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Author (up) Baron, J.M.; Higgins, J.M.; Dzik, W.H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title A revised timeline for the origin of Plasmodium falciparum as a human pathogen Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Molecular Evolution Abbreviated Journal J Mol Evol  
  Volume 73 Issue 5-6 Pages 297-304  
  Keywords Animals; Cytochromes b/*genetics; *Evolution, Molecular; Gorilla gorilla/parasitology; Host-Parasite Interactions/*genetics; Humans; Malaria/*genetics/parasitology; Mitochondrial Proteins/*genetics; Mutation Rate; Plasmodium falciparum/*genetics/pathogenicity  
  Abstract While Plasmodium falciparum is known to have had a strong effect on human evolution, the time period when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans has remained uncertain. Recent advances demonstrated that P. falciparum evolved from ancestors of gorilla parasites via host switching. Here, we estimate the range of dates during which this host switch may have occurred. DNA sequences of portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene obtained from gorilla parasites closely related to human P. falciparum were aligned and compared against similar sequences from human P. falciparum. Time estimates were calculated by applying a previously established parasite cytochrome b gene mutation rate (0.012 mutations per site per million years) and by modeling uncertainty in a Monte-Carlo simulation. We estimate a 95% confidence interval for when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans to be 112,000 and 1,036,000 years ago (median estimate, 365,000 years ago). This confidence interval suggests that P. falciparum first infected human ancestors much more recently than the previous recognized estimate of 2.5 million years ago. The revised estimate may inform our understanding of certain aspects of human-malaria co-evolution. For example, this revised date suggests a closer relationship between the entry of P. falciparum in humans and the appearance of many red blood cell polymorphisms considered to be genetic adaptations to malaria. In addition, the confidence interval lies within the timeframe dating the dawn of Homo sapiens, suggesting that P. falciparum may have undergone host switching as a Plasmodia adaptation specific for our species.  
  Call Number Serial 1123  
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Author (up) Baron-Cohen, S.; Richler, J.; Bisarya, D.; Gurunathan, N.; Wheelwright, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 358 Issue 1430 Pages 361-374  
  Keywords Adult; Asperger Syndrome/*diagnosis/*psychology; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/psychology; Empathy; Female; Humans; Male; *Psychological Tests; Psychological Theory; *Questionnaires; *Sex Characteristics  
  Abstract Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism.  
  Call Number Serial 946  
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Author (up) Barzilai, A.; Yamamoto, K.-I. file  url
openurl 
  Title DNA damage responses to oxidative stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication DNA Repair Abbreviated Journal DNA Repair (Amst)  
  Volume 3 Issue 8-9 Pages 1109-1115  
  Keywords Animals; Apoptosis; Cell Cycle; Cell Lineage; *DNA Damage; *DNA Repair; Humans; Hypoxia; Mitochondria/pathology; Oxidation-Reduction; *Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species  
  Abstract The DNA damage response is a hierarchical process. DNA damage is detected by sensor proteins such as the MRN complex that transmit the information to transducer proteins such as ATM and ATR, which control the damage response through the phosphorylation of effector proteins. The extent of the DNA damage determines cell fate: cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or the activation of apoptotic pathways. In aerobic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a by-product of normal mitochondrial activity. If not properly controlled, ROS can cause severe damage to cellular macromolecules, especially the DNA. We describe here some of the cellular responses to alterations in the cellular redox state during hypoxia or oxidative stress. Oxidative damage in DNA is repaired primarily via the base excision repair (BER) pathway which appears to be the simplest of the three excision repair pathways. To allow time for DNA repair, the cells activate their cell cycle checkpoints, leading to cell cycle arrest and preventing the replication of damage and defective DNA.  
