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Author (up) Amato, P.R.; Keith, B. file  url
  Title Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 26-46  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development  
  Abstract This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 277  
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Author (up) Amici, M.; Eusebi, F.; Miledi, R. file  url
  Title Effects of the antibiotic gentamicin on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuropharmacology Abbreviated Journal Neuropharmacology  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 627-637  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents--pharmacology; Cochlea--drug effects; DNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Electrophysiology; Gentamicins--pharmacology; Humans; Membrane Potentials--drug effects, physiology; Mice; Nicotinic Antagonists; Oocytes--metabolism; Patch-Clamp Techniques; RNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Receptors, Nicotinic--biosynthesis, drug effects, genetics; Torpedo; Vestibule, Labyrinth--drug effects; Xenopus; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract Medical treatment with the aminoglycosidic antibiotic gentamicin may produce side effects that include neuromuscular blockage and ototoxicity; which are believed to result from a dysfunction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Gentamicin is known to reversibly block ACh-currents generated by the activation of muscle-type alphabetagammadelta-AChR and neuronal alpha9-AChR. We studied the effects of gentamicin on heteromeric alphabetagammadelta-AChR and homomeric alpha7-AChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Prolonged treatment with gentamicin, and other antibiotics, differentially altered alphabetagammadelta- and alpha7-AChR responses. Specifically, gentamicin accelerated desensitization and did not reduce ACh-currents in oocytes expressing alphabetagammadelta-AChRs, whereas ACh-currents were reduced and desensitization was unaltered in oocytes expressing alpha7-AChRs. Moreover, acutely applied gentamicin acted as a competitive antagonist on both types of receptors and increased the rate of desensitization in alphabetagammadelta-AChR while reducing the rate of desensitization in alpha7-AChR. This data helps to better understand the action of gentamicin on muscle and nervous tissues, providing mechanistic insights that could eventually lead to improving the medical use of aminoglycosides.  
  Call Number Serial 445  
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Author (up) Amorim, K.N.S.; Chagas, D.C.G.; Sulczewski, F.B.; Boscardin, S.B. file  url
  Title Dendritic Cells and Their Multiple Roles during Malaria Infection Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Immunology Research Abbreviated Journal J Immunol Res  
  Volume 2016 Issue Pages 2926436  
  Keywords Antigen Presentation; Dendritic Cells/*immunology; Humans; Immunologic Tests; Life Cycle Stages; Malaria/*immunology/parasitology; Plasmodium/growth & development/immunology; T-Lymphocytes/immunology  
  Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses, efficiently presenting antigens to T cells. This ability relies on the presence of numerous surface and intracellular receptors capable of sensing microbial components as well as inflammation and on a very efficient machinery for antigen presentation. In this way, DCs sense the presence of a myriad of pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria. Despite many efforts to control this infection, malaria is still responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Different groups have shown that DCs act during Plasmodium infection, and data suggest that the phenotypically distinct DCs subsets are key factors in the regulation of immunity during infection. In this review, we will discuss the importance of DCs for the induction of immunity against the different stages of Plasmodium, the outcomes of DCs activation, and also what is currently known about Plasmodium components that trigger such activation.  
  Call Number Serial 1687  
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Author (up) Andersen, S.B.; Karstoft, K.-I.; Bertelsen, M.; Madsen, T. file  url
  Title Latent trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience: the 3-year longitudinal prospective USPER study of Danish veterans deployed in Afghanistan Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychiatry  
  Volume 75 Issue 9 Pages 1001-1008  
  Keywords Adult; Afghan Campaign 2001-; Denmark/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Military Personnel/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Prospective Studies; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; *Resilience, Psychological; Risk Factors; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology/*etiology/psychology; Time Factors; Veterans/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from before to 2.5 years after deployment and to assess risk factors for symptom fluctuations and late-onset PTSD. METHOD: 743 soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 were assessed for PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) at 6 occasions from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment (study sample = 561). Predeployment vulnerabilities and deployment and postdeployment stressors were also assessed. RESULTS: Six trajectories were identified: a resilient trajectory with low symptom levels across all assessments (78.1%) and 5 trajectories showing symptom fluctuations. These included a trajectory of late onset (5.7%), independently predicted by earlier emotional problems (OR = 5.59; 95% CI, 1.57-19.89) and predeployment and postdeployment traumas (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17 and OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26). Two trajectories of symptom fluctuations in the low-to-moderate range (7.5% and 4.1%); a trajectory of symptom relief during deployment, but with a drastic increase at the final assessments (2.0%); and a trajectory with mild symptom increase during deployment followed by relief at return (2.7%) were also found. Symptom fluctuation was predicted independently by predeployment risk factors (depression [OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.39], neuroticism [OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21], and earlier traumas [OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16]) and deployment-related stressors (danger/injury exposure [OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40]), but not by postdeployment stressors. DISCUSSION: The results confirm earlier findings of stress response heterogeneity following military deployment and highlight the impact of predeployment, perideployment, and postdeployment risk factors in predicting PTSD symptomatology and late-onset PTSD symptoms.  
