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Author (up) Gruter, T.; Gruter, M.; Carbon, C.-C. file  url
  Title Neural and genetic foundations of face recognition and prosopagnosia Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal J Neuropsychol  
  Volume 2 Issue Pt 1 Pages 79-97  
  Keywords Autistic Disorder/genetics/physiopathology/psychology; *Face; Humans; Nerve Net/physiopathology; Prosopagnosia/congenital/*genetics/*physiopathology/psychology; Recognition (Psychology)/*physiology; Social Behavior Disorders/genetics/physiopathology/psychology; Visual Perception/physiology  
  Abstract Faces are of essential importance for human social life. They provide valuable information about the identity, expression, gaze, health, and age of a person. Recent face-processing models assume highly interconnected neural structures between different temporal, occipital, and frontal brain areas with several feedback loops. A selective deficit in the visual learning and recognition of faces is known as prosopagnosia, which can be found both in acquired and congenital form. Recently, a hereditary sub-type of congenital prosopagnosia with a very high prevalence rate of 2.5% has been identified. Recent research results show that hereditary prosopagnosia is a clearly circumscribed face-processing deficit with a characteristic set of clinical symptoms. Comparing face processing of people of prosopagnosia with that of controls can help to develop a more conclusive and integrated model of face processing. Here, we provide a summary of the current state of face processing research. We also describe the different types of prosopagnosia and present the set of typical symptoms found in the hereditary type. Finally, we will discuss the implications for future face recognition research.  
  Call Number Serial 1642  
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Author (up) Grzybowski, S.J.; Wyczesany, M.; Kaiser, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The influence of context on the processing of emotional and neutral adjectives--an ERP study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Biological Psychology Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychol  
  Volume 99 Issue Pages 137-149  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Arousal; Brain Mapping; Electroencephalography; Emotions/*physiology; Evoked Potentials, Visual/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Photic Stimulation; Principal Component Analysis; Visual Perception/*physiology; Young Adult; Lpp; Lateralization; N400; Negativity bias; P1; P2; P3; Positivity offset; Right hemisphere; Word processing  
  Abstract The study investigated brain responses to emotional and neutral adjectives within contexts of varying emotional valence. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 context groups where they viewed random sequences of emotional and neutral adjectives intermixed with: emotional pictures (emotional context), neutral pictures (neutral context) and blank screens (zero context). Within the emotional context group the P3 potential was more pronounced in response to positive than either negative or neutral adjectives, and positive picture context impacted positive and negative adjectives differently. In the neutral context group the P2 and P3 potentials were greater in response to the positive adjectives as compared to the neutral ones. There was also a greater negativity of the N400 potential in response to the neutral adjectives. Within the zero context group only the N400 effect was visible. The seeming preference for positive words can be explained in terms of the specific positivity offset phenomenon.  
  Call Number Serial 1094  
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Author (up) Guatteo, E.; Cucchiaroni, M.L.; Mercuri, N.B. file  url
  Title Substantia nigra control of basal ganglia nuclei Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum Abbreviated Journal J Neural Transm Suppl  
  Volume Issue 73 Pages 91-101  
  Keywords Animals; Basal Ganglia/*physiology; Dopamine/metabolism/pharmacology; Humans; Membrane Potentials/physiology; Nerve Net/physiology; Neural Pathways/physiology; Neurons/drug effects/physiology; Parkinson Disease/pathology; Substantia Nigra/*cytology/*physiology  
  Abstract The substantia nigra, located in the ventral mesencephalon, is one of the five nuclei that constitute the basal ganglia circuit, which controls voluntary movements. It is divided into the pars compacta and the pars reticulata, which mainly contain dopaminergic and GABAergic cells respectively. Here we overview the electrophysiological properties of these substantia nigra neurons in the pars compacta and reticulata, together with their synaptic connections, and discuss the functional effects of dopaminergic and GABAergic inputs within the basal ganglia. We also examine the phenomenon that when a deficiency of dopamine (DA) occurs (e.g. in Parkinson's disease), there is an aberrant synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia. Moreover, we point out that the appearance of an altered pattern of neuronal firing (beta-oscillations) and synchrony among neurons in the subthalamic nucleus, the internal globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata has been related to motor symptoms and possibly, persistent degeneration of DA-containing neurons. Finally, we believe that, based on pathophysiological data, new and significant targets for therapeutic intervention can be identified and tested.  
