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Author (up) Gerstadt, C.L.; Hong, Y.J.; Diamond, A. url  openurl
  Title The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 129-153  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cognition; Female; Humans; Language; Language Tests; Male; Task Performance and Analysis  
  Abstract One hundred and sixty children 3 1/2-7 years of age (10 M, 10 F at each 6-month interval) were tested on a task that requires inhibitory control of action plus learning and remembering two rules. They were asked to say “day” whenever a black card with the moon and stars appeared and to say “night” when shown a white card with a bright sun. Children < 5 years had great difficulty. They started out performing well, but could not sustain this over the course of the 16-trial session. Response latency decreased from 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 years. Children < 4 1/2 years performed well when they took very long to respond. To test whether the requirement to learn and remember two rules alone was sufficient to cause children difficulty, 80 children 3 1/2-5 years old were tested on a control version of the task (“say 'day' to one abstract design and 'night' to another”). Even the youngest children performed at a high level. We conclude that the requirement to learn and remember two rules is not in itself sufficient to account for the poor performance of the younger children in the experimental condition.  
  Call Number Serial 43  
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Author (up) Giarman, N.J.; Freedman, D.X. file  url
  Title Biochemical Aspects Of The Actions Of Psychotomimetic Drugs Type Journal Article
  Year 1965 Publication Pharmacological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Rev  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages 1-25  
  Keywords *Biochemical Phenomena; *Biochemistry; *Hallucinogens; Humans; *Psychopharmacology; *Biochemistry; *Psychopharmacology; *Review  
  Abstract A wide variety of chemuical structures is grouped generically under the classification of psychotomimetic drugs. Such a global grouping has little justification in terms of either somatic or behavioral effects, amid there is little likelihood of discovering a umiitary explamiation of the mechanismn of action of these drugs. Some subgroupings are based on common pharmacologic effects. In termits of cross-tolerance, effects on temperature amid effects on amine levels, the indolealkylamines and substituted phenethylamines appear to be related (52); and the piperidyl glycollates and other cholinolytic compounds may similarly be grouped according to effects on brain acetylcholine (71). Yet if progress is to be made in linking biochemical changes to psychotomimetic effects, a focus on neural sites of action and accessibility of drugs to those sites is required. Dose-dependent correlations with discrete and different autonomic, electroencephalographic and behavioral effects also are important to advances in this area. With LSD, for example, dose-depemident, centrally mediated effects (129), such as pyrexia, mydriasis, EEG alerting, hind limb ataxia, and certain behavioral effects (in rat) and mental effects (in man) show tolerance, while salivation and bradycardia do not (55, 56). Furthermore, effects can be elicited by low doses of LSD in rat (94), cat (99), and mami (79), for which either biochemical or neurophysiological correlates are lacking. In addition, neurophysiological studies have served to identify different sites of action for 5-HT throughout the brain (100, 118), but these as yet have not been correlated with associated biochemical effects of LSD.

Studies of the metabolism of psychotomimetic drugs have shed little light on their modes of action. Intriguing avenues of research have been opened by Szara in his investigations of the 6-hydroxylation of psychotomimetic N-alkyl indolealkylamines (and their effects on brain 5-HT), and his study of the 13-hydroxylation of LSD, and by Friedhoff and Van Winkle in their reports of mescaline-like derivatives, arising possibly from dopamine, in the urine of schizophrenic patients. Other interesting leads have come from Gessner et al. in the possible barmualine-like metabolite of melatonin, and from Brune and Himwich (30) in their observation that acute exacerbations in chronic schizophrenic patients are associated with marked increases in urinary excretion of tryptamine, and smaller increases in the excretion of other tryptophan metabolites. It has been emphasized, however, that all of these studies are fraught with methodologic problems and rigorous proof of each hypothesis is lacking.

