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Author (up) Eckel, L.A. file  url
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  Title The ovarian hormone estradiol plays a crucial role in the control of food intake in females Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 517-524  
  Keywords Animals; Brain--physiology; Eating--physiology; Estradiol--physiology; Estrogen Receptor alpha--physiology; Estrogen Receptor beta--physiology; Female; Humans  
  Abstract Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol's feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has been studied most extensively in rats and mice. Accordingly, much of the data reviewed here is derived from the rodent literature. Adult female rats display a robust decrease in food intake during estrus and ovariectomy promotes hyperphagia and weight gain, both of which can be prevented by a physiological regimen of estradiol treatment. Behavioral analyses have demonstrated that the feeding inhibitory effect of estradiol is mediated entirely by a decrease in meal size. In rats, estradiol appears to exert this action indirectly via interactions with peptide and neurotransmitter systems implicated in the direct control of meal size. Here, I summarize research examining the neurobiological mechanism underlying estradiol's anorexigenic effect. Central estrogen receptors (ERs) have been implicated and activation of one ER subtype in particular, ERalpha, appears both sufficient and necessary for the estrogenic control of food intake. Future studies are necessary to identify the critical brain areas and intracellular signaling pathways responsible for estradiol's anorexigenic effect. A clearer understanding of the estrogenic control of food intake is prerequisite to elucidating the biological factors that contribute to obesity and eating disorders, both of which are more prevalent in women, compared to men.  
  Call Number Serial 22  
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Author (up) Edwards, R.G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Maturation in vitro of mouse, sheep, cow, pig, rhesus monkey and human ovarian oocytes Type Journal Article
  Year 1965 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 208 Issue 5008 Pages 349-351  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; *Cell Division; Culture Media; Female; Haplorhini; Humans; In Vitro Techniques; Mice; *Ovum; Sheep; Swine  
  Abstract “The investigation of early development in many mammalian species is restricted by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of oocytes and embryos at particular stages of development.”  
  Call Number Serial 1159  
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Author (up) Edwards, R.G.; Bavister, B.D.; Steptoe, P.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Early stages of fertilization in vitro of human oocytes matured in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 1969 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 221 Issue 5181 Pages 632-635  
  Keywords Body Fluids; Culture Techniques; Embryo, Mammalian; Female; *Fertilization; *Germ Cells; Humans; Infertility, Female/therapy; Microscopy, Phase-Contrast; Ovarian Follicle; *Ovum  
  Abstract Human oocytes have been matured and fertilized by spermatozoa in vitro. There may be certain clinical and scientific uses for human eggs fertilized by this procedure.  
  Call Number Serial 1160  
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Author (up) Edwards, R.G.; Donahue, R.P.; Baramki, T.A.; Jones, H.W.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Preliminary attempts to fertilize human oocytes matured in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 1966 Publication American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Abbreviated Journal Am J Obstet Gynecol  
  Volume 96 Issue 2 Pages 192-200  
  Keywords Animals; Culture Techniques; Female; *Fertilization; Haplorhini; Humans; Male; Microscopy, Phase-Contrast; Ovum; Rabbits; Spermatozoa  
  Abstract Attempts were made to fertilize human oocytes after their maturation in culture. Initial attempts using washed spermatozoa showed that the great majority of eggs were unfertilized and that the spermatozoa failed to traverse the zona pellucida, probably because of lack of capacitation. Therefore, attempts were made to capacitate human spermatozoa by placing them in the reproductive tract of a rabbit, culturing them with pieces of human endosalpinx, taking them from cervical mucus, or transferring them with oocytes into the Fallopian tubes of estrous rabbits or hormonally primed monkeys. The incidence of fertilization remained very low after these treatment. Very few of the transferred human eggs were recovered from the monkeys.  
  Call Number Serial 1153  
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Author (up) Egas, D.A.; Wirth, M.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Fundamentals of protein separations: 50 years of nanotechnology, and growing Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry (Palo Alto, Calif.) Abbreviated Journal Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 833-855  
  Keywords Animals; Antigens/chemistry; Chromatography/methods; Colloids/chemistry; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; Immunoassay/methods; Kinetics; Nanostructures/chemistry; Nanotechnology/*methods; Proteins/chemistry/*isolation & purification; Proteomics/methods  
  Abstract The separation of proteins in biology samples has long been recognized as an important and daunting endeavor that continues to have enormous impact on human health. Today's technology for protein separations has its origins in the early nanotechnology of the 1950s and 1960s, and the methods include immunoassays and other affinity extractions, electrophoresis, and chromatography. What is different today is the need to resolve and identify many low-abundance proteins within complex biological matrices. Multidimensional separations are the rule, high speed is needed, and the separations must be able to work with mass spectrometry for protein identification. Hybrid approaches that combine disparate separation tools (including recognition, electrophoresis, and chromatography) take advantage of the fact that no single class of separation can resolve the proteins in a biological matrix. Protein separations represent a developing area technologically, and understanding the principles of protein separations from a molecular and nanoscale viewpoint will enable today's researchers to invent tomorrow's technology.  
  Call Number Serial 441  
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Author (up) Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
  Call Number Serial 1983  
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Author (up) Ehringer, M.A.; Rhee, S.H.; Young, S.; Corley, R.; Hewitt, J.K. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: a study of twins and their siblings Type
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology/methods; Adult; Biometry/methods; Child; Child Psychology/methods; Colorado/epidemiology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*psychology; Humans; Internal-External Control; Male; Mental Disorders/epidemiology/*genetics/*psychology; Prevalence; Self Disclosure; Sex Factors; Siblings/*psychology; *Social Environment  
  Abstract We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female adolescent (12-19 years) twin pairs and 426 siblings. Prevalence statistics for past year and lifetime reports confirm differences between genders for CD, GAD, SAD, and MDD, and a lack of differences between twins and their non-twin siblings. Biometrical modeling was conducted to ascertain the relative influences of genes, and shared and non-shared environments contributing to these disorders. A more robust estimate of these parameters was obtained by including non-twin siblings. Age-specific thresholds were integrated into the analyses to appropriately model the developmental patterns of behavior. We found evidence for both genetic and non-shared environmental influences for all disorders. Shared environmental influences also seem to be important for MDD and lifetime GAD.  
