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Author (up) Goldfield, G.S.; Adamo, K.B.; Rutherford, J.; Legg, C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Stress and the relative reinforcing value of food in female binge eaters Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 93 Issue 3 Pages 579-587  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/*physiopathology/*psychology; Computer Simulation; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology; Functional Laterality; Humans; Psychological Theory; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Stress, Psychological/*physiopathology  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session (after 3-minutes of anticipation of giving a speech) or a control day (after 3-minutes of reading magazines), with order of conditions counterbalanced. Subjects were divided into four groups based on scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and changes in perceived stress: Binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=12), binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=10), non-binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=6), non-binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=9). Dietary restraint, hunger, disinhibition, and hedonics were measured by self-report. Body composition was estimated by body mass index (BMI=weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared). The relative reinforcing value of snack food was influenced differently by binge status and stress reactivity in the stress and control conditions (p<0.05). Binge eaters who reacted to stress earned more snack food points (p<0.001) in stress condition, but non-binge eaters who showed high stress reactivity earned less points for snack food in stress condition (p<0.05). This same pattern of results remained after statistically controlling for body mass index (BMI) and dietary restraint. Findings suggest that reactivity to interpersonal or ego-related stress increases the relative reinforcing value of food in binge eaters but decreases the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-binge eaters, and these findings appear to be independent of dietary restraint and BMI.  
  Call Number Serial 1827  
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Author (up) Gollnick, P.D.; Bayly, W.M.; Hodgson, D.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exercise intensity, training, diet, and lactate concentration in muscle and blood Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Abbreviated Journal Med Sci Sports Exerc  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 334-340  
  Keywords *Bibliography as Topic; Diet; Exercise Therapy; Glycogen/metabolism; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Lactates/blood/*metabolism; Lactic Acid; Muscles/metabolism/physiology; Physical Endurance; *Physical Exertion  
  Abstract With some, but not all, types and intensities of exercise, lactate accumulates in the blood and in the muscles engaged in the exercise. A great deal of attention has been directed towards attempting to understand the dynamics of lactate production and removal at the onset of exercise, during exercise, and during the recovery process following exercise. It has been hoped that an unravelling of these events would provide a key to understanding cellular metabolism and its regulation during exercise. The purpose of this introductory paper to a symposium on lactate is to present a brief overview of some of the conditions that influence the rate and magnitude of lactate accumulation during exercise. It is pointed out that many conditions influence the rate and magnitude of the accumulation of lactate in blood and muscles. Included are diet, state of physical fitness, and the type and duration of the exercise. We have cautioned against trying to evaluate the state of oxygen delivery to muscle and the state of tissue oxygenation from the appearance of lactate in blood. We have pointed out the positive aspects of lactate production based on how it augments the cellular supply of ATP, thereby allowing for high intensity exercise, and also the negative aspects that develop as a result the reduction in pH which adversely influences many cellular processes essential for muscular activity.  
  Call Number Serial 1811  
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Author (up) Gorissen, M.E.; Curran, H.V.; Eling, P.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Proactive interference and temporal context encoding after diazepam intake Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Psychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl)  
  Volume 138 Issue 3-4 Pages 334-343  
  Keywords Adult; Affect; Diazepam/*pharmacology; Discrimination (Psychology)/drug effects; Double-Blind Method; Female; Humans; Male; Memory/*drug effects; Psychomotor Performance/drug effects  
  Abstract Two experiments were designed to test whether the memory impairment induced by benzodiazepines (BZDs) is due to impaired memory for temporal context. In both experiments, subjects were administered either diazepam (15 mg oral) or placebo, and a standard BZD impairment on prose recall as well as a decreased subjective arousal was found. Key tasks to explore temporal context memory were an A-B A-C proactive interference paradigm and a list discrimination task. Initial learning of both groups on these tasks was broadly matched. In experiment 1, diazepam did not increase susceptibility to proactive interference using semantically related words. However, in experiment 2, using unrelated word pairs, diazepam markedly increased the number of prior list intrusions. Furthermore, after diazepam intake, subjects were clearly impaired in learning unrelated word pairs. Subjects after diazepam intake were not impaired in the list discrimination task. We conclude that (1) diazepam impairs the forming of new associations, whether this is the formation of links between two or more targets or between targets and context, (2) a temporal context encoding deficit cannot account for a broader diazepam-induced memory impairment.  