  Call Number Serial 1707  
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Author (up) Baselga, J.; Pfister, D.; Cooper, M.R.; Cohen, R.; Burtness, B.; Bos, M.; D'Andrea, G.; Seidman, A.; Norton, L.; Gunnett, K.; Falcey, J.; Anderson, V.; Waksal, H.; Mendelsohn, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Phase I studies of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor chimeric antibody C225 alone and in combination with cisplatin Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Oncol  
  Volume 18 Issue 4 Pages 904-914  
  Keywords Adult; Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects/pharmacokinetics/*therapeutic use; Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects/pharmacokinetics/*therapeutic use; Area Under Curve; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy/therapy; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy/therapy; Cetuximab; Cisplatin/*therapeutic use; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Administration Schedule; Female; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; Head and Neck Neoplasms/drug therapy/therapy; Humans; Infusions, Intravenous; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy/therapy; Male; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial/drug therapy/*therapy; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/adverse effects/pharmacokinetics/*therapeutic use; Remission Induction; Safety  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is frequently overexpressed in epithelial tumors. C225 is a human-to-murine chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to the receptor and inhibits growth of cancer cells expressing the receptor. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of C225 in patients with advanced tumors overexpressing EGF receptors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We treated 52 patients in three successive phase I clinical trials of C225 as a single dose (n = 13), weekly multiple dose (n = 17), and weekly multiple dose with cisplatin (n = 22). C225 dose levels were 5, 20, 50, and 100 mg/m(2). In the study combining C225 with cisplatin, limited to patients with either head and neck or non-small-cell lung cancer, C225 was further escalated to 200 and 400 mg/m(2). Cisplatin was given at a dose of 60 mg/m(2) once every 4 weeks, and treatment was continued for up to 12 weeks if no disease progression occurred. RESULTS: C225 displayed nonlinear pharmacokinetics, with antibody doses in the range of 200 to 400 mg/m(2) being associated with complete saturation of systemic clearance. C225 clearance did not change with repeated administration or with coadministration of cisplatin. Antibodies against C225 were detected in only one patient, and C225-associated toxicity was minimal. Patients experiencing disease stabilization were seen in all studies. In the study combining C225 and cisplatin, nine (69%) of 13 patients treated with antibody doses >/= 50 mg/m(2) completed 12 weeks of therapy, and two partial responses were observed. CONCLUSION: C225 has dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, and doses that achieve saturation of systemic clearance are well tolerated. C225 given in combination with cisplatin has biologic activity at pharmacologically relevant doses.  
  Call Number Serial 2015  
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Author (up) Bassett, C.M.C.; Rodriguez-Leyva, D.; Pierce, G.N. file  url
openurl 
  Title Experimental and clinical research findings on the cardiovascular benefits of consuming flaxseed Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme Abbreviated Journal Appl Physiol Nutr Metab  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 965-974  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Antioxidants; Atherosclerosis; *Cardiovascular Diseases; *Dietary Supplements; *Flax; Humans; Hypertension; Hypolipidemic Agents; Lipids/blood; Mice  
  Abstract Functional foods and nutraceuticals are becoming popular alternatives to pharmacological treatments by providing health benefits and (or) reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Flaxseed is a rich source of 3 components with demonstrated cardioprotective effects: the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), dietary fibre, and phytoestrogen lignans. Multiple clinical dietary intervention trials report that consuming flaxseed daily can modestly reduce circulating total cholesterol (TC) by 6%-11% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 9%-18% in normolipemic humans and by 5%-17% for TC and 4%-10% for LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients, as well as lower various markers associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in humans. Evidence to date suggests that the dietary fibre and (or) lignan content of flaxseed provides the hypocholesterolemic action. The omega-3 ALA found in the flaxseed oil fraction also contributes to the antiatherogenic effects of flaxseed via anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative mechanisms. Dietary flaxseed may also protect against ischemic heart disease by improving vascular relaxation responses and by inhibiting the incidence of ventricular fibrillation.  
  Call Number Serial 1758  
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Author (up) Bavelier, D.; Green, C.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title The Brain-Boosting Power of Video Games Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Scientific American Abbreviated Journal Sci Am  
  Volume 315 Issue 1 Pages 26-31  
  Keywords Brain/physiology; Cognition/physiology; Humans; Mental Processes/*physiology; Therapeutics/methods; *Video Games  
  Abstract “Shooting zombies and repelling aliens can lead to lasting improvement in mental skills. Fast-paced shooter games did not always grace lists of brain-enhancing activities. For the past 15 years, however, a number of studies have found that playing them frequently changes various aspects of cognition for the better.”  
