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Author (up) Domingo, J.L.; Gine Bordonaba, J. file  url
  Title A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Environment International Abbreviated Journal Environ Int  
  Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 734-742  
  Keywords Animals; Consumer Product Safety; Cucumis sativus--genetics, toxicity; Humans; Lycopersicon esculentum--genetics, toxicity; Oryza sativa--genetics, toxicity; Peas--genetics, toxicity; Plants, Genetically Modified--adverse effects, toxicity; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Risk Assessment; Solanum tuberosum--genetics, toxicity; Soybeans--genetics, toxicity; Zea mays--genetics, toxicity  
  Abstract In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed.  
  Call Number Serial 75  
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Author (up) Domingue, B.W.; Fletcher, J.; Conley, D.; Boardman, J.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and educational assortative mating among US adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 111 Issue 22 Pages 7996-8000  
  Keywords Continental Population Groups/genetics; Databases, Genetic; Educational Status; Ethnic Groups/genetics; Female; Genome-Wide Association Study; Genotype; Humans; Male; *Marriage; Metagenomics/*methods; Phenotype; *Sexual Behavior; *Spouses; United States; genetic homogamy; homophily; random mating  
  Abstract Understanding the social and biological mechanisms that lead to homogamy (similar individuals marrying one another) has been a long-standing issue across many fields of scientific inquiry. Using a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic white US adults from the Health and Retirement Study and information from 1.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we compare genetic similarity among married couples to noncoupled pairs in the population. We provide evidence for genetic assortative mating in this population but the strength of this association is substantially smaller than the strength of educational assortative mating in the same sample. Furthermore, genetic similarity explains at most 10% of the assortative mating by education levels. Results are replicated using comparable data from the Framingham Heart Study.  
  Call Number Serial 1127  
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Author (up) Driscoll, M.; Gerstbrein, B. file  url
  Title Dying for a cause: invertebrate genetics takes on human neurodegeneration Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Reviews. Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Genet  
  Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 181-194  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/genetics/pathology; Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology/genetics; Cell Death; Drosophila melanogaster/cytology/genetics; Humans; Hypoxia/genetics/pathology; Invertebrates/cytology/*genetics; Ion Channels/metabolism; Models, Neurological; Mutation; Nerve Degeneration/*genetics/*pathology; Neurons/drug effects/pathology; Parkinson Disease/genetics/pathology; Peptides/genetics  
  Abstract If invertebrate neurons are injured by hostile environments or aberrant proteins they die much like human neurons, indicating that the powerful advantages of invertebrate molecular genetics might be successfully used for testing specific hypotheses about human neurological diseases, for drug discovery and for non-biased screens for suppressors and enhancers of neurodegeneration. Recent molecular dissection of the genetic requirements for hypoxia, excitotoxicity and death in models of Alzheimer disease, polyglutamine-expansion disorders, Parkinson disease and more, is providing mechanistic insights into neurotoxicity and suggesting new therapeutic interventions. An emerging theme is that neuronal crises of distinct origins might converge to disrupt common cellular functions, such as protein folding and turnover.  
  Call Number Serial 1706  
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Author (up) Dugdale, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Rationale for psychostimulants in ADHD Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) Abbreviated Journal Bmj  
  Volume 330 Issue 7482 Pages 95  
  Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*drug therapy; Central Nervous System Stimulants/*therapeutic use; Humans  
  Abstract Confusion about levels of diagnosis causes most debate about psychostimulants in childhood behavioural disorders.1 DSM-IV definitions are all syndromes—that is, symptoms and signs unrelated to pathology and aetiology. Most effective therapies treat pathology and aetiology; syndromes can be treated only symptomatically. The syndrome of chronic diarrhoea is analogous. Gluten intolerance is one cause. If we suspect this clinically, we test the person by gluten challenge. Clinical improvement on withdrawal and relapse on challenge confirms the diagnosis. No clinical response excludes gluten intolerance. Most chronic diarrhoeas have other causes, and some persons with proved gluten intolerance have other clinical features.