  Call Number Serial 250  
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Author (up) Gortmaker, S.L.; Swinburn, B.A.; Levy, D.; Carter, R.; Mabry, P.L.; Finegood, D.T.; Huang, T.; Marsh, T.; Moodie, M.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Changing the future of obesity: science, policy, and action Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Lancet (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Lancet  
  Volume 378 Issue 9793 Pages 838-847  
  Keywords Cost-Benefit Analysis; Food Industry; *Government Programs; Health Care Costs; Health Personnel; *Health Policy; *Health Promotion; Humans; International Cooperation; Obesity/economics/*epidemiology/*prevention & control/therapy; United Nations  
  Abstract The global obesity epidemic has been escalating for four decades, yet sustained prevention efforts have barely begun. An emerging science that uses quantitative models has provided key insights into the dynamics of this epidemic, and enabled researchers to combine evidence and to calculate the effect of behaviours, interventions, and policies at several levels--from individual to population. Forecasts suggest that high rates of obesity will affect future population health and economics. Energy gap models have quantified the association of changes in energy intake and expenditure with weight change, and have documented the effect of higher intake on obesity prevalence. Empirical evidence that shows interventions are effective is limited but expanding. We identify several cost-effective policies that governments should prioritise for implementation. Systems science provides a framework for organising the complexity of forces driving the obesity epidemic and has important implications for policy makers. Many parties (such as governments, international organisations, the private sector, and civil society) need to contribute complementary actions in a coordinated approach. Priority actions include policies to improve the food and built environments, cross-cutting actions (such as leadership, healthy public policies, and monitoring), and much greater funding for prevention programmes. Increased investment in population obesity monitoring would improve the accuracy of forecasts and evaluations. The integration of actions within existing systems into both health and non-health sectors (trade, agriculture, transport, urban planning, and development) can greatly increase the influence and sustainability of policies. We call for a sustained worldwide effort to monitor, prevent, and control obesity.  
  Call Number Serial 1274  
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Author (up) Gras-Vincendon, A.; Bursztejn, C.; Danion, J.-M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title [Functioning of memory in subjects with autism] Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication L'Encephale Abbreviated Journal Encephale  
  Volume 34 Issue 6 Pages 550-556  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Attention; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Memory Disorders/*diagnosis/psychology; Memory, Short-Term; Mental Recall; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Retention (Psychology)  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Autism is an early developmental disorder with cognitive impairments that leads to learning and social integration disabilities. The characterization of memory functions in individuals with autism has been the subject of numerous investigations, with widely varying conclusions. The notable differences between these studies can be attributed to variations in the age, intelligence and level of severity of the participants with autism. LITERATURE FINDINGS: The purpose of our review of the recent literature is to describe the memory function of individuals with autism. Some of the different memory subtypes are intact, others are impaired. Short-term memory (digit span) is not impaired while working memory is impaired in some of its components, but the findings are inconsistent. More recent studies demonstrate reduced spatial working memory abilities in autism and extend previous findings by demonstrating that these deficits are significant when tasks impose heavier demands on working memory. Episodic long-term memory, as measured by free recall, cued recall or recognition tasks, is intact, but participants with autism perform significantly less well than controls as the complexity of the verbal or visual material to be recalled increases. Source or contextual memory involves a variety of characteristics specifying the conditions under which specific items or facts are acquired: it has been investigated in individuals with autism with different methods. Deficits in source memory for temporal information have been found, but there were no reality monitoring deficits. Recent findings indicate that the nature of source memory confusion in autism does not appear to reflect a generalized deficit in attaching context to memories, but rather is dependant on the specific to-be-remembered information that involves social aspects of context. The self-reference effect is missing, with individuals with autism recalling events performed by themselves less well than the events performed by a peer, suggesting they have difficulties in relation to processes involving the self. Studies involving assessment of subjective states of awareness during recognition show less conscious recollection and more feelings of familiarity. Recent investigations are consistent in demonstrating memory impairments related to the failure of subjects with autism to use organizing strategies or meaning to support memory, an effect which grows with the increasing complexity of the material. Memory deficits in autism may be related more to retrieval and less to encoding, as deficit in source memory in participants with autism is largely eliminated when source was supported at test. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical basis of the specificities of memory impairment in autism is still uncertain, but it is suggested that autism involves an impairment in the conversion of limbic inputs into medial prefrontal outputs. Memory deficits found in individuals with autism may explain some of the clinical symptoms. Failure to encode all the information, especially its social aspects, may therefore contribute to dysfunction in the social, communication, and reasoning domains. Abnormal memory functioning in autism is also related to more general cognitive impairments, including executive function deficits and central coherence weakness. Evidence of the normality of certain memory capacities, at least in individuals with moderate autistic symptomatology, is encouraging for adaptive improvements in cognitive functioning.  
