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Author (up) Hallab, N.J.; Bundy, K.J.; O'Connor, K.; Moses, R.L.; Jacobs, J.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Evaluation of metallic and polymeric biomaterial surface energy and surface roughness characteristics for directed cell adhesion Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Tissue Engineering Abbreviated Journal Tissue Eng  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 55-71  
  Keywords 3T3 Cells; Animals; *Biocompatible Materials; Biomedical Engineering/*methods; *Cell Adhesion; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel; Extracellular Matrix Proteins/chemistry/secretion; Fibroblasts/metabolism/secretion/ultrastructure; Humans; Metals/*chemistry; Mice; Polymers/*chemistry; Statistics as Topic; Surface Properties  
  Abstract Directed cell adhesion remains an important goal of implant and tissue engineering technology. In this study, surface energy and surface roughness were investigated to ascertain which of these properties show more overall influence on biomaterial-cell adhesion and colonization. Jet impingement was used to quantify cellular adhesion strength. Cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion were used to characterize colonization of 3T3MC fibroblasts on: HS25 (a cobalt based implant alloy, ASTM F75), 316L stainless steel, Ti-6Al4V (a titanium implant alloy), commercially pure tantalum (Ta), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicone rubber (SR), and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The metals exhibited a nearly five-fold greater adhesion strength than the polymeric materials tested. Generally, surface energy was proportional to cellular adhesion strength. Only polymeric materials demonstrated significant increased adhesion strength associated with increased surface roughness. Cellular adhesion on metals demonstrated a linear correlation with surface energy. Less than half as much cellular proliferation was detected on polymeric materials compared to the metals. However the polymers tested demonstrated greater than twice the amount of secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on a per cell basis than the metallic materials. Thus, surface energy may be a more important determinant of cell adhesion and proliferation, and may be more useful than surface roughness for directing cell adhesion and cell colonization onto engineered tissue scaffoldings.  
  Call Number Serial 428  
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Author (up) Haour, F. file  url
openurl 
  Title [Mechanisms of placebo effect and of conditioning: neurobiological data in human and animals] Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Medecine Sciences : M/S Abbreviated Journal Med Sci (Paris)  
  Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 315-319  
  Keywords Animals; *Conditioning (Psychology); Humans; *Placebo Effect  
  Abstract A placebo is a sham treatment such as pill, liquid, injection, devoid of biological activity and used in pharmacology as a control for the activity of a drug. In many cases, this placebo induces biological or psychological effects in the human. Two theories have been proposed to explain the placebo effect: the conditioning theory which states that the placebo effect is a conditioned response, and the mentalistic theory for which the patient expectation is the primary basis of the placebo effect. The mechanisms involved in these processes are beginning to be understood through new techniques of investigation in neuroscience. Dopamine and endorphins have been clearly involved as mediators of the placebo effect. Brain imaging has demonstrated that the placebo effect activates the brain similarly as the active drug and in the same brain area. This is the case for a dopamine placebo in the Parkinson'disease, for analgesic-caffeine- or antidepressor-placebo in the healthy subject. It remains to be understood how conditioning and expectancy are able to activate, in the brain, memory loops that reproduce the expected biological response.  
  Call Number Serial 1782  
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Author (up) Harley, C.B.; Kim, N.W.; Prowse, K.R.; Weinrich, S.L.; Hirsch, K.S.; West, M.D.; Bacchetti, S.; Hirte, H.W.; Counter, C.M.; Greider, C.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Telomerase, cell immortality, and cancer Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology Abbreviated Journal Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol  
  Volume 59 Issue Pages 307-315  
  Keywords Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use; Cell Aging; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic; DNA Replication; Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use; Female; Humans; Male; Models, Biological; Neoplasms/drug therapy/enzymology/*etiology; Phenotype; Telomerase/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism  
  Abstract An important hallmark of cancer is aberrant growth control. Genetic changes that confer a growth advantage to the tumor cell are observed on numerous levels. Some of the best understood are mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are linked to signal transduction pathways, cell cycle control, or cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions that regulate growth, movement, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, and genetic stability (Hartwell 1992; Weinberg 1992; Hunter 1993; Runger et al. 1994; Workman 1994). However, in addition to aberrant growth control, many cancer cells possess another important feature which distinguishes them from normal somatic cells: unlimited replicative capacity.