Research has found defects in dopamine transport in the brains of children with clinical attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.2,3 Some children with the biochemical defect have other symptoms; some are clinically normal. Some with clinical attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are biochemically normal. Clinical and biochemical changes overlap but do not coincide. We can call the clinical condition “attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome” and the biochemical disorder “stimulant responsive behavioural disorder.” Symptoms in children with the biochemical disorder improve dramatically with psychostimulants.4 A formal, short term trial is needed. We should give long term psychostimulants only when the symptoms are severe but not necessarily typical of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, improve on psychostimulants, and return when they are stopped.

Stimulant responsive behavioural disorder is a group of defects of dopamine transport in the brain, with varying clinical expressions, including the attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, but that syndrome also has other causes. Separating the biochemical disorder and clinical syndrome promotes the rational use of psychostimulant drugs.
  Call Number Serial 1071  
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Author (up) Durant, N.H.; Bartman, B.; Person, S.D.; Collins, F.; Austin, S.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Patient provider communication about the health effects of obesity Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Patient Education and Counseling Abbreviated Journal Patient Educ Couns  
  Volume 75 Issue 1 Pages 53-57  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity/*ethnology/*prevention & control; *Patient Education as Topic; *Professional-Patient Relations; United States  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of race/ethnicity and provider communication on overweight and obese patients' perceptions of the damage weight causes to their health. METHODS: The study included 1071 overweight and obese patients who completed the 2002 Community Health Center (CHC) User survey. We used logistic regression analyses to examine determinants of patients' perceptions of the impact of their weight on their health. Models were adjusted for covariates and weighting was used to account for the sampling design. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of respondents were overweight and 59% were obese. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were half as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to believe weight was damaging to their health while controlling for covariates. Overweight/obese CHC patients who were told they were overweight by healthcare providers were almost nine times more likely to perceive that weight was damaging to their health compared to those not told. CONCLUSIONS: We observed large racial/ethnic disparities in the perception that overweight is unhealthy but provider communication may be a powerful tool for helping patients understand that overweight is damaging to health. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Given obesity is a national epidemic, further attention to the role of patient provider communication in illness is essential with important implications for both health professional training and health care provision.  
  Call Number Serial 402  
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Author (up) Dzialowski, E.M.; Sirsat, T.; van der Sterren, S.; Villamor, E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Prenatal cardiovascular shunts in amniotic vertebrates Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Abbreviated Journal Respir Physiol Neurobiol  
  Volume 178 Issue 1 Pages 66-74  
  Keywords Animals; Cardiovascular System/*embryology; Female; Fetal Heart/*embryology/physiology; Fetus/blood supply/physiology; Humans; Pregnancy; Vertebrates/*embryology  
  Abstract During amniotic vertebrate development, the embryo and fetus employ a number of cardiovascular shunts. These shunts provide a right-to-left shunt of blood and are essential components of embryonic life ensuring proper blood circulation to developing organs and fetal gas exchanger, as well as bypassing the pulmonary circuit and the unventilated, fluid filled lungs. In this review we examine and compare the embryonic shunts available for fetal mammals and embryonic reptiles, including lizards, crocodilians, and birds. These groups have either a single ductus arteriosus (mammals) or paired ductus arteriosi that provide a right-to-left shunt of right ventricular output away from the unventilated lungs. The mammalian foramen ovale and the avian atrial foramina function as a right-to-left shunt of blood between the atria. The presence of atrial shunts in non-avian reptiles is unknown. Mammals have a venous shunt, the ductus venosus that diverts umbilical venous return away from the liver and towards the inferior vena cava and foramen ovale. Reptiles do not have a ductus venosus during the latter two thirds of development. While the fetal shunts are well characterized in numerous mammalian species, much less is known about the developmental physiology of the reptilian embryonic shunts. In the last years, the reactivity and the process of closure of the ductus arteriosus have been characterized in the chicken and the emu. In contrast, much less is known about embryonic shunts in the non-avian reptiles. It is possible that the single ventricle found in lizards, snakes, and turtles and the origin of the left aorta in the crocodilians play a significant role in the right-to-left embryonic shunt in these species.  
