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Author (up) Galatzer-Levy, I.R.; Ankri, Y.; Freedman, S.; Israeli-Shalev, Y.; Roitman, P.; Gilad, M.; Shalev, A.Y. file  url
  Title Early PTSD symptom trajectories: persistence, recovery, and response to treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 8 Pages e70084  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Cognitive Therapy/methods; Cohort Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Israel; Likelihood Functions; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Statistical; Psychometrics; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*diagnosis/*therapy; Symptom Assessment; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. SETTING: Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. PARTICIPANTS: Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. APPROACH: We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8+/-5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8+/-42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. RESULTS: THREE TRAJECTORIES WERE IDENTIFIED: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. CONCLUSIONS: The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder and preventing its occurrence. Studies of the pathogenesis of PTSD may benefit from using clustered symptom trajectories as their dependent variables.  
  Call Number Serial 1307  
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Author (up) Gale, E.A. file  url
  Title Lessons from the glitazones: a story of drug development Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Lancet Abbreviated Journal Lancet  
  Volume 357 Issue 9271 Pages 1870-1875  
  Keywords Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems; Chromans/administration & dosage/*adverse effects; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*drug therapy; Drug Approval/*legislation & jurisprudence; Drug Therapy, Combination; Drug-Induced Liver Injury/etiology; Europe; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage/*adverse effects; Liver Failure/chemically induced; Thiazoles/administration & dosage/*adverse effects; *Thiazolidinediones; United States  
  Abstract Troglitazone, the first in the thiazolidinedione class of oral hypoglycaemic agents, was launched in the USA in March, 1997. It reached Europe later that year, only to be withdrawn within weeks on the grounds of liver toxicity. Meanwhile it went on to generate sales of over $2 billion in the USA, and caused at least 90 cases of liver failure (70 resulting in death or transplantation) before it was withdrawn in March, 2000. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone reached the US market in 1999 as first-line agents to be used alone or in combination with other drugs, but in Europe the same dossiers were used one year later to apply for a limited licence as second-line agents restricted to oral combination therapy. How should we use the glitazones? And how did they achieve blockbuster status without any clear evidence of advantage over existing therapy?  
  Call Number Serial 921  
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Author (up) Gallant, M.P. file  url
  Title The influence of social support on chronic illness self-management: a review and directions for research Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Health Education & Behavior : the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education Abbreviated Journal Health Educ Behav  
  Volume 30 Issue 2 Pages 170-195  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Chronic Disease/*psychology/rehabilitation; Humans; Patient Compliance/psychology; Self Care/*psychology; Sick Role; *Social Support  
  Abstract A review of the empirical literature examining the relationship between social support and chronic illness self-management identified 29 articles, of which 22 were quantitative and 7 were qualitative. The majority of research in this area concerns diabetes self-management, with a few studies examining asthma, heart disease, and epilepsy management. Taken together, these studies provide evidence for a modest positive relationship between social support and chronic illness self-management, especially for diabetes. Dietary behavior appears to be particularly susceptible to social influences. In addition, social network members have potentially important negative influences on self-management There is a need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which support influences self-management and to examine whether this relationship varies by illness, type of support, and behavior. There is also a need to understand how the social environment may influence self-management in ways other than the provision of social support  
  Call Number Serial 361  
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Author (up) Gamer, M.; Verschuere, B.; Crombez, G.; Vossel, G. file  url
  Title Combining physiological measures in the detection of concealed information Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 95 Issue 3 Pages 333-340  
  Keywords Adult; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; Guilt; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Lie Detection/*psychology; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Regression Analysis; Respiratory Mechanics/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Meta-analytic research has confirmed that skin conductance response (SCR) measures have high validity for the detection of concealed information. Furthermore, cumulating research has provided evidence for the validity of two other autonomic measures: Heart rate (HR) and Respiration Line Length (RLL). In the present report, we compared SCR detection efficiency with HR and RLL, and investigated whether HR and RLL provide incremental validity to electrodermal responses. Analyses were based on data from 7 different samples covering 275 guilty and 53 innocent examinees. Results revealed that the area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for SCR than for HR and RLL. A weighted combination of these measures using a logistic regression model yielded slightly larger validity coefficients than the best single measure. These results proved to be stable across different protocols and various samples.  
  Call Number Serial 1444  
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Author (up) Gardner, R.M.; Stark, K.; Friedman, B.N.; Jackson, N.A. file  url
  Title Predictors of eating disorder scores in children ages 6 through 14: a longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 199-205  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology; Body Constitution; *Body Image; Child; Child Psychology; Colorado; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology); Depression; Eating Disorders/*diagnosis/*psychology; Family; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Peer Group; Prognosis; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Self Concept; Sex Factors; *Social Desirability  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to identify variables that predict higher eating disorder scores in non-clinical boys and girls ages 6 through 14. Two hundred sixteen children participated and were tested annually for 3 years. A TV-video procedure was used to measure the accuracy of body size judgments. Variables examined included demographic, familial, sociocultural, social, esteem, and clinical variables. Predictors of higher eating disorder scores for both sexes included height and weight, children's perceptions of parental concerns about their body size, low body esteem, and depression. For girls only, a larger perceived body size and smaller idealized body size were also predictors. Teasing was a predictor for boys only. An analysis of longitudinal changes suggests that low body esteem becomes a significant factor around age 9, depression emerges as a predictor at age 10, and body size judgments in perceived and ideal sizes at ages 11 and 12. Changes over 2 years in individuals' weight and height, teasing, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder scores were also found to predict higher eating disorder scores.  