  Call Number Serial 346  
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Author (up) Gundersen, D.A.; Delnevo, C.D.; Wackowski, O. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Exploring the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation, in a nationally representative sample of adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
  Volume 49 Issue 6 Pages 553-557  
  Keywords African Americans; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Ethnic Groups; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Health Surveys; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Menthol; Middle Aged; Smoking/*ethnology; Smoking Cessation/*ethnology; United States  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation in a nationally representative sample of adults. METHODS: Data from the 2005 U.S. National Health Interview Survey was analyzed. Our analyses were restricted to 7815 white, black, and Hispanic current and former cigarette smokers who indicated that they do not currently use other tobacco products and have made a quit attempt. We used multiple logistic regressions to test the relationship of menthol smoking and cessation controlling for various factors. RESULTS: Significant interaction effects were found indicating that the association between menthol smoking and cessation differs between whites and blacks, and whites and Hispanics. When blacks and Hispanics are collapsed as non-white, we found that non-white menthol smokers were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (adjusted odds ratio=0.55, p<0.01) compared to their non-menthol smoking counterparts. In contrast, among whites, menthol smokers were more likely to be former smokers than nonmenthol smokers (adjusted odds ratio=1.17, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide some support for the hypothesis that menthol smoking can lead to poorer cessation outcomes, but only for non-white smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 371  
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Author (up) Gunderson, P.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Biofuels and North American agriculture--implications for the health and safety of North American producers Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Agromedicine Abbreviated Journal J Agromedicine  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 219-224  
  Keywords Agriculture; Biotechnology/*methods/trends; Conservation of Energy Resources/*methods/trends; Humans; *Occupational Exposure; *Occupational Health; Public Policy; Safety; *Transportation  
  Abstract This decade has provided North American agricultural producers with opportunity to not only produce fiber and food, but also fuel and other industrial products. The drivers incenting this development could be sustained well into the future, therefore workforce safety and health implications are likely to persist for some time. Within production agriculture, the 'feedstock growth and harvest cycle' and 'transport' sectors possess the changing exposures experienced by workers. The Conference explored the following exposures: distiller's grains and bio-processing byproducts, spent catalyst, solvent brine, microbial agents, genetically modified organisms, discharge effluent, H2O dilutes, change in cropping patterns and resultant use of different seeding and harvest technologies, pests (whether target or non-target), and rural traffic resulting from concentrated movement of massive quantities of biomass and grain. Other issues of a more general public health nature such as watershed implications, other environmental impacts, emissions, uneven economic development potential, public safety issues associated with transport of both fuel and other industrial products, and rural emergency medical service need were explored. And, agronomic impacts were noted, including tillage change, potassium buildup in soil, nutrient depletion, sedimentation and erosion of tillable soil, and local esthetics. It was concluded that rural venues for formation and exploration of public policy need to be created.  
  Call Number Serial 496  
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Author (up) Gunstad, J.; Spitznagel, M.B.; Keary, T.A.; Glickman, E.; Alexander, T.; Karrer, J.; Stanek, K.; Reese, L.; Juvancic-Heltzel, J. file  url
  Title Serum leptin levels are associated with cognitive function in older adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 1230 Issue Pages 233-236  
  Keywords Aged/*physiology/*psychology; Cognition/*physiology; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Female; Frontal Lobe/physiology; Humans; Insulin/blood; Leptin/*blood; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Verbal Learning/physiology  
  Abstract Recent work suggests that leptin, a circulating adipokinine hormone, might contribute to age-related cognitive decline. The present study investigated the relationship between serum leptin levels and cognitive function in older adults. Thirty-five older adults (73.69+/-6.62 years of age) without significant neurologic or psychiatric history completed a fasting blood draw and a brief neuropsychological test battery. Partial correlations adjusting for demographic and medical conditions showed that higher leptin levels were associated with poorer performance on Trail Making Test B (r = .46, p = .01). These findings indicate that serum leptin levels are negatively associated with speeded executive function in older adults without significant neurological or psychiatric conditions. The mechanisms for this relationship are unknown and require further examination. Such studies may provide key insight into the mechanisms of age-related cognitive decline and identify possible interventions.  
