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Author (up) Frank, G.K.; Bailer, U.F.; Henry, S.E.; Drevets, W.; Meltzer, C.C.; Price, J.C.; Mathis, C.A.; Wagner, A.; Hoge, J.; Ziolko, S.; Barbarich-Marsteller, N.; Weissfeld, L.; Kaye, W.H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Increased dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography and [11c]raclopride Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 58 Issue 11 Pages 908-912  
  Keywords Adult; Algorithms; Anorexia/*metabolism/psychology/*radionuclide imaging; Dopamine Antagonists/*diagnostic use; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neostriatum/radionuclide imaging; Nucleus Accumbens/radionuclide imaging; Positron-Emission Tomography; Raclopride/*diagnostic use; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism; Receptors, Dopamine D3/*metabolism; Reward  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence support the possibility that disturbances of dopamine (DA) function could contribute to alterations of weight, feeding, motor activity, and reward in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: To assess possibly trait-related disturbances but avoid confounding effects of malnutrition, 10 women who were recovered from AN (REC AN) were compared with 12 healthy control women (CW). Positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride was used to assess DA D2/D3 receptor binding. RESULTS: The women who were recovered from AN had significantly higher [(11)C]raclopride binding potential in the antero-ventral striatum than CW. For REC AN, [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance in the dorsal caudate and dorsal putamen. CONCLUSIONS: These data lend support for the possibility that decreased intrasynaptic DA concentration or increased D2/D3 receptor density or affinity is associated with AN and might contribute to the characteristic harm avoidance or increased physical activity found in AN. Most intriguing is the possibility that individuals with AN might have a DA related disturbance of reward mechanisms contributing to altered hedonics of feeding behavior and their ascetic, anhedonic temperament.  
  Call Number Serial 90  
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Author (up) Fredriksen, M.; Halmoy, A.; Faraone, S.V.; Haavik, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Long-term efficacy and safety of treatment with stimulants and atomoxetine in adult ADHD: a review of controlled and naturalistic studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication European Neuropsychopharmacology : the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur Neuropsychopharmacol  
  Volume 23 Issue 6 Pages 508-527  
  Keywords Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Adult; Amphetamine/adverse effects/therapeutic use; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*drug therapy; Central Nervous System Stimulants/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Methylphenidate/adverse effects/therapeutic use; Propylamines/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic  
  Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood that often persists into adulthood. Although stimulant medications are recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD because of their documented short-term effects in children and adults, less is known about their effects on long-term outcome in adults. Here we review the long-term efficacy and safety of the stimulant drugs methylphenidate and amphetamine, as well as the related compound atomoxetine. We performed a systematic review to identify direct and indirect effects of stimulant therapy on long-term outcome in adults. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 10 open-label extension studies of initial short-term RCTs, with total follow-up of at least 24weeks, were identified. All these RCTs found that medication was significantly more efficacious than placebo in treating ADHD in adults, and the extension studies showed that this favorable effect of medication was maintained during the open-label follow-up period. However, since the maximum duration of these pharmacological trials was 4years, we also reviewed 18 defined naturalistic longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, to provide more information about longer term functional outcomes, side effects and complications. These observational studies also showed positive correlations between early recognition of the disorder, stimulant treatment during childhood and favorable long-term outcome in adult ADHD patients. In conclusion, stimulant therapy of ADHD has long-term beneficial effects and is well tolerated. However, more longitudinal studies of long duration should be performed. In addition, the ethical issues involved in performing double blind RCTs of many years duration should be further explored.  
  Call Number Serial 1092  
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Author (up) Freedberg, D.E.; Salmasian, H.; Cohen, B.; Abrams, J.A.; Larson, E.L. file  url
  Title Receipt of Antibiotics in Hospitalized Patients and Risk for Clostridium difficile Infection in Subsequent Patients Who Occupy the Same Bed Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication JAMA Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal JAMA Intern Med  
  Volume 176 Issue 12 Pages 1801-1808  
  Keywords Aged; Antacids/therapeutic use; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use; *Beds; Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy/*transmission; Clostridium difficile; Cohort Studies; Cross Infection/*epidemiology/microbiology; Female; *Hospitalization; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Male; Middle Aged; New York City/epidemiology; Retrospective Studies; Risk; Risk Factors  
  Abstract Objective: To assess whether receipt of antibiotics by prior hospital bed occupants is associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients who occupy the same bed. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized in any 1 of 4 facilities between 2010 and 2015. Patients were excluded if they had recent CDI, developed CDI within 48 hours of admission, had inadequate follow-up time, or if their prior bed occupant was in the bed for less than 24 hours. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary exposure was receipt of non-CDI antibiotics by the prior bed occupant and the primary outcome was incident CDI in the subsequent patient to occupy the same bed. Incident CDI was defined as a positive result from a stool polymerase chain reaction for the C difficile toxin B gene followed by treatment for CDI. Demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data, and medication exposures are reported. Results: Among 100615 pairs of patients who sequentially occupied a given hospital bed, there were 576 pairs (0.57%) in which subsequent patients developed CDI. Receipt of antibiotics in prior patients was significantly associated with incident CDI in subsequent patients (log-rank P < .01). This relationship remained unchanged after adjusting for factors known to influence risk for CDI including receipt of antibiotics by the subsequent patient (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45) and also after excluding 1497 patient pairs among whom the prior patients developed CDI (aHR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). Aside from antibiotics, no other factors related to the prior bed occupants were associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Receipt of antibiotics by prior bed occupants was associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients. Antibiotics can directly affect risk for CDI in patients who do not themselves receive antibiotics.  