Hayflick first described the limited replicative capacity of normal human fibroblasts more than 30 years ago (for review, see Hayflick 1965; Goldstein 1990). Since then, numerous other somatic cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, myoblasts, astrocytes, and lymphocytes, have also shown evidence of a mitotic clock which limits their division capacity
 
  Call Number Serial 1731  
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Author (up) Harmon, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Size and shape variation in the proximal femur of Australopithecus africanus Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Human Evolution Abbreviated Journal J Hum Evol  
  Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 551-559  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Evolution; Femur--anatomy & histology; Fossils; Hominidae--anatomy & histology, classification, genetics; Humans  
  Abstract Aside from use as estimates of body mass dimorphism and fore to hind limb joint size comparisons, postcranial elements have not often contributed to assessments of variation in Australopithecus africanus. Meanwhile, cranial, facial, and dental size variation is interpreted to be high or moderately high. Further, the cranial base and face express patterns of structural (shape) variation, which are interpreted by some as evidence for the presence of multiple species. Here, the proximal femur is used to consider postcranial size and shape variation in A. africanus. Original fossils from Makapansgat and Sterkfontein, and samples from Homo, Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo were measured. Size variation was assessed by comparing the A. africanus coefficient of variation to bootstrapped distributions of coefficient of variation samples for each taxon. Shape variation was assessed from isometrically adjusted shape variables. First, the A. africanus standard deviation of log transformed shape variables was compared to bootstrapped distributions of logged standard deviations in each taxon. Second, shape variable based Euclidean distances between fossil pairs were compared to pairwise Euclidean distance distributions in each reference taxon. The degree of size variation in the A. africanus proximal femur is consistent with that of a single species, and is most comparable to Homo and Pan, lower than A. afarensis, and lower than some estimates of cranial and dental variation. Some, but not all, shape variables show more variation in A. africanus than in extant taxa. The degree of shape difference between some fossils exceeds the majority of pairwise differences in the reference taxa. Proximal femoral shape, but not size, variation is consistent with high estimates of A. africanus cranial variation.  
  Call Number Serial 48  
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Author (up) Harrison, E.L.R.; Hinson, R.E.; McKee, S.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Experimenting and daily smokers: episodic patterns of alcohol and cigarette use Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 484-486  
  Keywords Adolescent; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Consumer Behavior; Female; Humans; Male; Ontario; Smoking/*psychology; Tobacco Use Disorder/etiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Alcohol use may facilitate the development of nicotine dependence. Alcohol is often paired with cigarette smoking, particularly in those experimenting with smoking. However, little research has examined episodic patterns of alcohol and cigarette use. This study examined patterns of alcohol and cigarette use in a college-aged sample (n=237) designated as experimenters or smokers based on their smoking history. Participants reported their consumption of drinks and cigarettes by hour, for each hour, of a typical drinking and smoking episode. Self-reported pleasure and desire associated with smoking generally and while drinking was assessed. No group difference was observed in total number of drinks. However, experimenters delayed smoking until more drinks were consumed, suggesting they smoked after reaching binge levels of alcohol. By contrast, smokers smoked after fewer drinks. Both groups reported increased smoking while drinking and increased pleasure and desire when smoking while drinking. The increase was greater in experimenters. Concurrent alcohol and cigarette use may facilitate the development of tobacco dependence and interventions interrupting their pairing might impede the transition from experimenter to smoker.  
