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Author (up) Aro, H.M.; Palosaari, U.K. file  url
  Title Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: a follow-up study Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 62 Issue 3 Pages 421-429  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Cohort Studies; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Self Concept; Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a long-term study of the effects of divorce, children in a Finnish town who had completed questionnaires in school at age 16 were followed up with postal questionnaires at age 22. Depression in young adulthood was found to be slightly more common among children from divorced families. In addition, the life trajectories of children in divorced families revealed more stressful paths and more distress in both adolescence and young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 279  
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Author (up) Aspinall, P.J. file  url
  Title Describing the “white” ethnic group and its composition in medical research Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 47 Issue 11 Pages 1797-1808  
  Keywords Canada; Ethnic Groups/*classification; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification; Great Britain; Humans; *Minority Groups; *Research; Social Identification; State Medicine; United States  
  Abstract The routine use in medical research of an ostensibly homogeneous “white” category in ethnic group classifications has meant that white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though such groups are subject to discrimination and disadvantage common to other minority groups. The terms “white” and “Caucasian” are frequently and increasingly employed in the scientific literature in spite of widespread concern about the medicalization of race. Moreover, in Great Britain ethnic monitoring of hospital inpatients has revealed negligible interest in utilising codes that subdivide the white group. Yet recent research has shown, for example, substantially elevated age standardised limiting long-term illness rates in the first generation Irish and excess mortality in the second generation living in Britain. The health needs of these white minorities can only properly be identified through the availability of census denominator data of the kind now collected in the U.S. and Canadian decennial census questions on ethnic origin. The opportunity for government to make such provision in the forthcoming Great Britain 2001 Census should be seized whilst it is still available and recommendations for subdividing the “white” group are made.  
  Call Number Serial 105  
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Author (up) Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R. file  url
  Title Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-21  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.  
  Call Number Serial 235  
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Author (up) Au, T.K. file  url
  Title Chinese and English counterfactuals: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 15 Issue 1-3 Pages 155-187  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Child; *Cognition; Female; Humans; *Language; Linguistics; Male; Thinking  
  Abstract Bloom (1981) found that Chinese speakers were less likely than English speakers to give counterfactual interpretations to a counterfactual story. These findings, together with the presence of a distinct counterfactual marker (the subjunctive) in English, but not in Chinese, were interpreted as evidence for the weak form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. A series of five studies was designed to replicate these findings, using both Chinese and English versions of a new counterfactual story as well as the story used by Bloom. In these studies, bilingual Chinese showed little difficulty in understanding either story in either language, insofar as the English and Chinese were idiomatic. For one story, the Chinese bilinguals performed better in Chinese than American subjects did in English. Nearly monolingual Chinese who did not know the English subjunctive also gave mostly counterfactual responses. These findings suggest that the mastery of the English subjunctive is probably quite tangenital to counterfactual reasoning in Chinese. In short, the present research yielded no support for the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.  
  Call Number Serial 1719  
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Author (up) Avery, D.H.; Wildschiodtz, G.; Smallwood, R.G.; Martin, D.; Rafaelsen, O.J. file  url
  Title REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand  
  Volume 74 Issue 3 Pages 269-280  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aging/physiology; Bipolar Disorder/*physiopathology; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm; Depressive Disorder/*physiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Menopause; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology; Sleep, REM/*physiology  
  Abstract REM latency and rectal and ear canal temperature were studied simultaneously in 11 controls and nine depressed patients; seven of the patients were studied when recovered. REM latency was shorter in the depressed group compared with controls and lengthened with recovery. The nocturnal and ear canal temperatures were higher in the depressed group compared with controls and decreased with recovery. REM latency and the nocturnal rectal temperature were negatively correlated when all the nights of the depressed patients were analyzed (r = -0.44) and when all the nights of the subjects were analyzed (r = -0.44). REM latency and nocturnal ear canal temperatures were negatively correlated when all the nights of the control group were analyzed (r = -0.34). The timing of the temperature rhythm did not appear to be correlated with the REM latency.  
  Call Number Serial 1148  
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Author (up) Azuma, T. file  url
  Title Working memory and perseveration in verbal fluency Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Random Allocation; Semantics; Task Performance and Analysis; Verbal Behavior/*physiology; Verbal Learning/*physiology; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Letter and semantic fluency tasks are often used in neuropsychological assessment and are sensitive to many conditions. Performance is assessed by correct responses and errors, including perseverations. Healthy young adults performed letter and semantic fluency tasks. One group performed these tasks in the conventional manner; 2 other groups performed them while maintaining memory loads. The memory loads consisted either of words from the same category as the fluency task or of words from a different category. The results showed little effect of memory loads on correct responses but significant effects of memory load on perseveration rates: Same-category loads resulted in higher rates, especially in letter fluency. The results are discussed in terms of frontal lobe function in verbal fluency.  