Few investigators in this area will argue against the proposition that biogenic amines, and related neurochemical substances, play an as yet undefined role in brain function and behavior. Some very compelling correlations between druginduced behavioral change and the factors governing binding and release of 5-HT and norepinephrine have been made with the onset and recovery from stressimtduced changes in psychophysiologic condition (13). Yet if binding and release of amines from central storage sites and interaction with critical central receptors are envisaged as mechanisms significant to the action of psychotomimetic drugs, more than regional brain analyses are required. Relevant physicochemical means of measurement of binding and release have not been satisfactorily devised (see review by Green, 78). New methodologies—as, for example, fluorescence microscopy, which may provide morphological correlates of neurochemical changes measured in broken-cell preparations, and pertinent neuropharmacological investigation at the level of single units (e.g., by the micro-iontophoretic technique of drug application)—could contribute to specifying interactions with brain arnines. In addition, pharmacological analysis (and eventually chemical characterization) of various types of receptors which engage monoamines, such as tryptamine receptors (153, 159) will provide important information.
  Call Number Serial 1168  
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Author (up) Gierut, A.; Perlman, H.; Pope, R.M. file  url
  Title Innate immunity and rheumatoid arthritis Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America Abbreviated Journal Rheum Dis Clin North Am  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 271-296  
  Keywords Animals; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*immunology; Fibroblasts/*immunology; Humans; Immunity, Innate/*immunology; Macrophages/*immunology; Monocytes/*immunology  
  Abstract Innate immunity, with macrophages playing a central role, is critically important in the pathogenesis of RA. Although environmental insults such as smoking have been implicated in the initiation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients who express the shared epitope, the understanding of the role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of this disease is also expanding. As the understanding continues to expand, enticing targets for new therapeutic interventions continue to be identified. This article focuses on cells of myelomonocytic origin, their receptors, and factors that interact with them.  
  Call Number Serial 1834  
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Author (up) Giles, G.I.; Sharma, R.P. file  url
  Title Topoisomerase enzymes as therapeutic targets for cancer chemotherapy Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Medicinal Chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates)) Abbreviated Journal Med Chem  
  Volume 1 Issue 4 Pages 383-394  
  Keywords Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Binding Sites; *Drug Delivery Systems; *Drug Therapy; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Humans; Models, Molecular; Neoplasms/*drug therapy; *Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; *Topoisomerase II Inhibitors  
  Abstract The topoisomerase enzymes are essential for DNA metabolism, where they act to adjust the number of supercoils in DNA, a key requirement in the cellular processes of transcription and replication. Their enzymatic mechanism creates transient nicks (type I) or breaks (type II) in the double stranded DNA polymer, allowing DNA to be converted between topological isomers. Humans possess both types of topoisomerase enzymes, however the two types utilize very different enzymatic mechanisms. Both type I and type II topoisomerases have been identified as clinically important targets for cancer chemotherapy and their inhibitors are central components in many therapeutic regimes. Over the course of the last 30 years inhibitors with extensive structural diversity have been developed through a combination of drug screening and rational design programs. Simultaneously much emphasis has been placed upon establishing the mechanisms of action of both classes of topoisomerase enzyme. Crucial structural insights have come from the crystal structure of topoisomerase I, while modelling comparisons are beginning to map out a possible framework for topoisomerase II action. This review discusses these recent advances in the fields of enzyme mechanism and inhibitor design. We also address the development of drug resistance and dose-limiting side effects as well as cover alternative methods in drug delivery.  
  Call Number Serial 200  
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Author (up) Girones, N.; Cuervo, H.; Fresno, M. file  url
  Title Trypanosoma cruzi-induced molecular mimicry and Chagas' disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology Abbreviated Journal Curr Top Microbiol Immunol  
  Volume 296 Issue Pages 89-123  
  Keywords Animals; Antigens, Protozoan/immunology; Autoantigens/immunology; Autoimmunity; B-Lymphocytes/immunology; Chagas Cardiomyopathy/etiology/immunology/parasitology; Chagas Disease/*etiology/immunology/parasitology; Epitopes; Helminth Proteins/immunology; Humans; Lymphocyte Activation; Molecular Mimicry/*immunology; Myosins/immunology; Protozoan Proteins/immunology; Ribosomal Proteins/immunology; T-Lymphocytes/immunology; Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development/*immunology/pathogenicity  
  Abstract Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, has been considered a paradigm of infection-induced autoimmune disease. Thus, the scarcity of parasites in the chronic phase of the disease contrasts with the severe cardiac pathology observed in approximately 30% of chronic patients and suggested a role for autoimmunity as the origin of the pathology. Antigen-specific and antigen-non-specific mechanisms have been described by which T. cruzi infection might activate T and B cells, leading to autoimmunity. Among the first mechanisms, molecular mimicry has been claimed as the most important mechanism leading to autoimmunity and pathology in the chronic phase of this disease. In this regard, various T. cruzi antigens, such as B13, cruzipain and Cha, cross-react with host antigens at the B or T cell level and their role in pathogenesis has been widely studied. Immunization with those antigens and/or passive transfer of autoreactive T lymphocytes in mice lead to clinical disturbances similar to those found in Chagas' disease patients. On the other hand, the parasite is becoming increasingly detected in chronically infected hosts and may also be the cause of pathology either directly or through parasite-specific mediated inflammatory responses. Thus, the issue of autoimmunity versus parasite persistence as the cause of Chagas' disease pathology is hotly debated among many researchers in the field. We critically review here the evidence in favor of and against autoimmunity through molecular mimicry as responsible for Chagas' disease pathology from clinical, pathological and immunological perspectives.  