  Call Number Serial 2082  
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Author (up) Freeth, M.; Ropar, D.; Chapman, P.; Mitchell, P. url  doi
  Title The eye gaze direction of an observed person can bias perception, memory, and attention in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Child Psychol  
  Volume 105 Issue 1-2 Pages 20-37  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention; Attentional Blink; Child; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive--psychology; Female; Fixation, Ocular; Humans; Male; Memory; Prejudice; Social Behavior; Visual Perception  
  Abstract The reported experiments aimed to investigate whether a person and his or her gaze direction presented in the context of a naturalistic scene cause perception, memory, and attention to be biased in typically developing adolescents and high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A novel computerized image manipulation program presented a series of photographic scenes, each containing a person. The program enabled participants to laterally maneuver the scenes behind a static window, the borders of which partially occluded the scenes. The gaze direction of the person in the scenes spontaneously cued attention of both groups in the direction of gaze, affecting judgments of preference (Experiment 1a) and causing memory biases (Experiment 1b). Experiment 2 showed that the gaze direction of a person cues visual search accurately to the exact location of gaze in both groups. These findings suggest that biases in preference, memory, and attention are caused by another person's gaze direction when viewed in a complex scene in adolescents with and without ASD.  
  Call Number Serial 58  
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Author (up) Frokjaer, V.G.; Mortensen, E.L.; Nielsen, F.A.; Haugbol, S.; Pinborg, L.H.; Adams, K.H.; Svarer, C.; Hasselbalch, S.G.; Holm, S.; Paulson, O.B.; Knudsen, G.M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 6 Pages 569-576  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Biological Markers; *Character; Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Fluorine Radioisotopes/*diagnostic use; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Gyrus Cinguli/physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Humans; *Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Ketanserin/*analogs & derivatives/diagnostic use; Limbic System/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Middle Aged; Neurotic Disorders/diagnosis/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Personality Inventory; *Positron-Emission Tomography; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A/*physiology; Reference Values; Risk Factors; Statistics as Topic; Temporal Lobe/physiopathology/radionuclide imaging  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain regions of relevance for affective disorders. METHODS: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [(18)F]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding. The correlation between the neuroticism score and frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. RESULTS: Neuroticism correlated positively with frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding [r(79) = .24, p = .028]. Post hoc analysis of the contributions from the six constituent traits of neuroticism showed that the correlation was primarily driven by two of them: vulnerability and anxiety. Indeed, vulnerability, defined as a person's difficulties in coping with stress, displayed the strongest positive correlation, which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (r = .35, p = .009). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects the personality dimension neuroticism and particularly its constituent trait, vulnerability, are positively associated with frontolimbic serotonin 2A binding. Our findings point to a neurobiological link between personality risk factors for affective disorder and the serotonergic transmitter system and identify the serotonin 2A receptor as a biomarker for vulnerability to affective disorder.  
  Call Number Serial 1114  
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Author (up) Fugier, E.; Pappas, G.; Gorvel, J.-P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Virulence factors in brucellosis: implications for aetiopathogenesis and treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Mol Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 35 Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Animals; Brucella/metabolism/*pathogenicity; Brucellosis/*drug therapy/immunology/*microbiology; Humans; Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism; Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism; *Virulence  
  Abstract Brucella species are responsible for the global zoonotic disease brucellosis. These intracellular pathogens express a set of factors – including lipopolysaccharides, virulence regulator proteins and phosphatidylcholine – to ensure their full virulence. Some virulence factors are essential for invasion of the host cell, whereas others are crucial to avoid elimination by the host. They allow Brucella spp. to survive and proliferate within its replicative vacuole and enable the bacteria to escape detection by the host immune system. Several strategies have been used to develop animal vaccines against brucellosis, but no adequate vaccine yet exists to cure the disease in humans. This is probably due to the complicated pathophysiology of human Brucella spp. infection, which is different than in animal models. Here we review Brucella spp. virulence factors and how they control bacterial trafficking within the host cell.  
