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Author (up) Chan, K.H.; Tam, J.S.; Peiris, J.S.; Seto, W.H.; Ng, M.H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in infancy Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Virol  
  Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 57-62  
  Keywords Antibodies, Viral/blood; Capsid/immunology; Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/blood/*epidemiology; Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens/immunology; Female; Fetal Blood; Herpesvirus 4, Human/*immunology; Hong Kong/epidemiology; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Seroepidemiologic Studies  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to be the cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and has more complicated associations with several malignant diseases. These EBV associated diseases provide a strong incentive for the development of an EBV vaccine. Most primary EBV infection during infancy and early childhood is mild or subclinical. Little is known about its infection in infancy. The pattern of EBV serological response during infancy may be important for vaccine management. OBJECTIVES: this study has served to clarify the epidemiology and serology of primary EBV infection during early infancy. STUDY DESIGN: longitudinal serum samples from 66 Hong Kong infants were tested for EBV antibodies by immunofluorescence. Cord blood and sequential serum samples from these infants were taken at birth and then at 4-month intervals up to 2 years of age. RESULTS: maternal antibodies were present at different levels in all cord blood specimens and in serum samples of 8 infants at 4-month of age. Evidenced by VCA-IgG seroconversion, 60.6% (40/66) infants were infected during the first 2 years of life. One episode occurred before 8 months of age but, thereafter and for the remaining 16 months of follow-up until the infants were 2 years of age, the infection occurred at essentially a constant rate affecting about 20% of the remaining seronegative infants every 4 months. CONCLUSIONS: the abrupt onset of the infection after a delay of 8 months is a remarkable feature of primary EBV infection during infancy, which implicates a protective role for maternal antibodies. Persisting maternal antibodies may additionally serve to contain the infection once it occurred. This may partly explain why, unlike during adolescence, primary EBV infection early in life is usually asymptomatic.  
  Call Number Serial 110  
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Author (up) Changeux, J.-P. file  url
openurl 
  Title The concept of allosteric interaction and its consequences for the chemistry of the brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Biological Chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 288 Issue 38 Pages 26969-26986  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation/physiology; Brain Chemistry/*physiology; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; *Models, Biological; *Molecular Dynamics Simulation; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*metabolism; Portraits as Topic; Prokaryotic Cells/physiology; Allosteric Regulation; Membrane Proteins; Neurons; Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors; Synaptic Plasticity  
  Abstract Throughout this Reflections article, I have tried to follow up on the genesis in the 1960s and subsequent evolution of the concept of allosteric interaction and to examine its consequences within the past decades, essentially in the field of the neuroscience. The main conclusion is that allosteric mechanisms built on similar structural principles operate in bacterial regulatory enzymes, gene repressors (and the related nuclear receptors), rhodopsin, G-protein-coupled receptors, neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and so on from prokaryotes up to the human brain yet with important features of their own. Thus, future research on these basic cybernetic sensors is expected to develop in two major directions: at the elementary level, toward the atomic structure and molecular dynamics of the conformational changes involved in signal recognition and transduction, but also at a higher level of organization, the contribution of allosteric mechanisms to the modulation of brain functions.  
  Call Number Serial 1878  
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Author (up) Changeux, J.-P. file  url
openurl 
  Title The concept of allosteric interaction and its consequences for the chemistry of the brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Biological Chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 288 Issue 38 Pages 26969-26986  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation/physiology; Brain Chemistry/*physiology; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; *Models, Biological; *Molecular Dynamics Simulation; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*metabolism; Portraits as Topic; Prokaryotic Cells/physiology; Allosteric Regulation; Membrane Proteins; Neurons; Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors; Synaptic Plasticity  
  Abstract Throughout this Reflections article, I have tried to follow up on the genesis in the 1960s and subsequent evolution of the concept of allosteric interaction and to examine its consequences within the past decades, essentially in the field of the neuroscience. The main conclusion is that allosteric mechanisms built on similar structural principles operate in bacterial regulatory enzymes, gene repressors (and the related nuclear receptors), rhodopsin, G-protein-coupled receptors, neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and so on from prokaryotes up to the human brain yet with important features of their own. Thus, future research on these basic cybernetic sensors is expected to develop in two major directions: at the elementary level, toward the atomic structure and molecular dynamics of the conformational changes involved in signal recognition and transduction, but also at a higher level of organization, the contribution of allosteric mechanisms to the modulation of brain functions.  