  Call Number Serial 239  
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Author (up) Baber, M.; Chaudhry, S.; Kelly, L.; Ross, C.; Carleton, B.; Berger, H.; Koren, G. file  url
  Title The pharmacogenetics of codeine pain relief in the postpartum period Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication The Pharmacogenomics Journal Abbreviated Journal Pharmacogenomics J  
  Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages 430-435  
  Keywords Adult; Cesarean Section/adverse effects; Codeine/*administration & dosage; Female; Genotype; Glucuronosyltransferase/*genetics; Humans; Pain/drug therapy/*genetics/pathology; Pain Management; Pharmacogenetics; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Postpartum Period; Pregnancy; Receptors, Opioid, mu/*genetics  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to examine interindividual variability in codeine requirements and pain management by examining select genetic polymorphisms in the codeine pharmacological pathway. The study included a nested cohort of 98 women who were prescribed codeine following cesarean section. Participants were genotyped for select polymorphisms of the COMT, ABCB1, CYP2D6, UGT2B7 and OPRM1 genes and instructed to describe their level of pain using the visual analog scale (mm) 1 h following each dose of codeine. Analysis revealed that reported pain increases with maternal age (P=0.041). Asians required more codeine than Caucasians (P=0.048). Significant differences in mean dose consumption were seen among the genotypic groups of the OPRM1 A118G (P=0.001) and UGT2B7 C802T (P=0.015) variants. These variants were found to predict codeine consumption in the cohort overall (P=0.000) and among Caucasians (P=0.001). These findings will assist in customizing therapy to effectively manage postpartum pain.  
  Call Number Serial 1573  
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Author (up) Baden, D.A.; McLean, T.L.; Tucker, R.; Noakes, T.D.; St Clair Gibson, A. file  url
  Title Effect of anticipation during unknown or unexpected exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion, affect, and physiological function Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication British Journal of Sports Medicine Abbreviated Journal Br J Sports Med  
  Volume 39 Issue 10 Pages 742-6; discussion 742-6  
  Keywords Affect--physiology; Exercise--physiology, psychology; Exercise Test--methods; Female; Heart Rate--physiology; Humans; Male; Oxygen Consumption--physiology; Physical Endurance--physiology; Physical Exertion--physiology; Running--physiology, psychology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of unknown exercise duration and an unexpected increase in exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and running economy during treadmill running. METHODS: Sixteen well trained male and female runners completed three bouts of treadmill running at 75% of their peak treadmill running speed. In the first trial, they were told to run for 20 minutes and were stopped at 20 minutes (20 MIN). In another trial, they were told to run for 10 minutes, but at 10 minutes were told to run for a further 10 minutes (10 MIN). In the final trial, they were not told for how long they would be running but were stopped after 20 minutes (unknown, UN). During each of the running bouts, RPE, oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min), heart rate (beats/min), stride frequency (min(-1)), affect scores (arbitrary units), and attentional focus (percentage associative thought scores) were recorded. RESULTS: RPE increased significantly between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN compared with the 20 MIN and UN trials (p<0.05). The affect score decreased significantly between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN compared with the 20 MIN trial (p<0.05). Running economy, as measured by oxygen consumption, was significantly lower in the UN compared with the 20 MIN trial from 10 to 19 minutes (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The change in RPE between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN trial suggests that RPE is not purely a measure of physical exertion, as treadmill speed was maintained at a constant pace both before and after the unexpected increase in exercise duration. The associated changes in affect score at similar times in the 10 MIN trial supports the hypothesis that RPE has an affective component.  
  Call Number Serial 46  
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Author (up) Bailey, A.; Le Couteur, A.; Gottesman, I.; Bolton, P.; Simonoff, E.; Yuzda, E.; Rutter, M. file  url
  Title Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 63-77  
  Keywords Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Diseases in Twins/*genetics/psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Great Britain; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intelligence/genetics; Male; Models, Genetic; Personality Assessment; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment; Social Environment; Twins, Dizygotic/genetics/psychology; Twins, Monozygotic/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.  
  Call Number Serial 1112  
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Author (up) Bandura, A.; Ross, D.; Ross, S.A. file  url
  Title Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models Type Journal Article
  Year 1961 Publication Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Soc Psychol  
  Volume 63 Issue Pages 575-582  
  Keywords *Aggression; Humans; Children; Imitation; Model; Behavior  
  Abstract In a previous study, children imitated the behavior of a model in the presence of the model. The present study investigated the degree of imitation when the model was not present. Degree to which like-sexed model behavior would be followed was also studied. Nursery school children exposed to aggressively behaving models tended to imitate not only their aggressiveness but other behavior as well. There was some confirmation of like-sex imitation. The results were related to the psychoanalytic theory of identification.  
  Call Number Serial 1654  
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