  Call Number Serial 558  
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Author (up) Glazebrook, K.E.; Brawley, L.R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Thinking about maintaining exercise therapy: does being positive or negative make a difference? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Health Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Health Psychol  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 905-916  
  Keywords Affect; *Attitude to Health; Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control/psychology/therapy; Exercise Therapy/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Patient Compliance/*psychology; Psychological Tests; Self Efficacy; *Thinking  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate social-cognitive and exercise differences in individuals who think positively or negatively about upcoming exercise while engaged in programs of maintenance exercise therapy for cardiovascular disease and other chronic health conditions. METHOD AND RESULTS: Participants (n = 40) completed measures relative to exercise adherence. MANOVA revealed positive thinkers were significantly higher in exercise frequency, self-regulatory efficacy, positive affect, willingness to adapt and lower in decisional struggle than negative thinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Thoughts about exercise therapy are related to social cognitions crucial to motivating self-regulatory actions influencing exercise. Negative thoughts may suggest less ability to adapt to maintenance exercise challenges.  
  Call Number Serial 460  
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Author (up) Goa, K.L.; Barradell, L.B. file  doi
  Title Fluconazole. An update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use in major superficial and systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Drugs Abbreviated Journal Drugs  
  Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 658-690  
  Keywords AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology/microbiology; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology/microbiology; Animals; Antifungal Agents/*pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology; Child; Fluconazole/*pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology; HIV Infections/immunology/microbiology; Humans; *Immunocompromised Host; Mycoses/*drug therapy/*immunology/metabolism; Neoplasms/immunology/microbiology  
  Abstract Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal agent which is now an established part of therapy in patients with immune deficiencies. It is effective against oropharyngeal/oesophageal candidiasis (candidosis) when used orally once daily either as treatment or secondary prophylaxis in patients with AIDS or as treatment or primary prophylaxis in neutropenia associated with cancer therapy. Fluconazole also resolves symptoms in up to 60% of patients with cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS. However, in this infection its efficacy as treatment relative to that of amphotericin B is equivocal, and its major role is as the drug of choice for maintenance therapy following amphotericin B induction. In this regard, fluconazole has been proven superior to amphotericin B and to itraconazole 200 mg/day. Comparisons with other drugs used for the treatment of mucosal candidiasis in patients with AIDS show fluconazole to be superior to nystatin, similar to itraconazole and at least as effective as clotrimazole and ketoconazole; it was more so than the latter azole in 1 study. In patients undergoing chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation, fluconazole as primary prophylaxis has produced greater clinical benefit than a clotrimazole regimen. The incidence of adverse events appears to be somewhat higher in patients with AIDS compared with HIV-negative cohorts, but the qualitative pattern of events is similar. The most frequent events are gastrointestinal complaints, headache and skin rash: rare exfoliative skin reactions and isolated instances of clinically overt hepatic dysfunction have occurred in patients with AIDS. Issues yet to be clarified include: the use of fluconazole in children with AIDS, in whom results have been promising; its efficacy against other fungal infections encountered in immunocompromised patients; whether the drug influences mortality, as has been suggested by one placebo-controlled trial in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant; and the appropriateness of its potential for use as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS, where it shows efficacy but there is concern over increasing risk of development of secondary resistance. Notwithstanding these undefined aspects of its clinical profile, fluconazole is now confirmed as an important antifungal drug in the management of fungal infections in patients with immune deficiencies. In patients with AIDS it is the present drug of choice as maintenance therapy against cryptococcal meningitis and is a preferred agent for secondary prophylaxis against candidal infections; it is also a favoured agent for primary prophylaxis in patients at risk because of neutropenia associated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.  