  Call Number Serial 1888  
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Author (up) Chapados, C.; Levitin, D.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Cross-modal interactions in the experience of musical performances: physiological correlates Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 108 Issue 3 Pages 639-651  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal/*physiology; Auditory Perception/*physiology; Emotions/*physiology; Female; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; Humans; Judgment; *Music; Psychophysiology; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate cross-modal interactions in the emotional experience of music listeners. Previous research showed that visual information present in a musical performance is rich in expressive content, and moderates the subjective emotional experience of a participant listening and/or observing musical stimuli [Vines, B. W., Krumhansl, C. L., Wanderley, M. M., & Levitin, D. J. (2006). Cross-modal interactions in the perception of musical performance. Cognition, 101, 80--113.]. The goal of this follow-up experiment was to replicate this cross-modal interaction by investigating the objective, physiological aspect of emotional response to music measuring electrodermal activity. The scaled average of electrodermal amplitude for visual-auditory presentation was found to be significantly higher than the sum of the reactions when the music was presented in visual only (VO) and auditory only (AO) conditions, suggesting the presence of an emergent property created by bimodal interaction. Functional data analysis revealed that electrodermal activity generally followed the same contour across modalities of presentation, except during rests (silent parts of the performance) when the visual information took on particular salience. Finally, electrodermal activity and subjective tension judgments were found to be most highly correlated in the audio-visual (AV) condition than in the unimodal conditions. The present study provides converging evidence for the importance of seeing musical performances, and preliminary evidence for the utility of electrodermal activity as an objective measure in studies of continuous music-elicited emotions.  
  Call Number Serial 381  
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Author (up) Chase-Lansdale, P.L.; Cherlin, A.J.; Kiernan, K.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: a developmental perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 66 Issue 6 Pages 1614-1634  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/psychology; Child; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Individuality; Learning Disorders/diagnosis/psychology; Male; *Personality Development; Personality Inventory; Risk Factors  
  Abstract The effects of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence on the mental health of young adults (age 23) were examined, using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a longitudinal, multimethod, nationally representative survey of all children born in Great Britain during 1 week in 1958 (N = 17,414). Children were assessed at birth and subsequently followed up at ages 7, 11, 16, and 23 by means of maternal and child interviews, and by psychological, school, and medical assessments. Parental divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on adult mental health, as measured by the Malaise Inventory total score, and controlling for economic status, children's emotional problems, and school performance preceding marital dissolution. The likelihood of scoring above the clinical cutoff of the Malaise Inventory rose from 8% to 11% due to parental divorce. This indicated that the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of divorce, but that the large majority of individuals did not exhibit such risks. Path analyses revealed that the negative effects of divorce on adult mental health operated indirectly through higher emotional problems and lower levels of school achievement and family economic status at age 16. Results related to timing of divorce, remarriage, and interactions between age 7 emotional problems and divorce, and between age 7 emotional problems and child gender, are also discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 282  
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Author (up) Chen, C.-H.; Tu, C.-C.; Kuo, H.-Y.; Zeng, R.-F.; Yu, C.-S.; Lu, H.H.-S.; Liou, M.-L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Appl Microbiol Biotechnol  
  Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 771-781  
  Keywords Bacteria/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Cluster Analysis; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry/genetics; Disinfection/*methods; *Environmental Microbiology; *Hospitals; Housekeeping, Hospital/*methods; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Metagenomics; Phylogeny; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Taiwan; 16S rRNA metagenomics; Acinetobacter; Environmental cleaning methods; Healthcare-associated infection; Medical intensive care unit; Respiratory care centre  
  Abstract Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics. A total of 36 samples, including 9 samples per sampling time, from each ward were analysed. The clinical isolates were recorded during the sampling time. A large amount of microbial diversity was detected, and human skin microbiota (HSM) was predominant in both wards. In addition, the colonization rate of the HSM in the MICU was higher than that in the RCC, especially for Moraxellaceae. A higher alpha-diversity (p = 0.005519) and a lower UniFrac distance was shown in the RCC due to the lack of daily cleaning. Moreover, a significantly higher abundance among Acinetobacter sp., Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was shown in the RCC compared to the MICU using the paired t test. We concluded that cleaning changes might contribute to the difference in diversity between two wards.  
  Call Number Serial 2098  
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Author (up) Chen, C.; Chan, H.M.; Kubow, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Kefir extracts suppress in vitro proliferation of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells but not normal mammary epithelial cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Medicinal Food Abbreviated Journal J Med Food  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 416-422  
  Keywords Animals; Breast/cytology; Breast Neoplasms/*pathology; Cell Division/*drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; Cultured Milk Products/*chemistry; Epithelial Cells/drug effects; Fermentation; Humans; Milk/chemistry; Milk Proteins/analysis; Peptides/analysis; Yogurt/analysis  
  Abstract Anti-tumorigenic effects have been demonstrated in animal studies from the intake of kefir, a traditional fermented milk product believed to originate from the Caucasian mountains of Russia. In the present study, the antiproliferative effects of extracts of kefir, yogurt, and pasteurized cow's milk on human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was investigated at doses of 0.31%, 0.63%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (vol/vol). After 6 days of culture, extracts of kefir-fermented milk depressed MCF-7 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, showing 29% inhibition of proliferation at a concentration as low as 0.63%, whereas yogurt extracts began to show dose-dependent antiproliferative effects only at the 2.5% dose. Moreover, at the 2.5% dose, kefir extracts decreased the MCF-7 cell numbers by 56%, while yogurt extracts decreased MCF-7 cell proliferation by only 14%. No antiproliferative effects of kefir extracts were observed in the HMECs, while the yogurt extracts exerted antiproliferative effects on HMECs at the 5% and 10% doses. Unfermented milk extracts stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 cells and HMECs at concentrations above 0.31%. Peptide content and capillary electrophoresis analyses showed that kefir-mediated milk fermentation led to an increase in peptide concentrations and a change in peptide profiles relative to milk or yogurt. The present findings suggest that kefir extracts contain constituents that specifically inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells, which might eventually be useful in the prevention or treatment of breast cancer.  