  Call Number Serial 1649  
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Author (up) Beiter, R.; Nash, R.; McCrady, M.; Rhoades, D.; Linscomb, M.; Clarahan, M.; Sammut, S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 173 Issue Pages 90-96  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety/*epidemiology; Depression/*epidemiology; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Ohio/epidemiology; Prevalence; Stress, Psychological/*epidemiology; Students/*psychology; *Universities; Young Adult; Anxiety; College students; Dass; Depression; Mental health; Stress  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past four years, the Franciscan University Counseling Center has reported a 231% increase in yearly visits, as well as a 173% increase in total yearly clients. This trend has been observed at many universities as mental health issues pose significant problems for many college students. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. METHODS: The final analyzed sample consisted of 374 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 24 attending Franciscan University, Steubenville, Ohio. Subjects completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, a section instructing participants to rate the level of concern associated with challenges pertinent to daily life (e.g. academics, family, sleep), and the 21 question version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21). RESULTS: The results indicated that the top three concerns were academic performance, pressure to succeed, and post-graduation plans. Demographically, the most stressed, anxious, and depressed students were transfers, upperclassmen, and those living off-campus. CONCLUSIONS: With the propensity for mental health issues to hinder the success of college students, it is vital that colleges continually evaluate the mental health of their students and tailor treatment programs to specifically target their needs.  
  Call Number Serial 1158  
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Author (up) Benarroch, E.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Metabotropic glutamate receptors: synaptic modulators and therapeutic targets for neurologic disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neurology Abbreviated Journal Neurology  
  Volume 70 Issue 12 Pages 964-968  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation/drug effects/physiology; Animals; Brain/drug effects/*metabolism/*physiopathology; Brain Diseases/drug therapy/*metabolism/*physiopathology; Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Glutamic Acid/*metabolism; Humans; Neural Pathways/drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/drug effects/*metabolism; Synaptic Transmission/drug effects/physiology  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Serial 326  
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Author (up) Bengtsson, S.; Berglund, H.; Gulyas, B.; Cohen, E.; Savic, I. file  url
openurl 
  Title Brain activation during odor perception in males and females Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Neuroreport Abbreviated Journal Neuroreport  
  Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages 2027-2033  
  Keywords Adult; Amygdala/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Brain/*diagnostic imaging/*physiology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Observer Variation; *Odorants; Olfactory Pathways/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Perception/*physiology; *Sex Characteristics; Smell/*physiology; Tomography, Emission-Computed  
  Abstract Several studies indicate that women outperform men in olfactory identification tasks. The psychophysical data are more divergent when it comes to gender differences at levels of odor processing which are cognitively less demanding. We therefore compared cerebral activation with H2(15)O PET in 12 females and 11 males during birhinal passive smelling of odors and odorless air. The odorous compounds (odorants) were pure olfactory, or mixed olfactory and weakly trigeminal. Using odorless air as the baseline condition, activations were found bilaterally in the amygdala, piriform and insular cortices in both sexes, irrespective of the odor. No gender difference was detected in the pattern of cerebral activation (random effect analysis SPM99, corrected p < 0.05) or in the subjective perception of odors. Males and females seem to use similar cerebral circuits during the passive perception of odors. The reported female superiority in assessing olfactory information including odor identification is probably an effect of a difference at a cognitive, rather than perceptive level of olfactory processing.  
  Call Number Serial 2000  
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Author (up) Bennetto, L.; Pennington, B.F.; Rogers, S.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Intact and impaired memory functions in autism Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 67 Issue 4 Pages 1816-1835  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder--complications, physiopathology; Child; Frontal Lobe--physiopathology; Humans; Memory; Memory Disorders--complications; Verbal Learning  
  Abstract This study examined memory functions in individuals with autism. Based on previous evidence of executive function (EF) deficits, we hypothesized that subjects with autism would demonstrate a pattern of intact and impaired memory functions similar to that found in other groups with EF deficits, such as patients with frontal lobe pathology. We compared the performance of high-functioning children and adolescents with autism (n = 19) and clinical comparison subjects (n = 19) matched on sex, CA, and VIQ on measures of memory and EF. The group with autism performed significantly worse than comparison subjects on measures of temporal order memory, source memory, supraspan free recall, working memory, and EF, but not on short- and long-term recognition, cued recall, or new learning ability, consistent with the predictions of the EF theory. The cognitive measures were significantly more intercorrelated in the autism group than the comparison group, consistent with a limit in central cognition.  
  Call Number Serial 56  
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