  Call Number Serial 1130  
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Author (up) Dzidic, M.; Abrahamsson, T.R.; Artacho, A.; Bjorksten, B.; Collado, M.C.; Mira, A.; Jenmalm, M.C. file  url
  Title Aberrant IgA responses to the gut microbiota during infancy precede asthma and allergy development Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal J Allergy Clin Immunol  
  Volume 139 Issue 3 Pages 1017-1025.e14  
  Keywords Bacteria/isolation & purification; Bacterial Load; Child; Child, Preschool; Feces/*microbiology; Female; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*immunology/*microbiology; Immunoglobulin A/*immunology; Infant; Male; Allergic disease; IgA index; IgA recognition patterns; asthma; childhood; gut microbiota; microbiome composition; secretory IgA  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Although a reduced gut microbiota diversity and low mucosal total IgA levels in infancy have been associated with allergy development, IgA responses to the gut microbiota have not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the proportions of IgA coating together with the characterization of the dominant bacteria, bound to IgA or not, in infant stool samples in relation to allergy development. METHODS: A combination of flow cytometric cell sorting and deep sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial recognition patterns by IgA in stool samples collected at 1 and 12 months of age from children staying healthy or having allergic symptoms up to 7 years of age. RESULTS: The children with allergic manifestations, particularly asthma, during childhood had a lower proportion of IgA bound to fecal bacteria at 12 months of age compared with healthy children. These alterations cannot be attributed to differences in IgA levels or bacterial load between the 2 groups. Moreover, the bacterial targets of early IgA responses (including coating of the Bacteroides genus), as well as IgA recognition patterns, differed between healthy children and children with allergic manifestations. Altered IgA recognition patterns in children with allergy were observed already at 1 month of age, when the IgA antibodies are predominantly maternally derived in breast-fed children. CONCLUSION: An aberrant IgA responsiveness to the gut microbiota during infancy precedes asthma and allergy development, possibly indicating an impaired mucosal barrier function in allergic children.  
  Call Number Serial 1933  
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Author (up) Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J. file  url
  Title Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
  Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 573-598  
  Keywords *Conflict (Psychology); Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Personnel Management; *Prejudice; Psychological Theory; *Role  
  Abstract A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.  
  Call Number Serial 271  
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Author (up) Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J.; Makhijani, M.G. file  url
  Title Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages 125-145  
  Keywords Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Culture; *Social Behavior; Social Environment  
  Abstract This article presents a synthesis of research on the relative effectiveness of women and men who occupy leadership and managerial roles. Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective. However, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms, and women were more effective than men in roles that were defined in less masculine terms. Also, men were more effective than women to the extent that leader and subordinate roles were male-dominated numerically. These and other findings are discussed from the perspective of social-role theory of sex differences in social behavior as well as from alternative perspectives.  
  Call Number Serial 272  
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Author (up) Ebos, J.M.L.; Kerbel, R.S. file  url
  Title Antiangiogenic therapy: impact on invasion, disease progression, and metastasis Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Clin Oncol  
  Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages 210-221  
  Keywords Angiogenesis Inhibitors/*therapeutic use; Animals; Clinical Trials as Topic; Disease Progression; Humans; Neoplasm Invasiveness; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasms/blood supply/*drug therapy/*pathology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/*prevention & control; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors  
  Abstract Antiangiogenic drugs targeting the VEGF pathway have slowed metastatic disease progression in some patients, leading to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival benefits compared with controls. However, the results are more modest than predicted by most preclinical testing and benefits in PFS are frequently not accompanied by overall survival improvements. Questions have emerged about the basis of drug resistance and the limitations of predictive preclinical models, and also about whether the nature of disease progression following antiangiogenic therapy is different to classic cytotoxic therapies-in particular whether therapy may lead to more invasive or metastatic behavior. In addition, because of recent clinical trial failures of antiangiogenic therapy in patients with early-stage disease, and the fact that there are hundreds of trials underway in perioperative neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, there is now greater awareness about the lack of appropriate preclinical testing that preceded these studies. Improved preclinical assessment of all stages of metastatic disease should be a priority for future antiangiogenic drug discovery and development.  
  Call Number Serial 1197  
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