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Author (up) Cleary, M.D.; Meiering, C.D.; Jan, E.; Guymon, R.; Boothroyd, J.C. file  url
  Title Biosynthetic labeling of RNA with uracil phosphoribosyltransferase allows cell-specific microarray analysis of mRNA synthesis and decay Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Nat Biotechnol  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 232-237  
  Keywords Animals; Gene Expression Profiling/*methods; Gene Expression Regulation/*physiology; Humans; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/*methods; Pentosyltransferases/chemistry/*metabolism; RNA, Messenger/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism; Signal Transduction/physiology; Staining and Labeling/methods; Toxoplasma/genetics/metabolism; Transcription Factors/*metabolism; Transcriptional Activation/*physiology  
  Abstract Standard microarrays measure mRNA abundance, not mRNA synthesis, and therefore cannot identify the mechanisms that regulate gene expression. We have developed a method to overcome this limitation by using the salvage enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) from the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii UPRT has been well characterized because of its application in monitoring parasite growth: mammals lack this enzyme activity and thus only the parasite incorporates (3)H-uracil into its nucleic acids. In this study we used RNA labeling by UPRT to determine the roles of mRNA synthesis and decay in the control of gene expression during T. gondii asexual development. We also used this approach to specifically label parasite RNA during a mouse infection and to incorporate thio-substituted uridines into the RNA of human cells engineered to express T. gondii UPRT, indicating that engineered UPRT expression will allow cell-specific analysis of gene expression in organisms other than T. gondii.  
  Call Number Serial 1344  
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Author (up) Clemson, L.; Fiatarone Singh, M.A.; Bundy, A.; Cumming, R.G.; Manollaras, K.; O'Loughlin, P.; Black, D. file  url
  Title Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activity to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): randomised parallel trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) Abbreviated Journal Bmj  
  Volume 345 Issue Pages e4547  
  Keywords Accidental Falls--prevention & control; Activities of Daily Living; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Female; Humans; Life Style; Male; Patient Compliance; Postural Balance--physiology; Resistance Training--methods; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a lifestyle integrated approach to balance and strength training is effective in reducing the rate of falls in older, high risk people living at home. DESIGN: Three arm, randomised parallel trial; assessments at baseline and after six and 12 months. Randomisation done by computer generated random blocks, stratified by sex and fall history and concealed by an independent secure website. SETTING: Residents in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 70 years or older who had two or more falls or one injurious fall in past 12 months, recruited from Veteran's Affairs databases and general practice databases. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe cognitive problems, inability to ambulate independently, neurological conditions that severely influenced gait and mobility, resident in a nursing home or hostel, or any unstable or terminal illness that would affect ability to do exercises. INTERVENTIONS: Three home based interventions: Lifestyle integrated Functional Exercise (LiFE) approach (n=107; taught principles of balance and strength training and integrated selected activities into everyday routines), structured programme (n=105; exercises for balance and lower limb strength, done three times a week), sham control programme (n=105; gentle exercise). LiFE and structured groups received five sessions with two booster visits and two phone calls; controls received three home visits and six phone calls. Assessments made at baseline and after six and 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary measure: rate of falls over 12 months, collected by self report. Secondary measures: static and dynamic balance; ankle, knee and hip strength; balance self efficacy; daily living activities; participation; habitual physical activity; quality of life; energy expenditure; body mass index; and fat free mass. RESULTS: After 12 months' follow-up, we recorded 172, 193, and 224 falls in the LiFE, structured exercise, and control groups, respectively. The overall incidence of falls in the LiFE programme was 1.66 per person years, compared with 1.90 in the structured programme and 2.28 in the control group. We saw a significant reduction of 31% in the rate of falls for the LiFE programme compared with controls (incidence rate ratio 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.99)); the corresponding difference between the structured group and controls was non-significant (0.81 (0.56 to 1.17)). Static balance on an eight level hierarchy scale, ankle strength, function, and participation were significantly better in the LiFE group than in controls. LiFE and structured groups had a significant and moderate improvement in dynamic balance, compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: The LiFE programme provides an alternative to traditional exercise to consider for fall prevention. Functional based exercise should be a focus for interventions to protect older, high risk people from falling and to improve and maintain functional capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12606000025538.  
