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Author (up) Chen, X.; D'Souza, R.; Hong, S.-T. file  url
  Title The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Protein & Cell Abbreviated Journal Protein Cell  
  Volume 4 Issue 6 Pages 403-414  
  Keywords Brain/*metabolism; Central Nervous System/metabolism; Gastrointestinal Tract/*metabolism/microbiology; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Humans; Liver/metabolism; Metabolic Diseases/metabolism/pathology; *Metagenome; Microbiome; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism  
  Abstract Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates with the brain via the gut-brain axis to modulate brain development and behavioral phenotypes. These recent findings on the new role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis implicate that gut microbiota could associate with brain functions as well as neurological diseases via the gut-brain axis. To elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis, precise identification of the composition of microbes constituting gut microbiota is an essential step. However, identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota has been the main technological challenge currently due to massive amount of intestinal microbes and the difficulties in culture of gut microbes. Current methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota are dependent on omics analysis methods by using advanced high tech equipment. Here, we review the association of gut microbiota with the gut-brain axis, including the pros and cons of the current high throughput methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis.  
  Call Number Serial 2005  
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Author (up) Chen, X.; Qian, Y.; Yan, F.; Tu, J.; Yang, X.; Xing, Y.; Chen, Z. file  url
  Title 5'-triphosphate-siRNA activates RIG-I-dependent type I interferon production and enhances inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication in HepG2.2.15 cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication European Journal of Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Pharmacol  
  Volume 721 Issue 1-3 Pages 86-95  
  Keywords Base Sequence; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/*metabolism; DNA Replication/genetics; Hep G2 Cells; Hepatitis B Antigens/genetics/metabolism; Hepatitis B virus/*genetics/*physiology; Humans; Immunity, Innate; Interferon Type I/*biosynthesis/genetics; Polyphosphates/*chemistry; RNA Interference; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry/*genetics; Transcription, Genetic/genetics; Virus Replication/*genetics; 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide; 3p-siRNA; 5â²-Triphosphated siRNA; 5â²-triphosphated siRNA; BF-siRNA; Ciap; Elisa; Hbv; HBV e antigen; HBV s antigen; HBeAg; HBsAg; Hcc; HepG2.2.15 cells; Hepatitis B virus; Ifn; Ifnî±/β; Mtt; NC-siRNA; Od; Prr; Rig-I; RNA interference; RNAi; Rt-Pcr; Tlr; bifunctional siRNA; calf intestine alkaline phosphatase; double strand DNA; double strand RNA; dsDNA; dsRNA; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; hepatitis B virus; hepatocellular carcinoma; interferon; negative control siRNA; optical density; pathogen-recognition receptor; retinoic acid-inducible gene I; reverse transcription PCR; siRNA; single strand RNA; small interfering RNA; ssRNA; toll-like receptor  
  Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection often results in acute or chronic viral hepatitis and other liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for HBV usually have severe side effects and can cause development of drug-resistant mutants. An alternative and safe immunotherapeutic approach for HBV infection is urgently needed for effective anti-HBV therapy. In this study, we propose a new strategy for anti-HBV therapy that activates type-I interferon (IFN) antiviral innate immunity through stimulating pattern-recognition receptors with RNA interference (RNAi) using a 5'-end triphosphate-modified small interfering RNA (3p-siRNA). We designed and generated a 3p-siRNA targeting overlapping region of S gene and P gene of the HBV genome at the 5'-end of pregenomic HBV RNA. Our results demonstrated that 3p-siRNA induced a RIG-I-dependent antiviral type-I IFN response when transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells that support HBV replication. The 3p-siRNA significantly inhibited HBsAg and HBeAg secretion from HepG2.2.15 cells in a RIG-I-dependent manner, and the antiviral effect of 3p-siRNA was superior to that of siRNA. Furthermore, 3p-siRNA had more pronounced inhibition effects on the replication of HBV DNA and the transcription of mRNA than that of siRNA. Finally, 3p-siRNA displayed antiviral activity with long-term suppression of HBV replication. In conclusion, our findings suggest that 3p-siRNA could act as a powerful bifunctional antiviral molecule with potential for developing a promising therapeutic against chronic HBV infection.  