  Call Number Serial 1936  
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Author (up) Guzman, M.G.; Kouri, G. file  url
  Title Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: lessons and challenges Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Virol  
  Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 1-13  
  Keywords Americas/epidemiology; Animals; Dengue/*epidemiology/history/physiopathology/virology; Dengue Virus/classification/growth & development/isolation & purification; History, 20th Century; Humans; Severe Dengue/*epidemiology/history/physiopathology/virology  
  Abstract The incidence of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) has increased significantly over the last decades. Yearly, an estimated 50-100 million cases of DF and about 250000-500000 cases of DHF occur worldwide. The epidemiological situation in Latin America now resembles that in Southeast Asia. Here, the main clinical, epidemiological and virological observations in the American region are presented and compared with those previously reported from Southeast Asia. During 2002, more than 30 Latin American countries reported over 1000000 DF cases. DHF occurred in 20 countries with more than 17000 DHF cases, including 225 fatalities. The co-circulation of multiple serotypes has been reported from many countries. In the Americas, DHF is observed both in children and adults; secondary infection by a different dengue virus serotype has been confirmed as an important risk factor for this severe form of the disease. However, some new risk factors such as the interval of dengue virus infections and the ethnicity and underlying chronic conditions of the patient have also been identified. The sequence of dengue virus infections and association with certain genotypes are further factors of importance. We also discuss the control and prevention strategies. In conclusion, without urgent action for the prevention and control of dengue/DHF and its vector, the current situation will worsen and, more dramatically, there is a risk of the urbanization of yellow fever.  
  Call Number Serial 1039  
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Author (up) Hall, A.C.; Griffith, T.N.; Tsikolia, M.; Kotey, F.O.; Gill, N.; Humbert, D.J.; Watt, E.E.; Yermolina, Y.A.; Goel, S.; El-Ghendy, B.; Hall, C.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Cyclohexanol analogues are positive modulators of GABA(A) receptor currents and act as general anaesthetics in vivo Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication European Journal of Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Pharmacol  
  Volume 667 Issue 1-3 Pages 175-181  
  Keywords Anesthetics, General/*pharmacology; Animals; Cyclohexanols/*chemistry/*pharmacology; *Electric Conductivity; Electrophysiological Processes/drug effects; Humans; Larva/drug effects/metabolism/physiology; Oocytes/metabolism; Receptors, GABA-A/genetics/*metabolism; Xenopus laevis/genetics  
  Abstract GABA(A) receptors meet all the pharmacological criteria required to be considered important general anaesthetic targets. In the following study, the modulatory effects of various commercially available and novel cyclohexanols were investigated on recombinant human gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A), alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2s)) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and compared to the modulatory effects on GABA currents observed with exposures to the intravenous anaesthetic agent, propofol. Submaximal EC(20) GABA currents were typically enhanced by co-applications of 3-300 muM cyclohexanols. For instance, at 30 muM 2,6-diisopropylcyclohexanol (a novel compound) GABA responses were increased ~3-fold (although similar enhancements were achieved at 3 muM propofol). As regards rank order for modulation by the cyclohexanol analogues at 30 muM, the % enhancements for 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol~2,6-diethylcyclohexanol~2,6-diisopropylcyclohexanol~2,6- di-sec-butylcyclohexanol >>2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexanol~4-tert-butylcyclohexanol>cyclohexanol~cyclopentan ol~2-methylcyclohexanol. We further tested the potencies of the cyclohexanol analogues as general anaesthetics using a tadpole in vivo assay. Both 2,6-diisopropylcyclohexanol and 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol were effective as anaesthetics with EC(50)s of 14.0 muM and 13.1 muM respectively, while other cyclohexanols with bulkier side chains were less potent. In conclusion, our data indicate that cyclohexanols are both positive modulators of GABA(A) receptors currents and anaesthetics. The positioning and size of the alkyl groups at the 2 and 6 positions on the cyclohexanol ring were critical determinants of activity.  