  Call Number Serial 1128  
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Author (up) Gohir, W.; Ratcliffe, E.M.; Sloboda, D.M. file  url
  Title Of the bugs that shape us: maternal obesity, the gut microbiome, and long-term disease risk Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pediatric Research Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Res  
  Volume 77 Issue 1-2 Pages 196-204  
  Keywords Female; Gastrointestinal Tract/growth & development/*microbiology; Humans; *Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; *Maternal-Fetal Exchange; *Microbiota; Obesity/*complications/microbiology; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology/*microbiology; Microbiome  
  Abstract Chronic disease risk is inextricably linked to our early-life environment, where maternal, fetal, and childhood factors predict disease risk later in life. Currently, maternal obesity is a key predictor of childhood obesity and metabolic complications in adulthood. Although the mechanisms are unclear, new and emerging evidence points to our microbiome, where the bacterial composition of the gut modulates the weight gain and altered metabolism that drives obesity. Over the course of pregnancy, maternal bacterial load increases, and gut bacterial diversity changes and is influenced by pre-pregnancy- and pregnancy-related obesity. Alterations in the bacterial composition of the mother have been shown to affect the development and function of the gastrointestinal tract of her offspring. How these microbial shifts influence the maternal-fetal-infant relationship is a topic of hot debate. This paper will review the evidence linking nutrition, maternal obesity, the maternal gut microbiome, and fetal gut development, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models.  
  Call Number Serial 2080  
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Author (up) Gol, A. file  url
  Title Relief of pain by electrical stimulation of the septal area Type Journal Article
  Year 1967 Publication Journal of the Neurological Sciences Abbreviated Journal J Neurol Sci  
  Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 115-120  
  Keywords Adult; *Cerebral Ventricles; *Electric Stimulation; Humans; Male; Neoplasm Metastasis; Pain/etiology; *Pain Management; Self Stimulation; Spinal Injuries/complications  
  Abstract The effect of deep cerebral stimulation was investigated in 6 cases of severe pain, most of which were due to terminal carcinomatosis. In only 1 case was a satisfactory result obtained, and in one other case some improvement was noted following stimulation.

In view of the low probability of success, the procedure, although of interest, does not appear to have definite therapeutic value at this time. It may, however, become useful if further investigation of the limbic system reveals accurately defined areas in man where stimulation regularly produces a rewarding effect.
  Call Number Serial 1059  
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Author (up) Goldfarb, L.; Aisenberg, D.; Henik, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Think the thought, walk the walk – social priming reduces the Stroop effect Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 118 Issue 2 Pages 193-200  
  Keywords Humans; *Mental Processes; *Social Facilitation; *Stroop Test  
  Abstract In the Stroop task, participants name the color of the ink that a color word is written in and ignore the meaning of the word. Naming the color of an incongruent color word (e.g., RED printed in blue) is slower than naming the color of a congruent color word (e.g., RED printed in red). This robust effect is known as the Stroop effect and it suggests that the intentional instruction – “do not read the word” – has limited influence on one's behavior, as word reading is being executed via an automatic path. Herein is examined the influence of a non-intentional instruction – “do not read the word” – on the Stroop effect. Social concept priming tends to trigger automatic behavior that is in line with the primed concept. Here participants were primed with the social concept “dyslexia” before performing the Stroop task. Because dyslectic people are perceived as having reading difficulties, the Stroop effect was reduced and even failed to reach significance after the dyslectic person priming. A similar effect was replicated in a further experiment, and overall it suggests that the human cognitive system has more success in decreasing the influence of another automatic process via an automatic path rather than via an intentional path.  
  Call Number Serial 234  
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