  Call Number Serial 93  
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Author (up) Garrison-Schilling, K.L.; Grau, B.L.; McCarter, K.S.; Olivier, B.J.; Comeaux, N.E.; Pettis, G.S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Calcium promotes exopolysaccharide phase variation and biofilm formation of the resulting phase variants in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Environmental Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Environ Microbiol  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 643-654  
  Keywords *Biofilms; Calcium/*pharmacology; Humans; Operon; Phenotype; Polysaccharides, Bacterial/*metabolism; Vibrio vulnificus/genetics/pathogenicity/*physiology  
  Abstract Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium found in estuaries and coastal waters and is associated with human disease caused by ingestion of raw shellfish. Pathogenesis is directly related to the presence of capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Encapsulated virulent strains exhibit an opaque colony phenotype, while unencapsulated attenuated strains appear translucent. A third colony type, rugose, is caused by expression of rugose extracellular polysaccharide (rEPS) and forms robust biofilms. Vibrio vulnificus undergoes phase variation associated with altered levels of CPS and rEPS, and we show here that calcium (Ca(2)(+) ) significantly increases the rate of CPS and rEPS phase variation in this species. Interestingly, multiple phenotypic responses to increased [Ca(2)(+) ] were observed among strains, which suggests the existence of underlying cognate genetic or epigenetic differences. Certain translucent isolates contained deletions at the group I CPS operon, inferring increased [Ca(2)(+) ] upregulates existing phase variation mechanisms. Expanding on a previous observation (Kierek and Watnick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 14357-14362, 2003), increased [Ca(2)(+) ] also enhanced biofilm formation for all phase variants. Our results show that Ca(2)(+) promotes both polysaccharide phase variation and biofilm formation of the resulting phase variants, thereby likely serving a dual role in persistence of V. vulnificus in the environment.  
  Call Number Serial 424  
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Author (up) Garwood, M.; DelaBarre, L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The return of the frequency sweep: designing adiabatic pulses for contemporary NMR Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Magnetic Resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997) Abbreviated Journal J Magn Reson  
  Volume 153 Issue 2 Pages 155-177  
  Keywords Brain/anatomy & histology; Brain Mapping; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/*methods; Rotation  
  Abstract Frequency-modulated (FM) pulses that function according to adiabatic principles are becoming increasingly popular in many areas of NMR. Often adiabatic pulses can extend experimental capabilities and minimize annoying experimental imperfections. Here, adiabatic principles and some of the current methods used to create these pulses are considered. The classical adiabatic rapid passage, which is a fundamental element upon which all adiabatic pulses and sequences are based, is analyzed using vector models in different rotating frames of reference. Two methods to optimize adiabaticity are described, and ways to tailor modulation functions to best satisfy specific experimental needs are demonstrated. Finally, adiabatic plane rotation pulses and frequency-selective multiple spin-echo sequences are considered.  
  Call Number Serial 438  
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Author (up) Gathmann, B.; Brand, M.; Schiebener, J. file  url
  Title One executive function never comes alone: monitoring and its relation to working memory, reasoning, and different executive functions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Cognitive Processing Abbreviated Journal Cogn Process  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 13-29  
  Keywords Adult; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Thinking/*physiology; Balanced Switching Task; Cognitive control; Executive functions; Monitoring; Working memory  
  Abstract Monitoring is involved in many daily tasks and is described in several theoretical approaches of executive functioning. This study investigated the relative relationship of cognitive processes that are theoretically relevant to monitoring, such as concept formation, reasoning, working memory, and general cognitive control functions. Data from 699 participants who performed the Balanced Switching Task, aiming at capturing monitoring, were used. Subsamples also performed standard tasks assessing the processes assumed to be related to monitoring. Structural equation modeling revealed that general cognitive control processes are particularly relevant. They mediate the relationship between working memory, reasoning, and monitoring. Updating and maintaining information, as well as concluding from information which strategies can guide behavior toward predefined goals, is required for the ability to exert general cognitive control, which again may be relevant for implementing strategies in a goal-directed way. Together, these processes seem to be necessary to adequately monitor behavior in complex tasks.  
  Call Number Serial 2009  
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Author (up) Gauthier, I.; Tarr, M.J.; Anderson, A.W.; Skudlarski, P.; Gore, J.C. file  url
  Title Activation of the middle fusiform 'face area' increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Nature Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Neurosci  
  Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 568-573  
  Keywords Adult; *Face; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Recruitment, Neurophysiological/physiology; Temporal Lobe/*physiology  
  Abstract Part of the ventral temporal lobe is thought to be critical for face perception, but what determines this specialization remains unknown. We present evidence that expertise recruits the fusiform gyrus 'face area'. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes associated with increasing expertise in brain areas selected for their face preference. Acquisition of expertise with novel objects (greebles) led to increased activation in the right hemisphere face areas for matching of upright greebles as compared to matching inverted greebles. The same areas were also more activated in experts than in novices during passive viewing of greebles. Expertise seems to be one factor that leads to specialization in the face area.  
  Call Number Serial 2052  
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Author (up) Gershoff, E.T.; Grogan-Kaylor, A.; Lansford, J.E.; Chang, L.; Zelli, A.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Dodge, K.A. file  url
  Title Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 81 Issue 2 Pages 487-502  
  Keywords Child; Child Behavior/*ethnology/*psychology; *Cross-Cultural Comparison; *Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Italy; Male; Motivation; Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/*ethnology/*psychology; Punishment; Reward; Social Values/*ethnology; *Socialization  
  Abstract This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers' use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time-out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness.  
  Call Number Serial 1733  
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