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Author (up) Elmore, L.C.; Ma, W.J.; Magnotti, J.F.; Leising, K.J.; Passaro, A.D.; Katz, J.S.; Wright, A.A. file  url
  Title Visual short-term memory compared in rhesus monkeys and humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 21 Issue 11 Pages 975-979  
  Keywords Animals; Humans; Macaca mulatta/physiology/*psychology; *Memory, Short-Term; Psychophysics; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract Change detection is a popular task to study visual short-term memory (STM) in humans [1-4]. Much of this work suggests that STM has a fixed capacity of 4 +/- 1 items [1-6]. Here we report the first comparison of change-detection memory between humans and a species closely related to humans, the rhesus monkey. Monkeys and humans were tested in nearly identical procedures with overlapping display sizes. Although the monkeys' STM was well fit by a one-item fixed-capacity memory model, other monkey memory tests with four-item lists have shown performance impossible to obtain with a one-item capacity [7]. We suggest that this contradiction can be resolved using a continuous-resource approach more closely tied to the neural basis of memory [8, 9]. In this view, items have a noisy memory representation whose noise level depends on display size as a result of the distributed allocation of a continuous resource. In accord with this theory, we show that performance depends on the perceptual distance between items before and after the change, and d' depends on display size in an approximately power-law fashion. Our results open the door to combining the power of psychophysics, computation, and physiology to better understand the neural basis of STM.  
  Call Number Serial 127  
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Author (up) English, L.; Lasschuijt, M.; Keller, K.L. file  url
  Title Mechanisms of the portion size effect. What is known and where do we go from here? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 88 Issue Pages 39-49  
  Keywords Cues; *Feeding Behavior; Humans; Portion Size/*psychology; Eating behavior; Mechanisms; Portion size  
  Abstract Childhood obesity is a persistent problem worldwide, and of particular concern in the United States. Clarifying the role of the food environment in promoting overeating is an important step toward reducing the prevalence of obesity. One potential contributor to the obesity epidemic is the increased portion sizes of foods commonly served. Portion sizes of foods served both at home and away from home have dramatically increased over the past 40 years. Consistently, short-term studies have demonstrated that increasing portion size leads to increased food intake in adults and children, a phenomenon known as the portion size effect. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. Understanding these mechanisms could assist in clarifying the relationship between portion size and weight status and help inform the development of effective obesity interventions. First, we review the role of visual cues, such as plate size, unit, and utensil size as a potential moderator of the portion size effect. In addition, we discuss meal microstructure components including bite size, rate, and frequency, as these may be altered in response to different portion sizes. We also review theories that implicate post-ingestive, flavor-nutrient learning as a key moderator of the portion size effect. Furthermore, we present preliminary data from an ongoing study that is applying neuroimaging to better understand these mechanisms and identify modifiable child characteristics that could be targeted in obesity interventions. Our tentative findings suggest that individual differences in cognitive (e.g. loss of control eating) and neural responses to food cues may be critical in understanding the mechanisms of the portion size effect. To advance this research area, studies that integrate measures of individual subject-level differences with assessment of food-related characteristics are needed.  
  Call Number Serial 1644  
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Author (up) Ewers, M.; Frisoni, G.B.; Teipel, S.J.; Grinberg, L.T.; Amaro, E.J.; Heinsen, H.; Thompson, P.M.; Hampel, H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Staging Alzheimer's disease progression with multimodality neuroimaging Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Progress in Neurobiology Abbreviated Journal Prog Neurobiol  
  Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 535-546  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/complications/*diagnosis; Brain/growth & development/metabolism/pathology/*radionuclide imaging; Brain Mapping; Cognition Disorders/diagnosis/etiology/radionuclide imaging; *Disease Progression; Humans; *Positron-Emission Tomography  
  Abstract Rapid developments in medical neuroimaging have made it possible to reconstruct the trajectory of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it spreads through the living brain. The current review focuses on the progressive signature of brain changes throughout the different stages of AD. We integrate recent findings on changes in cortical gray matter volume, white matter fiber tracts, neuropathological alterations, and brain metabolism assessed with molecular positron emission tomography (PET). Neurofibrillary tangles accumulate first in transentorhinal and cholinergic brain areas, and 4-D maps of cortical volume changes show early progressive temporo-parietal cortical thinning. Findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment fiber tract integrity show cortical disconnection in corresponding brain networks. Importantly, the developmental trajectory of brain changes is not uniform and may be modulated by several factors such as onset of disease mechanisms, risk-associated and protective genes, converging comorbidity, and individual brain reserve. There is a general agreement between in vivo brain maps of cortical atrophy and amyloid pathology assessed through PET, reminiscent of post mortem histopathology studies that paved the way in the staging of AD. The association between in vivo and post mortem findings will clarify the temporal dynamics of pathophysiological alterations in the development of preclinical AD. This will be important in designing effective treatments that target specific underlying disease AD mechanisms.  