  Call Number Serial 509  
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Author (up) Hall, A.C.; Rowan, K.C.; Stevens, R.J.N.; Kelley, J.C.; Harrison, N.L. file  url
  Title The effects of isoflurane on desensitized wild-type and alpha 1(S270H) gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Anesthesia and Analgesia Abbreviated Journal Anesth Analg  
  Volume 98 Issue 5 Pages 1297-304, table of contents  
  Keywords Anesthetics, Inhalation/*pharmacology; Animals; DNA, Complementary/drug effects/genetics; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Isoflurane/*pharmacology; Kinetics; Mutation/genetics/physiology; Oocytes/metabolism; Receptors, GABA-A/*drug effects/*genetics; Xenopus  
  Abstract gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)-R) mediate synaptic inhibition and meet many pharmacological criteria required of important general anesthetic targets. During synaptic transmission GABA release is sufficient to saturate, maximally activate, and transiently desensitize postsynaptic GABA(A)-Rs. The resulting inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) are prolonged by volatile anesthetics like isoflurane. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on maximally activated and desensitized GABA(A)-R currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Wild-type alpha(1)beta(2) and alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2s) receptors were exposed to 600 microM GABA until currents reached a steady-state desensitized level. At clinical concentrations (0.02-0.3 mM), isoflurane produced a dose-dependent enhancement of steady-state desensitized current in alpha(1)beta(2) receptors, an effect that was less apparent in receptors including a gamma(2s)-subunit. When serine at position 270 is mutated to histidine (alpha(1)(S270H)) in the second transmembrane segment of the alpha(1)-subunit, the currents evoked by sub-saturating concentrations of GABA became less sensitive to isoflurane enhancement. In addition, isoflurane enhancements of desensitized currents were greatly attenuated by this mutation and were undetectable in alpha(1)(S270H)beta(2)gamma(2s) receptors. In conclusion, isoflurane enhancement of GABA(A)-R currents evoked by saturating concentrations of agonist is subunit-dependent. The effects of isoflurane on desensitized receptors may be partly responsible for the prolongation of IPSCs during anesthesia. IMPLICATIONS: Isoflurane enhances desensitized gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) currents, an effect that is subunit-dependent and attenuated by a mutation in an alpha(1)-subunit pore residue of the GABA(A)-R. As GABA release at inhibitory synapses is typically saturating, isoflurane modulation of desensitized receptors may be partly responsible for prolongation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents during anesthesia.  
  Call Number Serial 506  
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Author (up) Hall, A.C.; Turcotte, C.M.; Betts, B.A.; Yeung, W.-Y.; Agyeman, A.S.; Burk, L.A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Modulation of human GABAA and glycine receptor currents by menthol and related monoterpenoids Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication European Journal of Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Pharmacol  
  Volume 506 Issue 1 Pages 9-16  
  Keywords Animals; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Synergism; Female; Gene Expression; Glycine/pharmacology; Humans; Membrane Potentials/drug effects; Menthol/chemistry/*pharmacology; Monoterpenes/*pharmacology; Oocytes/drug effects/physiology; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Receptors, GABA-A/genetics/*physiology; Receptors, Glycine/genetics/*physiology; Stereoisomerism; Xenopus; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology  
  Abstract Effects of common monoterpenoid alcohols and ketones were investigated on recombinant human gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA; alpha1beta2gamma2s) and glycine (alpha1 homomers) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. GABA currents were enhanced by coapplications of 10-300 microM: (+)-menthol>(-)-menthol>(-)-borneol>>(-)-menthone=camphor enantiomers>carvone enantiomers, with menthol acting stereoselectively. By contrast, thujone diastereomers inhibited GABAA receptor currents while glycine currents were only markedly potentiated by menthol. Positive modulation by (+)-menthol was explored given its pronounced effects (e.g., at 100 microM, GABA and glycine EC20 responses increased by 496+/-113% and 135+/-56%, respectively). (+)-Menthol, 100 microM, reduced EC50 values for GABA and glycine from 82.8+/-9.9 to 25.0+/-1.8 microM, and from 98.7+/-8.6 to 75.7+/-9.4 microM respectively, with negligible effects on maximal currents. This study reveals a novel neuroactive role for menthol as a stereoselective modulator of inhibitory ligand-gated channels.  
  Call Number Serial 505  
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