  Call Number Serial 77  
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Author (up) Gray, R.D.; Atkinson, Q.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 426 Issue 6965 Pages 435-439  
  Keywords Agriculture/history; Algorithms; Archaeology/methods; Bayes Theorem; *Emigration and Immigration; Europe/ethnology; History, Ancient; Humans; India/ethnology; *Language; Linguistics; Markov Chains; Middle East/ethnology; Models, Biological; Monte Carlo Method; *Phylogeny; Time Factors  
  Abstract Languages, like genes, provide vital clues about human history. The origin of the Indo-European language family is “the most intensively studied, yet still most recalcitrant, problem of historical linguistics”. Numerous genetic studies of Indo-European origins have also produced inconclusive results. Here we analyse linguistic data using computational methods derived from evolutionary biology. We test two theories of Indo-European origin: the 'Kurgan expansion' and the 'Anatolian farming' hypotheses. The Kurgan theory centres on possible archaeological evidence for an expansion into Europe and the Near East by Kurgan horsemen beginning in the sixth millennium BP. In contrast, the Anatolian theory claims that Indo-European languages expanded with the spread of agriculture from Anatolia around 8,000-9,500 years bp. In striking agreement with the Anatolian hypothesis, our analysis of a matrix of 87 languages with 2,449 lexical items produced an estimated age range for the initial Indo-European divergence of between 7,800 and 9,800 years bp. These results were robust to changes in coding procedures, calibration points, rooting of the trees and priors in the bayesian analysis.  
  Call Number Serial 500  
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Author (up) Green, D.J.; Gordon, A.D.; Richmond, B.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Limb-size proportions in Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Human Evolution Abbreviated Journal J Hum Evol  
  Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 187-200  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Evolution; Extremities--anatomy & histology; Fossils; Hominidae--anatomy & histology, classification; Humans; Monte Carlo Method; Organ Size  
  Abstract Previous analyses have suggested that Australopithecus africanus possessed more apelike limb proportions than Australopithecus afarensis. However, due to the errors involved in estimating limb length and body size, support for this conclusion has been limited. In this study, we use a new Monte Carlo method to (1) test the hypothesis that A. africanus had greater upper:lower limb-size proportions than A. afarensis and (2) assess the statistical significance of interspecific differences among these taxa, extant apes, and humans. Our Monte Carlo method imposes sampling constraints that reduce extant ape and human postcranial measurements to sample sizes comparable to the fossil samples. Next, composite ratios of fore- and hindlimb geometric means are calculated for resampled measurements from the fossils and comparative taxa. Mean composite ratios are statistically indistinguishable (alpha=0.05) from the actual ratios of extant individuals, indicating that this method conserves each sample's central tendency. When applied to the fossil samples, upper:lower limb-size proportions in A. afarensis are similar to those of humans (p=0.878) and are significantly different from all great ape proportions (p< or =0.034), while Australopithecus africanus is more similar to the apes (p> or =0.180) and significantly different from humans and A. afarensis (p< or =0.031). These results strongly support the hypothesis that A. africanus possessed more apelike limb-size proportions than A. afarensis, suggesting that A. africanus either evolved from a more postcranially primitive ancestor than A. afarensis or that the more apelike limb-size proportions of A. africanus were secondarily derived from an A. afarensis-like ancestor. Among the extant taxa, limb-size proportions correspond with observed levels of forelimb- and hindlimb-dominated positional behaviors. In conjunction with detailed anatomical features linked to arboreality, these results suggest that arboreal posture and locomotion may have been more important components of the A. africanus behavioral repertoire relative to that of A. afarensis.  