  Call Number Serial 1304  
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Author (up) Anderson, J.W.; Nicolosi, R.J.; Borzelleca, J.F. file  url
  Title Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Abbreviated Journal Food Chem Toxicol  
  Volume 43 Issue 2 Pages 187-201  
  Keywords Administration, Oral; Animals; Blood Glucose/*drug effects/metabolism; Clinical Trials as Topic; Glucosamine/*adverse effects/pharmacokinetics/therapeutic use; Humans; Infusions, Parenteral; Lethal Dose 50; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Osteoarthritis/*drug therapy; Safety; Toxicity Tests; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract Glucosamine is widely used to relieve symptoms from osteoarthritis. Its safety and effects on glucose metabolism are critically evaluated in this review. The LD50 of oral glucosamine in animals is approximately 8000 mg/kg with no adverse effects at 2700 mg/kg for 12 months. Because altered glucose metabolism can be associated with parenteral administration of large doses of glucosamine in animals and with high concentrations in in vitro studies, we critically evaluated the clinical importance of these effects. Oral administration of large doses of glucosamine in animals has no documented effects on glucose metabolism. In vitro studies demonstrating effects of glucosamine on glucose metabolism have used concentrations that are 100-200 times higher than tissue levels expected with oral glucosamine administration in humans. We reviewed clinical trial data for 3063 human subjects. Fasting plasma glucose values decreased slightly for subjects after oral glucosamine for approximately 66 weeks. There were no adverse effects of oral glucosamine administration on blood, urine or fecal parameters. Side effects were significantly less common with glucosamine than placebo or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). In contrast to NSAID, no serious or fatal side effects have been reported for glucosamine. Our critical evaluation indicates that glucosamine is safe under current conditions of use and does not affect glucose metabolism.  
  Call Number Serial 1749  
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Author (up) Anderson, L.M.; Scrimshaw, S.C.; Fullilove, M.T.; Fielding, J.E.; Normand, J. file  url
  Title Culturally competent healthcare systems. A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication American Journal of Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Prev Med  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Suppl Pages 68-79  
  Keywords Communication Barriers; Cultural Diversity; *Culture; *Delivery of Health Care; Health Personnel; Humans; Language; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care); Quality of Health Care; United States  
  Abstract Culturally competent healthcare systems-those that provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services-have the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. When clients do not understand what their healthcare providers are telling them, and providers either do not speak the client's language or are insensitive to cultural differences, the quality of health care can be compromised. We reviewed five interventions to improve cultural competence in healthcare systems-programs to recruit and retain staff members who reflect the cultural diversity of the community served, use of interpreter services or bilingual providers for clients with limited English proficiency, cultural competency training for healthcare providers, use of linguistically and culturally appropriate health education materials, and culturally specific healthcare settings. We could not determine the effectiveness of any of these interventions, because there were either too few comparative studies, or studies did not examine the outcome measures evaluated in this review: client satisfaction with care, improvements in health status, and inappropriate racial or ethnic differences in use of health services or in received and recommended treatment.  
  Call Number Serial 1759  
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Author (up) Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author (up) Arai, L. file  url
  Title Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: qualitative findings from research in English communities Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Health & Place Abbreviated Journal Health Place  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 87-98  
  Keywords Abortion, Induced/utilization; Adolescent; Adult; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Birth Rate; England; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Mothers/education/psychology; *Peer Group; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*ethnology/psychology; Qualitative Research; Residence Characteristics/*classification; *Social Class; *Social Conformity; Social Values/ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy to fertility among 15 young mothers in three English locations. Data were also collected from nine local health workers. The findings show that, from the mothers' perspective, there was no evidence that peers influenced behaviour. However, the data did suggest that early childbearing might be normative in some communities.  
  Call Number Serial 1343  
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Author (up) Arias, H.R. file  url
  Title Positive and negative modulation of nicotinic receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol  
  Volume 80 Issue Pages 153-203  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/chemistry/physiology; Allosteric Regulation; Allosteric Site/genetics; Animals; Cholinergic Antagonists/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Crystallography, X-Ray; Humans; Ion Channel Gating/drug effects; Mice; Nicotinic Agonists/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*physiology; Structure-Activity Relationship  
  Abstract Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are one of the best characterized ion channels from the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. The study of acetylcholine binding proteins and prokaryotic ion channels from different species has been paramount for the understanding of the structure-function relationship of the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. AChR function can be modulated by different ligand types. The neurotransmitter ACh and other agonists trigger conformational changes in the receptor, finally opening the intrinsic cation channel. The so-called gating process couples ligand binding, located at the extracellular portion, to the opening of the ion channel, located at the transmembrane region. After agonist activation, in the prolonged presence of agonists, the AChR becomes desensitized. Competitive antagonists overlap the agonist-binding sites inhibiting the pharmacological action of agonists. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) do not bind to the orthostetic binding sites but allosterically enhance the activity elicited by agonists by increasing the gating process (type I) and/or by decreasing desensitization (type II). Instead, negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) produce the opposite effects. Interestingly, this negative effect is similar to that found for another class of allosteric drugs, that is, noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs). However, the main difference between both categories of drugs is based on their distinct binding site locations. Although both NAMs and NCAs do not bind to the agonist sites, NACs bind to sites located in the ion channel, whereas NAMs bind to nonluminal sites. However, this classification is less clear for NAMs interacting at the extracellular-transmembrane interface where the ion channel mouth might be involved. Interestingly, PAMs and NAMs might be developed as potential medications for the treatment of several diseases involving AChRs, including dementia-, skin-, and immunological-related diseases, drug addiction, and cancer. More exciting is the potential combination of specific agonists with specific PAMs. However, we are still in the beginning of understanding how these compounds act and how these drugs can be used therapeutically.  
  Call Number Serial 1886  
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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M. file  url
  Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246  
  Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
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