  Call Number Serial 1055  
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Author (up) Chen, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, X.C.; Ci, Y.; Huang, H.; Ma, J.; Chen, Y.; Guan, H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Driver injury severity outcome analysis in rural interstate highway crashes: a two-level Bayesian logistic regression interpretation Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 97 Issue Pages 69-78  
  Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Adolescent; Adult; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Bayes Theorem; China; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Theoretical; *Rural Population; Safety/*statistics & numerical data; Seat Belts/utilization; Bayesian inference; Driver injury severity; Hierarchical model; Rural interstate highway; Traffic crash  
  Abstract There is a high potential of severe injury outcomes in traffic crashes on rural interstate highways due to the significant amount of high speed traffic on these corridors. Hierarchical Bayesian models are capable of incorporating between-crash variance and within-crash correlations into traffic crash data analysis and are increasingly utilized in traffic crash severity analysis. This paper applies a hierarchical Bayesian logistic model to examine the significant factors at crash and vehicle/driver levels and their heterogeneous impacts on driver injury severity in rural interstate highway crashes. Analysis results indicate that the majority of the total variance is induced by the between-crash variance, showing the appropriateness of the utilized hierarchical modeling approach. Three crash-level variables and six vehicle/driver-level variables are found significant in predicting driver injury severities: road curve, maximum vehicle damage in a crash, number of vehicles in a crash, wet road surface, vehicle type, driver age, driver gender, driver seatbelt use and driver alcohol or drug involvement. Among these variables, road curve, functional and disabled vehicle damage in crash, single-vehicle crashes, female drivers, senior drivers, motorcycles and driver alcohol or drug involvement tend to increase the odds of drivers being incapably injured or killed in rural interstate crashes, while wet road surface, male drivers and driver seatbelt use are more likely to decrease the probability of severe driver injuries. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insightful understanding of the internal mechanism of rural interstate crashes and beneficial references for developing effective countermeasures for rural interstate crash prevention.  
  Call Number Serial 1784  
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Author (up) Chen, J.-Y. file  url
openurl 
  Title Do Chinese and English speakers think about time differently? Failure of replicating Boroditsky (2001) Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 427-436  
  Keywords *Asian Continental Ancestry Group; *Cognition; *Culture; Humans; *Time Perception  
  Abstract English uses the horizontal spatial metaphors to express time (e.g., the good days ahead of us). Chinese also uses the vertical metaphors (e.g., 'the month above' to mean last month). Do Chinese speakers, then, think about time in a different way than English speakers? Boroditsky [Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought? Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43(1), 1-22] claimed that they do, and went on to conclude that 'language is a powerful tool in shaping habitual thought about abstract domains' (such as time). By estimating the frequency of usage, we found that Chinese speakers actually use the horizontal spatial metaphors more often than the vertical metaphors. This offered no logical ground for Boroditsky's claim. We were also unable to replicate her experiments in four different attempts. We conclude that Chinese speakers do not think about time in a different way than English speakers just because Chinese also uses the vertical spatial metaphors to express time.  
  Call Number Serial 1718  
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Author (up) Chen, P.; Jacobson, K.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Developmental trajectories of substance use from early adolescence to young adulthood: gender and racial/ethnic differences Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health  
  Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 154-163  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Sex Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--ethnology, etiology; United States; Young Adult  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The current study examined gender and racial/ethnic (Hispanics, non-Hispanic Caucasians, non-Hispanic African Americans, and non-Hispanic Asians) differences in developmental trajectories of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use from early adolescence to young adulthood using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 20,160) reported rates of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use between the ages of 12 and 34 years. Data analyses were completed using longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses. RESULTS: Levels of substance use increased from early adolescence to mid-20s, and then declined thereafter. Females showed higher levels of substance use in early adolescence, although males exhibited greater changes overtime and higher levels of use in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Overall, Hispanic youth had higher initial rates of substance use, whereas Caucasian adolescents showed higher rates of change and had the highest levels of substance use from mid-adolescence through the early 30s. Racial/ethnic differences largely disappeared after age 30, except that African Americans showed higher final levels of smoking and marijuana use than the other racial/ethnic groups. Results provide evidence for both similarities and differences in general patterns of development and in gender and racial/ethnic differences across different forms of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the current study suggest that the critical periods for intervention and prevention of substance use may differ across gender and race/ethnicity, and that future research needs to identify common and unique mechanisms underlying developmental patterns of different forms of substance use.  
  Call Number Serial 369  
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