care, and care of vulnerable and underserved populations.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.  
  Call Number Serial 499  
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Author (down) Rescigno, M. file  url
  Title Dendritic cell functions: Learning from microbial evasion strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Seminars in Immunology Abbreviated Journal Semin Immunol  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 119-124  
  Keywords Animals; Bacteria/immunology; Dendritic Cells/cytology/*immunology; Humans; Immune Evasion; Immune Tolerance; Macrophages/immunology; Phagocytosis; T-Lymphocytes/immunology; Dendritic cells; Immune evasion; Pathogens; Tolerance  
  Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) that are fundamental to initiate both immunity and tolerance. DCs play a 'sentinel' role to protect our body from potential pathogens and induce tolerogenic responses toward harmless antigens. The flexibility of DCs or macrophages to adapt to the environment and to respond accordingly can be hijacked by pathogens for their own interest to transform a potentially immunogenic APC into a tolerogenic cell with clear consequences in pathogen clearance. While these immune evasion mechanisms can be detrimental for the host, they can highlight important molecular pathways in DCs necessary for their function. In this review we will mention several mechanisms employed by pathogens to evade DC patrolling function.  
  Call Number Serial 1703  
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