  Call Number Serial 98  
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Author (up) Eippert, F.; Bingel, U.; Schoell, E.D.; Yacubian, J.; Klinger, R.; Lorenz, J.; Buchel, C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Activation of the opioidergic descending pain control system underlies placebo analgesia Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Neuron Abbreviated Journal Neuron  
  Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 533-543  
  Keywords Adult; Analgesia/*methods; Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Double-Blind Method; Humans; Male; Naloxone/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Pain/*physiopathology/prevention & control; Pain Measurement/drug effects/*methods; Placebo Effect; Pyramidal Tracts/drug effects/*physiology; Receptors, Opioid/*physiology; Signal Transduction/drug effects/physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Placebo analgesia involves the endogenous opioid system, as administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone decreases placebo analgesia. To investigate the opioidergic mechanisms that underlie placebo analgesia, we combined naloxone administration with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Naloxone reduced both behavioral and neural placebo effects as well as placebo-induced responses in pain-modulatory cortical structures, such as the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). In a brainstem-specific analysis, we observed a similar naloxone modulation of placebo-induced responses in key structures of the descending pain control system, including the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Most importantly, naloxone abolished placebo-induced coupling between rACC and PAG, which predicted both neural and behavioral placebo effects as well as activation of the RVM. These findings show that opioidergic signaling in pain-modulating areas and the projections to downstream effectors of the descending pain control system are crucially important for placebo analgesia.  
  Call Number Serial 244  
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Author (up) El Amki, M.; Lerouet, D.; Coqueran, B.; Curis, E.; Orset, C.; Vivien, D.; Plotkine, M.; Marchand-Leroux, C.; Margaill, I. file  url
openurl 
  Title Experimental modeling of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator effects after ischemic stroke Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Experimental Neurology Abbreviated Journal Exp Neurol  
  Volume 238 Issue 2 Pages 138-144  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Brain Edema/etiology/prevention & control; Brain Infarction/etiology/prevention & control; *Disease Models, Animal; Drug Administration Schedule; Fibrinolytic Agents/*therapeutic use; Hemorrhage/drug therapy/etiology; Humans; Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/*complications; Male; Mice; Nervous System Diseases/etiology; Random Allocation; Stroke/complications/*drug therapy/*etiology; Time Factors; Tissue Plasminogen Activator/*therapeutic use; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved drug for ischemic stroke treatment, with a dose of 0.9 mg/kg. Since the fibrinolytic activity of rt-PA has been reported in vitro to be 10-fold less potent in rodent than in human, in most in vivo experimental models of cerebral ischemia rt-PA is used at 10 mg/kg. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the “human” (0.9 mg/kg) and “rodent” (10 mg/kg) doses of rt-PA given at an early or a delayed time point in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by thrombin injection into the left middle cerebral artery of mice. Rt-PA (0.9 or 10 mg/kg) was intravenously administered 30 min or 4 h after the onset of ischemia. The degree of reperfusion after rt-PA was followed for 90 min after its injection. The neurological deficit, infarct volumes, edema and hemorrhagic transformations (HT) were assessed at 24 h. Reperfusion was complete after early administration of rt-PA at 10 mg/kg but partial with rt-PA at 0.9 mg/kg. Both doses given at 4 h induced partial reperfusion. Early administration of both doses of rt-PA reduced the neurological deficit, lesion volume and brain edema, without modifying post-ischemic HT. Injected at 4 h, rt-PA at 0.9 and 10 mg/kg lost its beneficial effects and worsened HT. In conclusion, in the mouse thrombin stroke model, the “human” dose of rt-PA exhibits effects close to those observed in clinic.  
  Call Number Serial 925  
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Author (up) Elaad, E.; Ben-Shakhar, G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Finger pulse waveform length in the detection of concealed information Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 61 Issue 2 Pages 226-234  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal/*physiology; Attention/*physiology; Autonomic Nervous System/physiology; Female; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; *Guilt; Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Lie Detection/*psychology; Male; Mathematical Computing; Orientation/physiology; Plethysmography/statistics & numerical data; Problem Solving/*physiology; Pulse/*statistics & numerical data; Reference Values; *Respiration; Sensitivity and Specificity; Theft/*psychology  
  Abstract An attempt was made to assess the efficiency of the finger pulse waveform length (FPWL), in detection of concealed information. For this purpose, two mock-theft experiments were designed. In the first, 40 guilty participants were examined while electrodermal, respiration and finger pulse volume were recorded. Results showed that detection accuracy with the FPWL was at least as good as the accuracy obtained with the other two measures (respiration changes and skin conductance responses). Detection efficiency was further improved when a combination of FPWL with the other two measures was used. In the second experiment, 39 guilty and 23 innocent participants were instructed to deny knowledge while the transducers were not attached to them. Then, the same questions were repeated while electrodermal, respiration and finger pulse volume were recorded. Results showed reduced rates of identification compared to the first experiment, which were explained by habituation. However, finger pulse was less affected by habituation than both respiration and skin conductance. Results suggested that the FPWL might be a useful addition to the existing measures in the detection of concealed information.  
  Call Number Serial 1443  
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