  Call Number Serial 49  
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Author (up) Griffin, A.S.; West, S.A.; Buckling, A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Cooperation and competition in pathogenic bacteria Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 430 Issue 7003 Pages 1024-1027  
  Keywords Altruism; Analysis of Variance; *Biological Evolution; Competitive Behavior; Cooperative Behavior; Host-Parasite Interactions; Humans; *Models, Biological; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classification/genetics/*pathogenicity/*physiology; Siderophores/*biosynthesis; Virulence  
  Abstract Explaining altruistic cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for evolutionary biology. One solution to this problem is if costly cooperative behaviours are directed towards relatives. This idea of kin selection has been hugely influential and applied widely from microorganisms to vertebrates. However, a problem arises if there is local competition for resources, because this leads to competition between relatives, reducing selection for cooperation. Here we use an experimental evolution approach to test the effect of the scale of competition, and how it interacts with relatedness. The cooperative trait that we examine is the production of siderophores, iron-scavenging agents, in the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As expected, our results show that higher levels of cooperative siderophore production evolve in the higher relatedness treatments. However, our results also show that more local competition selects for lower levels of siderophore production and that there is a significant interaction between relatedness and the scale of competition, with relatedness having less effect when the scale of competition is more local. More generally, the scale of competition is likely to be of particular importance for the evolution of cooperation in microorganisms, and also the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms, because cooperative traits such as siderophore production have an important role in determining virulence.  
  Call Number Serial 1552  
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Author (up) Grosjean, F. file  url
openurl 
  Title Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 3-15  
  Keywords Aphasia/*physiopathology; Brain/physiopathology; Brain Damage, Chronic/*physiopathology; Humans; *Language  
  Abstract Two views of bilingualism are presented--the monolingual or fractional view which holds that the bilingual is (or should be) two monolinguals in one person, and the bilingual or wholistic view which states that the coexistence of two languages in the bilingual has produced a unique and specific speaker-hearer. These views affect how we compare monolinguals and bilinguals, study language learning and language forgetting, and examine the speech modes--monolingual and bilingual--that characterize the bilingual's everyday interactions. The implications of the wholistic view on the neurolinguistics of bilingualism, and in particular bilingual aphasia, are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 542  
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Author (up) Gruber, O.; von Cramon, D.Y. file  url
openurl 
  Title Domain-specific distribution of working memory processes along human prefrontal and parietal cortices: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Neuroscience Letters Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Lett  
  Volume 297 Issue 1 Pages 29-32  
  Keywords Adult; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Male; Memory/*physiology; Parietal Lobe/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology; Vision, Ocular/physiology  
  Abstract This study reinvestigated the functional neuroanatomy of phonological and visual working memory in humans. Articulatory suppression was used to deprive the human subjects of species-specific verbal strategies in order to make the functional magnetic resonance imaging results more comparable to findings in non-human primates. Both phonological and visual working memory processes activated similar prefronto-parietal networks but were found to be differentially distributed along several cortical structures, in particular along the anterior and posterior parts of the intermediate frontal sulcus. These results suggest that a domain-specific topographical organization of neural working memory mechanisms in the primate brain is conserved in evolution. However, the findings also underline the critical dynamic influence that the additional availability of language may have on working memory processes and their functional implementation in the human brain.  
  Call Number Serial 142  
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