  Call Number Serial 404  
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Author (up) Coccaro, E.F.; Bergeman, C.S.; McClearn, G.E. file  url
  Title Heritability of irritable impulsiveness: a study of twins reared together and apart Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res  
  Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 229-242  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aggression; Environment; Female; Hostility; Humans; Impulsive Behavior/*genetics; Male; Middle Aged; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/*genetics; Personality Inventory; Questionnaires; Receptors, Serotonin/genetics/physiology; Twins/*genetics  
  Abstract The heritability of self-reported personality traits related to impulsiveness, irritability, and the inhibition of assertive or aggressive behavior was examined in up to 500 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs raised together or apart. Two factors related to “(lack of) assertiveness/aggression” (Factor I) and “impulsive irritability” (Factor II) were examined using traditional and model-fitting procedures. Results of model-fitting procedures were consistent with a genetic, but not a shared environmental, influence for both factors. Further analysis suggested a nonadditive genetic influence for Factor II and an additive influence for Factor I. Bivariate model-fitting analyses suggest that self-reported “irritable impulsiveness” and “(lack of) assertiveness/aggressiveness” show substantial, though different, genetic influences.  
  Call Number Serial 315  
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Author (up) Cohen, J.F.W.; Jahn, J.L.; Richardson, S.; Cluggish, S.A.; Parker, E.; Rimm, E.B. file  url
  Title Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children's Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entree, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Abbreviated Journal J Acad Nutr Diet  
  Volume 116 Issue 1 Pages 123-128  
  Keywords Animals; Child; Diet; *Eating; Ethnic Groups; Female; *Food Preferences; *Food Services; Fruit; Humans; *Lunch; Male; Milk; Prospective Studies; *Schools; Students; Time Factors; Vegetables; Fruit intake; Lunch period length; Milk intake; School lunch; Vegetable intake  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There are currently no national standards for school lunch period length and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine plate-waste measurements from students in the control arm of the Modifying Eating and Lifestyles at School study (2011 to 2012 school year) to determine the association between amount of time to eat and school meal selection and consumption. DESIGN: We used a prospective study design using up to six repeated measures among students during the school year. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: One thousand and one students in grades 3 to 8 attending six participating elementary and middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20 to 30 minutes were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: School food selection and consumption were collected using plate-waste methodology. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Logistic regression and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to examine food selection and consumption. RESULTS: Compared with meal-component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs 57%; P<0.0001) when they had <20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entree, milk, or vegetable selections. Among those who selected a meal component, students with <20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entree (P<0.0001), 10% less of their milk (P<0.0001), and 12% less of their vegetable (P<0.0001) compared with students who had at least 25 minutes to eat. CONCLUSIONS: During the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entree, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time might reduce food waste and improve dietary intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1256  
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Author (up) Cohen, M.L. file  doi
  Title Epidemiology of drug resistance: implications for a post-antimicrobial era Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 257 Issue 5073 Pages 1050-1055  
  Keywords Bacterial Infections/*drug therapy/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission; Cross Infection; *Drug Resistance, Microbial; Humans; Risk Factors  
  Abstract In the last several years, the frequency and spectrum of antimicrobial-resistant infections have increased in both the hospital and the community. Certain infections that are essentially untreatable have begun to occur as epidemics both in the developing world and in institutional settings in the United States. The increasing frequency of drug resistance has been attributed to combinations of microbial characteristics, selective pressures of antimicrobial use, and societal and technologic changes that enhance the transmission of drug-resistant organisms. Antimicrobial resistance is resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents, prudent use of existing agents, new vaccines, and enhanced public health efforts to reduce transmission.  
