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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
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  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Akhurst, R.J.; Hata, A. file  url
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  Title Targeting the TGFbeta signalling pathway in disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Drug Discov  
  Volume 11 Issue 10 Pages 790-811  
  Keywords Animals; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods; Humans; Protein Binding/physiology; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Signal Transduction/drug effects/*physiology; Transforming Growth Factor beta/*antagonists & inhibitors/*physiology  
  Abstract Many drugs that target transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signalling have been developed, some of which have reached Phase III clinical trials for a number of disease applications. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate the utility of these agents in fibrosis and oncology, particularly in augmentation of existing cancer therapies, such as radiation and chemotherapy, as well as in tumour vaccines. There are also reports of specialized applications, such as the reduction of vascular symptoms of Marfan syndrome. Here, we consider why the TGFbeta signalling pathway is a drug target, the potential clinical applications of TGFbeta inhibition, the issues arising with anti-TGFbeta therapy and how these might be tackled using personalized approaches to dosing, monitoring of biomarkers as well as brief and/or localized drug-dosing regimens.  
  Call Number Serial 1548  
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Author (up) Akiskal, H.S. file  url
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  Title The prevalent clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders: beyond DSM-IV Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychopharmacol  
  Volume 16 Issue 2 Suppl 1 Pages 4s-14s  
  Keywords Bipolar Disorder/classification/*diagnosis/psychology; Cyclothymic Disorder/classification/diagnosis/psychology; Depressive Disorder/classification/diagnosis/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Humans; *Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychotic Disorders/classification/diagnosis/psychology  
  Abstract Based on the author's work and that of collaborators, as well as other contemporaneous research, this article reaffirms the existence of a broad bipolar spectrum between the extremes of psychotic manic-depressive illness and strictly defined unipolar depression. The alternation of mania and melancholia beginning in the juvenile years is one of the most classic descriptions in clinical medicine that has come to us from Greco-Roman times. French alienists in the middle of the nineteenth century and Kraepelin at the turn of that century formalized it into manic-depressive psychosis. In the pre-DSM-III era during the 1960s and 1970s, North American psychiatrists rarely diagnosed the psychotic forms of the disease; now, there is greater recognition that most excited psychoses with a biphasic course, including many with schizo-affective features, belong to the bipolar spectrum. Current data also support Kraepelin's delineation of mixed states, which frequently take on psychotic proportions. However, full syndromal intertwining of depressive and manic states into dysphoric or mixed mania--as emphasized in DSM-IV--is relatively uncommon; depressive symptoms in the midst of mania are more representative of mixed states. DSM-IV also does not formally recognize hypomanic symptomatology that intrudes into major depressive episodes and gives rise to agitated depressive and/or anxious, dysphoric, restless depressions with flight of ideas. Many of these mixed depressive states arise within the setting of an attenuated bipolar spectrum characterized by major depressive episodes and soft signs of bipolarity. DSM-IV conventions are most explicit for the bipolar II subtype with major depressive and clear-cut spontaneous hypomanic episodes; temperamental cyclothymia and hyperthymia receive insufficient recognition as potential factors that could lead to switching from depression to bipolar I disorder and, in vulnerable subjects, to predominantly depressive cycling. In the main, rapid-cycling and mixed states are distinct. Nonetheless, there exist ultrarapid-cycling forms where morose, labile moods with irritable, mixed features constitute patients' habitual self and, for that reason, are often mistaken for “borderline” personality disorder. Clearly, more formal research needs to be conducted in this temperamental interface between more classic bipolar and unipolar disorders. The clinical stakes, however, are such that a narrow concept of bipolar disorder would deprive many patients with lifelong temperamental dysregulation and depressive episodes of the benefits of mood-regulating agents.  
  Call Number Serial 1728  
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Author (up) Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate? Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Attention; Circadian Rhythm--physiology; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis, etiology; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence--diagnosis, etiology; Fatigue--diagnosis, etiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep--physiology; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders--complications, diagnosis; Students; Universities; Wakefulness--physiology  
  Abstract We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more closely related to psychological adjustment and to psychologically laden sleep variables than to quantitative sleep parameters, and (4) daytime symptoms are more closely related to longer nocturnal wake times than to shorter sleep times. Results in both samples indicated that poor sleepers reported more daytime difficulties than good sleepers. While low- and high-distress poor sleepers did not differ on sleep parameters, highly distressed poor sleepers reported consistently more difficulty in functioning during the day and experienced greater tension and depression than minimally distressed poor sleepers. Severity of all three daytime problems was generally significantly and positively related to poor psychological adjustment, psychologically laden sleep variables, and, with the exception of sleepiness, to quantitative sleep parameters. Results are used to discuss discrepancies between experiential and quantitative measures of daytime functioning.  
  Call Number Serial 216  
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Author (up) Albuquerque, E.X.; Pereira, E.F.R.; Alkondon, M.; Rogers, S.W. file  url
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  Title Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Physiological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Physiol Rev  
  Volume 89 Issue 1 Pages 73-120  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology; Animals; Brain/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Gene Expression Regulation/physiology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/physiopathology; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*physiology  
  Abstract The classical studies of nicotine by Langley at the turn of the 20th century introduced the concept of a “receptive substance,” from which the idea of a “receptor” came to light. Subsequent studies aided by the Torpedo electric organ, a rich source of muscle-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and the discovery of alpha-bungarotoxin, a snake toxin that binds pseudo-irreversibly to the muscle nAChR, resulted in the muscle nAChR being the best characterized ligand-gated ion channel hitherto. With the advancement of functional and genetic studies in the late 1980s, the existence of nAChRs in the mammalian brain was confirmed and the realization that the numerous nAChR subtypes contribute to the psychoactive properties of nicotine and other drugs of abuse and to the neuropathology of various diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and schizophrenia, has since emerged. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these findings and the more recent revelations of the impact that the rich diversity in function and expression of this receptor family has on neuronal and nonneuronal cells throughout the body. Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy.  
  Call Number Serial 1876  
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