  Call Number Serial 1715  
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Author (up) Hartmann, U. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Sigmund Freud and his impact on our understanding of male sexual dysfunction Type
  Year 2009 Publication The Journal of Sexual Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Sex Med  
  Volume 6 Issue 8 Pages 2332-2339  
  Keywords Erectile Dysfunction/*history; *Famous Persons; History, 19th Century; History, 20th Century; Humans; Impotence, Vasculogenic/history; Male; Psychoanalysis/*history; Sexual Behavior/*history; Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/*history  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential thinkers and theorists of the 20th century. His groundbreaking work laid the foundation to many concepts and theories relevant to modern sexual medicine. AIM: To evaluate Freud's approaches to the understanding of male sexual dysfunction both in their historical context and with respect to their significance for contemporary research and therapy of sexual problems. METHODS: After a brief biographical sketch, two of Freud's writings, the widely acclaimed “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality” from 1905, and a short article entitled “The Most Prevalent Form of Degradation in Erotic Life” from 1912, were analyzed, especially for their relevance to present treatment concepts of male sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: In Freud's clinical practice “psychical impotence” was a highly prevalent complaint. In his view, this dysfunction was caused by an inhibition due to an unresolved neurotic fixation leading to an arrest of the libidinal development. The result is a splitting of the tender and the sensual dimension of sexuality, most notably in the so-called madonna-whore complex. The degree of this dissociation (total or partial) determines the severity of the ensuing sexual dysfunction. In Freud's rather pessimistic view, the erotic life of civilized people tends to be characterized by some degree of this condition. CONCLUSIONS: While some of Freud's theories are obsolete today, many parts of his work appear to be astonishingly modern, even in the light of current neurobiological research and recent models of sexual dysfunction. Above all, Freud was an extremely gifted observer of human behavior who shows us that in many cases, sexual dysfunctions are no isolated phenomena, but have their roots in biographically based intrapsychic or interpersonal conflicts.  
  Call Number Serial 474  
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Author (up) Hasebe, K.; Kawai, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kawamura, K.; Tanaka, T.; Narita, M.; Nagase, H.; Suzuki, T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Possible pharmacotherapy of the opioid kappa receptor agonist for drug dependence Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 1025 Issue Pages 404-413  
  Keywords Animals; Humans; Morphinans/chemistry/metabolism/*therapeutic use; Receptors, Opioid, kappa/*agonists/metabolism; Spiro Compounds/chemistry/metabolism/*therapeutic use; Substance-Related Disorders/*drug therapy/metabolism/psychology  
  Abstract Because there are few efficacious medications for drug dependence, many clinical trials are being conducted in earnest to find such medications. Considerable evidence has shown that opioid kappa receptor agonists attenuate several behavioral responses induced by drugs of abuse. Although this raises the possibility that opioid kappa receptor agonists may be useful for the treatment of drug dependence on drugs of abuse, it has been previously reported that treatment with selective opioid kappa receptor agonists causes a psychotomimetic effect and dysphoria both in clinical studies and experimental animal models. As a result, we found the novel opioid kappa receptor agonist TRK-820, another chemical class of opioid kappa receptor agonist that has a morphinan scaffold unlike prototypical opioid kappa receptor agonists, by application of a modified message-address concept. TRK-820 showed high selectivity for an opioid kappa receptor, and strong agonistic activity in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Like other opioid kappa receptor agonists, TRK-820 could markedly suppress the rewarding effects induced by morphine and cocaine and the discriminative stimulus effect of cocaine. Furthermore, TRK-820 attenuated the mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine-withdrawal aversion in a conditioned place preference paradigm. It is worthwhile to note that unlike prototypical opioid kappa receptor agonists, TRK-820 failed to produce a significant place aversion in rodents at doses that were sufficient to produce significant antinociception. Taken together, these findings indicate that TRK-820 may be useful for the treatment of drug dependence without any aversive effects.  