  Call Number Serial 1129  
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Author (up) Coll, M.-P.; Budell, L.; Rainville, P.; Decety, J.; Jackson, P.L. file  url
  Title The role of gender in the interaction between self-pain and the perception of pain in others Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society Abbreviated Journal J Pain  
  Volume 13 Issue 7 Pages 695-703  
  Keywords Adult; Empathy; Facial Expression; Female; Humans; Male; Pain--psychology; Pain Perception; Photic Stimulation; Self Concept; Sex Characteristics; Social Perception  
  Abstract While self-pain motivates protective behaviors and self-oriented feelings, the perception of others' pain often motivates concern and prosocial behaviors toward the person suffering. The conflicting consequences of these 2 states raise the question of how pain is perceived in others when one is actually in pain. Two conflicting hypotheses could predict the interaction between these 2 signals: the threat value of pain hypothesis and the shared-representation model of pain empathy. Here, we asked 33 healthy volunteers exposed to acute experimental pain to judge the intensity of the pain felt by models expressing different levels of pain in video clips. Results showed that compared to a control warm stimulus, a stimulus causing self-pain increased the perception of others' pain for clips depicting male pain expressions but decreased the perceived intensity of female high pain expressions in both male and female participants. These results show that one's own pain state influences the perception of pain in others and that the gender of the person observed influences this interaction. PERSPECTIVE: By documenting the effects of self-pain on pain perception in others, this study provides a better understanding of the shared mechanisms between self-pain and others' pain processing. It could ultimately provide clues as to how the health status of health care professionals could affect their ability to assess their patients' pain.  
  Call Number Serial 546  
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Author (up) Colloca, L.; Benedetti, F. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title How prior experience shapes placebo analgesia Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 124 Issue 1-2 Pages 126-133  
  Keywords Adult; Analgesia/methods; Analysis of Variance; Child; Electroshock/adverse effects; Female; Humans; Male; Pain/*drug therapy/etiology/physiopathology/*psychology; Pain Measurement/methods/psychology; Pain Threshold/drug effects; *Placebo Effect; Placebos/*therapeutic use  
  Abstract Some studies indicate that placebo analgesia is stronger when pre-conditioning with effective analgesic treatments is performed, thereby suggesting that the placebo response is a learning phenomenon. Here we further tested this hypothesis in order to better understand when and how previous experience affects the placebo analgesic response. To do this, we used a conditioning procedure whereby the intensity of painful stimulation was reduced surreptitiously, so as to make the subjects believe that an analgesic treatment was effective. This procedure induced strong placebo responses after minutes, and these responses, albeit reduced, lasted up to 4-7 days. In addition, in a second group of subjects we repeated the same conditioning procedure 4-7 days after a totally ineffective analgesic treatment, and found that the placebo responses were remarkably reduced compared to the first group. Thus we obtained small, medium and large placebo responses, depending on several factors, such as the previous positive or negative experience of an analgesic treatment and the time lag between the treatment and the placebo responses. We also ran extinction trials, and found that these effects did not undergo extinction in a time span of several minutes. These findings indicate that placebo analgesia is finely tuned by prior experience and these effects may last, albeit reduced, several days. These results emphasize that the placebo effect is a learning phenomenon in which many factors come into play, and may explain the large variability of the placebo responses that is found in many studies.  