  Call Number Serial 526  
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Author (up) Fabbro, F. file  url
  Title The bilingual brain: cerebral representation of languages Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 211-222  
  Keywords Brain/*anatomy & histology/*physiology; Functional Laterality/physiology; Humans; *Language; *Multilingualism  
  Abstract The present article deals with theoretical and experimental aspects of language representation in the multilingual brain. Two general approaches were adopted in the study of the bilingual brain. The study of bilingual aphasics allows us to describe dissociations and double dissociations between the different subcomponents of the various languages. Furthermore, symptoms peculiar to bilingual aphasia were reported (pathological mixing and switching and translations disorders) which allowed the correlation of some abilities specific to bilinguals with particular neurofunctional systems. Another approach to the study of the bilingual brain is of the experimental type, such as electrophysiological investigations (electrocorticostimulation during brain surgery and event-related potentials) and functional neuroanatomy studies (positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging). Functional neuroanatomy studies investigated the brain representation of languages when processing lexical and syntactic stimuli and short stories. Neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies evidenced a similar cerebral representation of L1 and L2 lexicons both in early and late bilinguals. The representation of grammatical aspects of languages seems to be different between the two languages if L2 is acquired after the age of 7, with automatic processes and correctness being lower than those of the native language. These results are in line with a greater representation of the two lexicons in the declarative memory systems, whereas morphosyntactic aspects may be organized in different systems according to the acquisition vs learning modality.  
  Call Number Serial 541  
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Author (up) Facchin, F.; Barbara, G.; Saita, E.; Mosconi, P.; Roberto, A.; Fedele, L.; Vercellini, P. file  url
  Title Impact of endometriosis on quality of life and mental health: pelvic pain makes the difference Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 135-141  
  Keywords Adult; *Anxiety/etiology/physiopathology; Constipation/etiology/physiopathology; Data Interpretation, Statistical; *Depression/etiology/physiopathology; *Dysmenorrhea/etiology/psychology; Dyspareunia/etiology/psychology; *Endometriosis/complications/diagnosis/physiopathology/psychology; Female; Humans; Italy; Mental Health/statistics & numerical data; Pain Measurement/methods; *Pelvic Pain/etiology/psychology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychometrics/methods; *Quality of Life; Anxiety; depression; endometriosis; pelvic pain; quality of life  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: No prior study of endometriosis has investigated the psychological impact of having asymptomatic endometriosis versus endometriosis with pelvic pain in a systematic way. This study aimed at examining the impact of endometriosis on quality of life, anxiety and depression by comparing asymptomatic endometriosis, endometriosis with pelvic pain, and healthy, pain-free controls. The psychological impact of different types of endometriosis pain was also tested. METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (78 with pelvic pain and 32 without pain symptoms) and 61 healthy controls completed two psychometric tests assessing quality of life, anxiety and depression. Endometriosis participants indicated on a numerical rating scale the intensity of four types of pain (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, non-menstrual pelvic pain and dyschezia). RESULTS: Endometriosis patients with pelvic pain had poorer quality of life and mental health as compared with those with asymptomatic endometriosis and the healthy controls. No significant differences were found between asymptomatic endometriosis and the control group. Dysmenorrhea had significant effects only on physical quality of life; non-menstrual pelvic pain affected all the variables; no significant effects were found for dyspareunia and dyschezia. CONCLUSIONS: Pain significantly affects women's experience of endometriosis. The medical treatment of endometriosis with pain may not be sufficient and psychological intervention is recommended.  
  Call Number Serial 2124  
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Author (up) Fals-Stewart, W.; Golden, J.; Schumacher, J.A. file  url
  Title Intimate partner violence and substance use: a longitudinal day-to-day examination Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1555-1574  
  Keywords Adult; Alcohol Drinking/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Cocaine-Related Disorders/psychology; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Medical Records; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Models, Statistical; Risk Factors; Spouse Abuse/*psychology; Substance-Related Disorders/*psychology  
  Abstract The likelihood of male-to-female physical aggression on days of male partners' substance use, during a 15-month period, was examined. Participants were from married or cohabiting partner violent men entering a drug abuse treatment program (N=149). Compared to days of no drug or alcohol use, the likelihood of male-to-female physical aggression was significantly higher on days of substance use, after controlling for male partners' antisocial personality (ASP) disorder and couples' global relationship distress. Of the psychoactive substances examined, the use of alcohol and cocaine was associated with significant increases in the daily likelihood of male-to-female physical aggression; cannabis and opiates were not significantly associated with an increased likelihood of male partner violence.  