  Call Number Serial 232  
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Author (up) Hatemi, P.K.; McDermott, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title The genetics of politics: discovery, challenges, and progress Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Trends in Genetics : TIG Abbreviated Journal Trends Genet  
  Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 525-533  
  Keywords Animals; Genetic Markers; Humans; Models, Genetic; Politics; Social Behavior  
  Abstract For the greater part of human history, political behaviors, values, preferences, and institutions have been viewed as socially determined. Discoveries during the 1970s that identified genetic influences on political orientations remained unaddressed. However, over the past decade, an unprecedented amount of scholarship utilizing genetic models to expand the understanding of political traits has emerged. Here, we review the 'genetics of politics', focusing on the topics that have received the most attention: attitudes, ideologies, and pro-social political traits, including voting behavior and participation. The emergence of this research has sparked a broad paradigm shift in the study of political behaviors toward the inclusion of biological influences and recognition of the mutual co-dependence between genes and environment in forming political behaviors.  
  Call Number Serial 520  
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Author (up) Haynes, J.-D.; Sakai, K.; Rees, G.; Gilbert, S.; Frith, C.; Passingham, R.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Reading hidden intentions in the human brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 323-328  
  Keywords *Brain Mapping; Humans; *Intention; Linear Models; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Memory/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract When humans are engaged in goal-related processing, activity in prefrontal cortex is increased. However, it has remained unclear whether this prefrontal activity encodes a subject's current intention. Instead, increased levels of activity could reflect preparation of motor responses, holding in mind a set of potential choices, tracking the memory of previous responses, or general processes related to establishing a new task set. Here we study subjects who freely decided which of two tasks to perform and covertly held onto an intention during a variable delay. Only after this delay did they perform the chosen task and indicate which task they had prepared. We demonstrate that during the delay, it is possible to decode from activity in medial and lateral regions of prefrontal cortex which of two tasks the subjects were covertly intending to perform. This suggests that covert goals can be represented by distributed patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex, thereby providing a potential neural substrate for prospective memory. During task execution, most information could be decoded from a more posterior region of prefrontal cortex, suggesting that different brain regions encode goals during task preparation and task execution. Decoding of intentions was most robust from the medial prefrontal cortex, which is consistent with a specific role of this region when subjects reflect on their own mental states.  
  Call Number Serial 539  
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Author (up) Hazuda, H.P.; Comeaux, P.J.; Stern, M.P.; Haffner, S.M.; Eifler, C.W.; Rosenthal, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title A comparison of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans in epidemiologic research. Methodological findings from the San Antonio Heart Study Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol  
  Volume 123 Issue 1 Pages 96-112  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; *Epidemiologic Methods; Female; Hispanic Americans/*classification; Humans; Male; Mexico/ethnology; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Texas  
  Abstract Because the issue of how to empirically identify Mexican Americans in health-related research is still unresolved, the authors compared the performance of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans across five distinct population subgroups: men and women in two age strata, and residents in low, middle, and high socioeconomic neighborhoods. Individual surname had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in the pooled population sample and varied the most widely on these parameters across population subgroups. Parental surnames, which are available on vital statistics and could easily be added to other health records used in secondary analyses, offered a significant improvement over individual surname in classifying persons as Mexican American. The San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) algorithm, a nine-item indicator which uses parental surnames, birthplace of both parents, self-declared ethnic identity, and ethnic background of grandparents, had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and varied the least on these parameters across different sex, age, and socioeconomic status population subgroups. The performance of all indicators was lower at the higher socioeconomic status levels. The findings suggest that it may be useful to use parental surnames as an indicator for Mexican-American ethnicity in research involving vital statistics and to add parental surnames to other health records frequently used in secondary analyses. Since the SAHS algorithm can be adapted for use with non-Mexican origin Hispanic subgroups, it may be a useful indicator for Mexican-American (or other Hispanic) ethnicity in survey research.  
  Call Number Serial 1381  
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