  Call Number Serial 1013  
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Author (up) Chew, B.H.; Khoo, E.M.; Chia, Y.C. file  url
  Title Social support and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Asia Pac J Public Health  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages Np166-73  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Blood Glucose; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*blood; Female; *Glycated Hemoglobin A; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Self Report; *Social Support; Urban Population; family medicine; health education; noncommunicable diseases; psychological behavioral medicine; social determinants of health  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of social support and its association with glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in an urban primary care center within an academic institution. Social support is important in the management of chronic diseases. However, its association with glycemic control has been controversial. METHODS: This was part of a study examining religiosity in T2D patients. Nonsmoking patients with T2D for at least 3 years and aged 30 years and above were recruited. Social support was measured using The Social Support Survey-Medical Outcomes Study (SS), a self-administered questionnaire; the scores range from 19 to 95, and a high score indicates better social support. Glycemic control was measured using the 3 most recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels within the past 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 175 participants completed the SS survey (response rate 79.0%). The mean age was 62.7 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.8) years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 11.74 (SD = 6.7) years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.15 (SD = 1.44). The mean SS score was 68.1. The prevalence of high and low social support were 29.7% and 24.0 %, respectively. A significant correlation was found between SS score and number of social supporters (n = 167). No significant correlation was found between the self-reported number of social supporters or the SS score and the mean HbA1c level. CONCLUSIONS: Social support was not associated with glycemic control in adult patients with T2D in this primary care setting.  
  Call Number Serial 2046  
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Author (up) Chilamkurti, C.; Milner, J.S. file  url
  Title Perceptions and evaluations of child transgressions and disciplinary techniques in high- and low-risk mothers and their children Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 64 Issue 6 Pages 1801-1814  
  Keywords Child; Child Abuse/diagnosis; Child Behavior/psychology; Cognition; Female; Humans; Imagination; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; Maternal Behavior; *Mother-Child Relations; *Mothers; *Parenting  
  Abstract Perceptions and evaluations of children's transgressions (moral, conventional, personal), parental disciplinary actions (power assertion, love withdrawal, induction), and expected outcomes (compliance) were assessed in matched high- and low-risk (for physical abuse) mothers and their children. High-risk mothers and their children evaluated conventional and personal transgressions as more wrong than low-risk mothers and their children. Although both high- and low-risk mothers and their children varied disciplinary responses according to the type of transgression, high-risk mothers used power assertion (verbal and physical force) more often and induction (reasoning and explanation) less often. High-risk mothers also perceived the use of power assertion by others as more appropriate. With respect to outcomes, high-risk mothers, compared to low-risk mothers, expected less compliance following moral transgressions and more compliance after personal transgressions. Children of both high- and low-risk mothers made compliance predictions following moral and personal transgressions that were similar to the low-risk mothers' predictions.  
  Call Number Serial 1732  
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Author (up) Chou, S.M.; Wang, H.S.; Komai, K. file  url
  Title Colocalization of NOS and SOD1 in neurofilament accumulation within motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an immunohistochemical study Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Abbreviated Journal J Chem Neuroanat  
  Volume 10 Issue 3-4 Pages 249-258  
  Keywords Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/*enzymology; Citrulline/metabolism; Cyclic GMP/metabolism; Cytoplasm/metabolism; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Motor Neurons/chemistry/*enzymology; Neurofilament Proteins/*metabolism; Nitrates/metabolism; Nitric Oxide/analysis/*metabolism; Nitrogen/metabolism; Oxidation-Reduction; Superoxide Dismutase/analysis/*metabolism; Tyrosine/metabolism  
  Abstract Peroxynitrite, formed from nitric oxide and superoxide, may affect neurofilament assembly and cause neurofilament accumulation in motoneurons. This hypothesis may reconcile the mutations of two genes: superoxide dismutase-1 in some patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the gene for the heavy neurofilament in some patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis previously reported. We found colocalization of superoxide dismutase-1 and nitric oxide synthase in the foci of neurofilament accumulation as 'conglomerates' in upper motor neurons and 'axonal spheroids' in lower motor neurons. In addition, all the specific molecules related to the reactions, including calmodulin, 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine-monophosphate, citrulline, and nitrotyrosine were found strongly immunopositive in the site of neurofilament accumulation. Our data support the view that the neurofilament aggregates are tightly linked with superoxide dismutase-1 and nitric oxide synthase activities. Both enzymes may focally contribute to peroxynitrite formation at light neurofilament, which is rich in both tyrosine and arginine residues and hence considered as the vulnerable site for nitrotyrosine formation. Nitrotyrosine is known to inhibit phosphorylation and if it impairs phosphorylation of neurofilament subunits, either light or heavy, may alter the slow axonal transport culminating in proximo-distal accumulation of NF and slowly progressive motoneuron death.  