  Call Number Serial 237  
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Author (up) Farina, D.; Jiang, N.; Rehbaum, H.; Holobar, A.; Graimann, B.; Dietl, H.; Aszmann, O.C. file  url
  Title The extraction of neural information from the surface EMG for the control of upper-limb prostheses: emerging avenues and challenges Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering : a Publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Abbreviated Journal IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 797-809  
  Keywords Action Potentials/*physiology; Arm; Artificial Intelligence/trends; Artificial Limbs/*trends; Electromyography/*trends; Feedback, Physiological/physiology; Humans; Movement/*physiology; Muscle Contraction/*physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Pattern Recognition, Automated/*trends  
  Abstract Despite not recording directly from neural cells, the surface electromyogram (EMG) signal contains information on the neural drive to muscles, i.e., the spike trains of motor neurons. Using this property, myoelectric control consists of the recording of EMG signals for extracting control signals to command external devices, such as hand prostheses. In commercial control systems, the intensity of muscle activity is extracted from the EMG and used for single degrees of freedom activation (direct control). Over the past 60 years, academic research has progressed to more sophisticated approaches but, surprisingly, none of these academic achievements has been implemented in commercial systems so far. We provide an overview of both commercial and academic myoelectric control systems and we analyze their performance with respect to the characteristics of the ideal myocontroller. Classic and relatively novel academic methods are described, including techniques for simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees of freedom and the use of individual motor neuron spike trains for direct control. The conclusion is that the gap between industry and academia is due to the relatively small functional improvement in daily situations that academic systems offer, despite the promising laboratory results, at the expense of a substantial reduction in robustness. None of the systems so far proposed in the literature fulfills all the important criteria needed for widespread acceptance by the patients, i.e. intuitive, closed-loop, adaptive, and robust real-time ( 200 ms delay) control, minimal number of recording electrodes with low sensitivity to repositioning, minimal training, limited complexity and low consumption. Nonetheless, in recent years, important efforts have been invested in matching these criteria, with relevant steps forwards.  
  Call Number Serial 2093  
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Author (up) Farley, C.T.; Gonzalez, O. file  url
  Title Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Biomechanics Abbreviated Journal J Biomech  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 181-186  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; Biomechanical Phenomena; Elasticity; Gait/*physiology; Humans; Leg/*physiology; Ligaments/physiology; Male; Models, Biological; Muscle, Skeletal/physiology; Running/*physiology; Stress, Mechanical; Tendons/physiology; Weight-Bearing  
  Abstract When humans and other mammals run, the body's complex system of muscle, tendon and ligament springs behaves like a single linear spring ('leg spring'). A simple spring-mass model, consisting of a single linear leg spring and a mass equivalent to the animal's mass, has been shown to describe the mechanics of running remarkably well. Force platform measurements from running animals, including humans, have shown that the stiffness of the leg spring remains nearly the same at all speeds and that the spring-mass system is adjusted for higher speeds by increasing the angle swept by the leg spring. The goal of the present study is to determine the relative importance of changes to the leg spring stiffness and the angle swept by the leg spring when humans alter their stride frequency at a given running speed. Human subjects ran on treadmill-mounted force platform at 2.5ms-1 while using a range of stride frequencies from 26% below to 36% above the preferred stride frequency. Force platform measurements revealed that the stiffness of the leg spring increased by 2.3-fold from 7.0 to 16.3 kNm-1 between the lowest and highest stride frequencies. The angle swept by the leg spring decreased at higher stride frequencies, partially offsetting the effect of the increased leg spring stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the spring-mass system. We conclude that the most important adjustment to the body's spring system to accommodate higher stride frequencies is that leg spring becomes stiffer.  
  Call Number Serial 148  
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Author (up) Faseru, B.; Choi, W.S.; Krebill, R.; Mayo, M.S.; Nollen, N.L.; Okuyemi, K.S.; Ahluwalia, J.S.; Cox, L.S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among treatment-seeking African American light smokers Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 36 Issue 12 Pages 1321-1324  
  Keywords African Americans/*psychology; Age Factors; Carbon Monoxide/analysis; Depressive Disorder/ethnology; Female; Humans; Kansas/epidemiology; Male; *Menthol; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Smoking/*ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/ethnology; *Tobacco  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (</=10 cigarettes per day). METHODS: Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified. RESULTS: Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population.  
  Call Number Serial 370  
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Author (up) Fausey, C.M.; Jayaraman, S.; Smith, L.B. file  url
  Title From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 101-107  
  Keywords *Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Facial Recognition; Female; Hand; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Social Perception; Statistics as Topic; *Visual Perception; *Egocentric vision; *Faces; *Hands; *Head camera; *Infancy; *Scene statistics  
  Abstract Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1month to 2years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5Hz. The major finding from this corpus is that the faces and hands of social partners are not equally available throughout the first two years of life. Instead, there is an earlier period of dense face input and a later period of dense hand input. At all ages, hands in these scenes were primarily in contact with objects and the spatio-temporal co-occurrence of hands and faces was greater than expected by chance. The orderliness of the shift from faces to hands suggests a principled transition in the contents of visual experiences and is discussed in terms of the role of developmental gates on the timing and statistics of visual experiences.  
  Call Number Serial 1801  
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