  Call Number Serial 205  
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Author (up) Coutts, A.J.; Rampinini, E.; Marcora, S.M.; Castagna, C.; Impellizzeri, F.M. file  url
  Title Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia Abbreviated Journal J Sci Med Sport  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 79-84  
  Keywords Adult; Exercise/physiology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Lactic Acid/*blood; Linear Models; Muscle Fatigue/physiology; Oxygen Consumption/physiology; Perception/*physiology; Physical Exertion/*physiology; Self-Assessment; Soccer/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) could be a practical measure of global exercise intensity in team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heart rate (%HR(peak)) and blood lactate ([BLa(-)]) measures of exercise intensity with each player's RPE during soccer-specific aerobic exercises. Mean individual %HR(peak), [BLa(-)] and RPE (Borg's CR 10-scale) were recorded from 20 amateur soccer players from 67 soccer-specific small-sided games training sessions over an entire competitive season. The small-sided games were performed in three 4min bouts separated with 3min recovery on various sized pitches and involved 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-players on each side. A stepwise linear multiple regression was used to determine a predictive equation to estimate global RPE for small-sided games from [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Partial correlation coefficients were also calculated to assess the relationship between RPE, [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 43.1% of the adjusted variance in RPE could be explained by HR alone. The addition of [BLa(-)] data to the prediction equation allowed for 57.8% of the adjusted variance in RPE to be predicted (Y=-9.49-0.152 %HR(peak)+1.82 [BLa(-)], p<0.001). These results show that the combination of [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak) measures during small-sided games is better related to RPE than either %HR(peak) or [BLa(-)] measures alone. These results provide further support the use of RPE as a measure of global exercise intensity in soccer.  
  Call Number Serial 523  
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Author (up) Cox, D.; Brennan, M.; Moran, N. file  url
  Title Integrins as therapeutic targets: lessons and opportunities Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Drug Discov  
  Volume 9 Issue 10 Pages 804-820  
  Keywords Animals; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods/trends; Humans; Integrins/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/physiology; Neoplasms/drug therapy/metabolism; Structure-Activity Relationship  
  Abstract The integrins are a large family of cell adhesion molecules that are essential for the regulation of cell growth and function. The identification of key roles for integrins in a diverse range of diseases, including cancer, infection, thrombosis and autoimmune disorders, has revealed their substantial potential as therapeutic targets. However, so far, pharmacological inhibitors for only three integrins have received marketing approval. This article discusses the structure and function of integrins, their roles in disease and the chequered history of the approved integrin antagonists. Recent advances in the understanding of integrin function, ligand interaction and signalling pathways suggest novel strategies for inhibiting integrin function that could help harness their full potential as therapeutic targets.  
  Call Number Serial 1190  
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Author (up) Cross, G.H.; Reeves, A.A.; Brand, S.; Popplewell, J.F.; Peel, L.L.; Swann, M.J.; Freeman, N.J. file  url
  Title A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Biosensors & Bioelectronics Abbreviated Journal Biosens Bioelectron  
  Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 383-390  
  Keywords Antibodies/analysis/chemistry; Biosensing Techniques/*instrumentation/methods; Biotin/analysis/chemistry; Equipment Design; *Equipment Failure Analysis; Humans; Interferometry/*instrumentation/methods; Optics and Photonics/*instrumentation; Proteins/*analysis/*chemistry; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity; Streptavidin/analysis/chemistry  
  Abstract A new optical biosensor is described based on a dual waveguide interferometric technique. By addressing the waveguide structure with alternate polarisations the optogeometrical properties (density and thickness) of adsorbed protein layers at the sensor (solid)-liquid interface have been determined. Differences in the waveguide mode dispersion between the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes allow unique solutions for adlayer thickness and refractive index to be determined at all stages during the formation process. The technique has been verified using standard protein systems and by comparing the data with published work using X-ray crystallography and neutron reflection techniques. The data obtained was found to be in excellent agreement with previously reported X-ray experiments given that typical film thicknesses for streptavidin layers were in the range 5.5-6.5 nm compared with the short axis crystal structure of between 4.8 and 5.6 nm. The precision of the measurements taken was of the order of 40 pm with respect to adsorbed adlayer thicknesses. This biosensor approach provides measurements of both thickness and density of adlayers to a high precision, simultaneously and in real time enabling detail of the structure and function of proteins to be elucidated. From such data it is possible to obtain information on the orientation, distortion and efficiency of immobilisation procedures as well as the interaction event of interest. The technique is expected to find utility with those interested in protein structure and function. This is an area of growing importance within the life sciences as the demand for quantitative analytical techniques increases with the growth in “proteomics”.  
  Call Number Serial 981  
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