  Call Number Serial 1254  
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Author (up) Christiansen, S.; Oettingen, G.; Dahme, B.; Klinger, R. file  url
  Title A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: a randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 149 Issue 3 Pages 444-452  
  Keywords Adult; Chronic Disease; Cognitive Therapy/*methods; Exercise Therapy/*methods; Exercise Tolerance/*physiology; Female; *Goals; Humans; Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional; Low Back Pain/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Male; Middle Aged; Muscle Weakness/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Pain Measurement/methods; Physical Fitness/*physiology; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The present study tested a short intervention using goal-pursuit strategies to increase physical capacity in pain patients. Sixty chronic back pain patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Both groups followed a 3-week conventional back pain program at an outpatient back pain center. Instead of routine treatment, the intervention group received a one-hour intervention consisting of a combination of (a) a goal-setting strategy (i.e., mental contrasting, MC) aimed at commitment to improved physical capacity, (b) a short cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented problem-solving approach (CBT) to help patients overcome the obstacles associated with improving physical capacity, and (c) a goal-pursuit strategy, i.e., implementation intentions (II) aimed at performing physical exercise regularly. At two follow-ups (3 weeks after discharge and 3 months after returning home) the MCII-CBT group had increased its physical capacity significantly more than the control group as measured by both behavioral measures (ergometer, lifting) and subjective ratings. Findings are discussed with relation to the use of the intervention as a specific treatment to increase chronic pain patients' motivation to be physically active.  
  Call Number Serial 2070  
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Author (up) Chumanov, E.S.; Wall-Scheffler, C.; Heiderscheit, B.C. file  url
  Title Gender differences in walking and running on level and inclined surfaces Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) Abbreviated Journal Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)  
  Volume 23 Issue 10 Pages 1260-1268  
  Keywords Adolescent; Biomechanical Phenomena; Buttocks/physiology; Electromyography; Exercise Test; Female; Gait/physiology; Hip Joint/*physiology; Humans; Leg/physiology; Male; Movement/physiology; Muscle Contraction/*physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/physiology; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Running/*physiology; *Sex Characteristics; Sex Factors; Thigh/physiology; Walking/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Gender differences in kinematics during running have been speculated to be a contributing factor to the lower extremity injury rate disparity between men and women. Specifically, increased non-sagittal motion of the pelvis and hip has been implicated; however it is not known if this difference exists under a variety of locomotion conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize gender differences in gait kinematics and muscle activities as a function of speed and surface incline and to determine if lower extremity anthropometrics contribute to these differences. METHODS: Whole body kinematics of 34 healthy volunteers were recorded along with electromyography of muscles on the right lower limb while each subject walked at 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8m/s and ran at 1.8, 2.7, and 3.6m/s with surface inclinations of 0%, 10%, and 15% grade. Joint angles and muscle activities were compared between genders across each speed-incline condition. Pelvis and lower extremity segment lengths were also measured and compared. FINDINGS: Females displayed greater peak hip internal rotation and adduction, as well as gluteus maximus activity for all conditions. Significant interactions (speed-gender, incline-gender) were present for the gluteus medius and vastus lateralis. Hip adduction during walking was moderately correlated to the ratio of bi-trochanteric width to leg length. INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate females display greater non-sagittal motion. Future studies are needed to better define the relationship of these differences to injury risk.  