  Call Number Serial 390  
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Author (up) Fulop, S.A.; Ladefoged, P.; Liu, F.; Vossen, R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Yeyi clicks: acoustic description and analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Phonetica Abbreviated Journal Phonetica  
  Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 231-260  
  Keywords Botswana; Discriminant Analysis; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Phonation/*physiology; *Phonetics; Sound Spectrography; *Speech Acoustics; Speech Production Measurement; Tape Recording; Verbal Behavior  
  Abstract Yeyi has the largest known inventory of click sounds in the Bantu language family. It is now entering a moribund state, and this paper documents a variety of acoustic and distributional details of the clicks found in the speech of 13 Yeyi speakers by presenting sound inventories, spectrograms, palatograms, and related acoustic data. The durations of the closure and release phases of the clicks were measured, and an analysis demonstrates that the two duration measures together are statistically able to distinguish the dental, alveolar, palatal, and lateral clicks from one another. A second quantitative study examines the discriminability of the four click places using solely the anterior burst power spectra, as parametrized using the first four spectral moments. The places of articulation are found to be moderately well classified by this means. The patterns of interspeaker variation affecting the clicks are also documented, and these are found to accord rather well with the classification errors made by the optimal classifier using the anterior burst spectra.  
  Call Number Serial 204  
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Author (up) Gabbard, G.O.; Twemlow, S.W.; Jones, F.C. url  openurl
  Title Differential diagnosis of altered mind/body perception Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry  
  Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 361-369  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Body Image; Child; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis; Consciousness Disorders--diagnosis, psychology; Depersonalization--diagnosis, psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Psychological Tests; Reality Testing; Schizophrenia--diagnosis; Schizophrenic Psychology  
  Abstract Considerable confusion exists in the psychiatric literature concerned with states of consciousness in which there is an altered perception of the mind/body relationship; related but different terms are often used interchangeably, with a lack of definitional rigor. The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to this group of related phenomena by differentiating out-of-body experience (OBE) from depersonalization, autoscopic phenomena and schizophrenic body distortions (such as boundary loss), which are the principal entities with which the syndrome may be confused. The problem of variable definition of the syndromes is compounded by the fact that some studies deal with psychiatric or medical patients, others focus on nonpatients, and still others deal with both groups. The fact that some groups of persons with experiences of altered mind/body perception do not define themselves as patients, do not seek treatment, and may not need treatment underscores the need for clarification. Following an explication of the different syndromes and their characteristics, we will briefly consider treatment implications.  
  Call Number Serial 31  
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Author (up) Gaetke, L.M.; Chow, C.K. file  url
  Title Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Toxicology Abbreviated Journal Toxicology  
  Volume 189 Issue 1-2 Pages 147-163  
  Keywords Animals; Antioxidants/metabolism/*pharmacology; Ascorbic Acid/metabolism/therapeutic use; Copper/metabolism/*toxicity; *Flavonoids; Humans; Hydroxyl Radical/metabolism; Oxidative Stress/drug effects/*physiology; Phenols/metabolism/therapeutic use; Polymers/metabolism/therapeutic use; Polyphenols; Thioctic Acid/metabolism/therapeutic use; Vitamin E/metabolism/therapeutic use; Zinc/metabolism/therapeutic use; beta Carotene/metabolism/therapeutic use  
  Abstract Copper (Cu) is an integral part of many important enzymes involved in a number of vital biological processes. Although normally bound to proteins, Cu may be released and become free to catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Data obtained from in vitro and cell culture studies are largely supportive of Cu's capacity to initiate oxidative damage and interfere with important cellular events. Oxidative damage has been linked to chronic Cu-overload and/or exposure to excess Cu caused by accidents, occupational hazards, and environmental contamination. Additionally, Cu-induced oxidative damage has been implicated in disorders associated with abnormal Cu metabolism and neurodegenerative changes. Interestingly, a deficiency in dietary Cu also increases cellular susceptibility to oxidative damage. A number of nutrients have been shown to interact with Cu and alter its cellular effects. Vitamin E is generally protective against Cu-induced oxidative damage. While most in vitro or cell culture studies show that ascorbic acid aggravates Cu-induced oxidative damage, results obtained from available animal studies suggest that the compound is protective. High intakes of ascorbic acid and zinc may provide protection against Cu toxicity by preventing excess Cu uptake. Zinc also removes Cu from its binding site, where it may cause free radical formation. Beta-carotene, alpha-lipoic acid and polyphenols have also been shown to attenuate Cu-induced oxidative damage. Further studies are needed to better understand the cellular effects of this essential, but potentially toxic, trace mineral and its functional interaction with other nutrients.  
  Call Number Serial 1049  
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Author (up) Gajer, P.; Brotman, R.M.; Bai, G.; Sakamoto, J.; Schutte, U.M.E.; Zhong, X.; Koenig, S.S.K.; Fu, L.; Ma, Z.S.; Zhou, X.; Abdo, Z.; Forney, L.J.; Ravel, J. file  url
  Title Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Science Translational Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sci Transl Med  
  Volume 4 Issue 132 Pages 132ra52  
  Keywords Bacteria/classification/genetics; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Metabolome; Metabolomics; Metagenome/genetics/*physiology; Models, Biological; Phylogeny; Time Factors; Vagina/*microbiology; Microbiome  
  Abstract Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis.  
  Call Number Serial 2175  
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