  Call Number Serial 1630  
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Author (up) Citron, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Alzheimer's disease: treatments in discovery and development Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Nature Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Neurosci  
  Volume 5 Suppl Issue Pages 1055-1057  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/metabolism/physiopathology/*therapy; Amyloid beta-Peptides/*antagonists & inhibitors/biosynthesis; Animals; Brain/*drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology; Disease Models, Animal; *Drug Design; Drug Evaluation/trends; Drug Industry/trends; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Humans  
  Abstract Alzheimer's disease is the single biggest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs are safe, but of limited benefit to most patients. This review discusses the scientific basis and current status of promising disease-modifying therapies in the discovery and development stages. I describe the major targets of anti-amyloid therapy and the main focus of disease modification approaches. In addition, two new potential treatment approaches supported by retrospective epidemiology are outlined.  
  Call Number Serial 137  
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Author (up) Clark, D.A.; Beck, A.T. file  url
  Title Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: convergence with neurobiological findings Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Trends in Cognitive Sciences Abbreviated Journal Trends Cogn Sci  
  Volume 14 Issue 9 Pages 418-424  
  Keywords Anxiety/*physiopathology/psychology/*therapy; Cerebrum/physiology; Cognition/physiology; Cognitive Therapy/*methods; Depression/*physiopathology/psychology/*therapy; Depressive Disorder, Major/physiopathology/psychology; Emotions/physiology; Humans; Inhibition (Psychology); Neuropsychological Tests; Thinking/physiology  
  Abstract In this review paper a modified cognitive neurophysiological model of Aaron T. Beck's cognitive formulation of anxiety and depression is proposed that provides an elaborated account of the cognitive and neural mediational processes of cognitive therapy (CT). Empirical evidence consistent with this model is discussed that indicates the effectiveness of cognitive therapy could be associated with reduced activation of the amygdalohippocampal subcortical regions implicated in the generation of negative emotion and increased activation of higher-order frontal regions involved in cognitive control of negative emotion. Future cognitive neuroscience research is needed on the unique brain substrates affected by CT and their role in facilitating symptom change. This future research would have important implications for improving the efficiency and efficacy of this treatment approach.  
  Call Number Serial 2163  
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Author (up) Clayton, R.R.; Cattarello, A.M.; Johnstone, B.M. file  url
  Title The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (project DARE): 5-year follow-up results Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 307-318  
  Keywords Child; Curriculum; Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic; Female; Health Education/*methods; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Kentucky; Male; Models, Statistical; Peer Group; Program Evaluation; Prospective Studies; Regression Analysis; *School Health Services; Substance-Related Disorders/*prevention & control/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: This article reports the results of a 5-year, longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), a school-based primary drug prevention curriculum designed for introduction during the last year of elementary education. DARE is the most widely disseminated school-based prevention curriculum in the United States. METHOD: Twenty-three elementary schools were randomly assigned to receive DARE and 8 were designated comparison schools. Students in the DARE schools received 16 weeks of protocol-driven instruction and students in the comparison schools received a drug education unit as part of the health curriculum. All students were pretested during the 6th grade prior to delivery of the programs, posttested shortly after completion, and resurveyed each subsequent year through the 10th grade. Three-stage mixed effects regression models were used to analyze these data. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between intervention and comparison schools with respect to cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use during the 7th grade, approximately 1 year after completion of the program, or over the full 5-year measurement interval. Significant intervention effects in the hypothesized direction were observed during the 7th grade for measures of students' general and specific attitudes toward drugs, the capability to resist peer pressure, and estimated level of drug use by peers. Over the full measurement interval, however, average trajectories of change for these outcomes were similar in the intervention and comparison conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this 5-year prospective study are largely consonant with the results obtained from prior short-term evaluations of the DARE curriculum, which have reported limited effects of the program upon drug use, greater efficacy with respect to attitudes, social skills, and knowledge, but a general tendency for curriculum effects to decay over time. The results of this study underscore the need for more robust prevention programming targeted specifically at risk factors, the inclusion of booster sessions to sustain positive effects, and greater attention to interrelationships between developmental processes in adolescent substance use, individual level characteristics, and social context.  
  Call Number Serial 1562  
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