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Author (up) Benowitz, N.L.; Dains, K.M.; Dempsey, D.; Wilson, M.; Jacob, P. file  url
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  Title Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Abbreviated Journal Nicotine Tob Res  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages 772-783  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans/psychology; Aged; Carcinogens/analysis; Cotinine/blood; European Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nicotine/*blood/urine; Nitrosamines/urine; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/urine; Pyridines/urine; San Francisco; Smoking/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Tobacco Use Disorder/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Black smokers are reported to have higher lung cancer rates and greater tobacco dependence at lower levels of cigarette consumption compared to non-Hispanic White smokers. We studied the relationship between cigarettes per day (CPD) and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Black and White smokers. METHODS: In 128 Black and White smokers, we measured plasma nicotine and its main proximate metabolite cotinine, urine nicotine equivalents, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites. RESULTS: The dose-response between CPD and nicotine equivalents, and NNAL and PAH was flat for Black but positive for White smokers (Race x CPD interaction, all ps < .05). Regression estimates for the Race x CPD interactions were 0.042 (95% CI 0.013-0.070), 0.054 (0.023-0.086), and 0.028 (0.004-0.052) for urine nicotine equivalents, NNAL, and PAHs, respectively. In contrast there was a strong correlation between nicotine equivalents and NNAL and PAH independent of race. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure per individual cigarette was inversely related to CPD. This inverse correlation was stronger in Black compared to White smokers and stronger in menthol compared to regular cigarette smokers (not mutually adjusted). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that Blacks on average smoke cigarettes differently than White smokers such that CPD predicts smoke intake more poorly in Black than in White smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 368  
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Author (up) Bercik, P. file  url
openurl 
  Title The microbiota-gut-brain axis: learning from intestinal bacteria? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Gut Abbreviated Journal Gut  
  Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 288-289  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Infections/*psychology; Cognition Disorders/*microbiology; Humans; Intestinal Diseases/microbiology/*psychology; Intestines/*microbiology; Mice; Symbiosis; Microbiome  
  Abstract The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem,1 which has developed a mutualistic relationship with its host and plays a crucial role in the development of the host's innate and adaptive immune responses.2 This ecosystem serves the host by protecting against pathogens, harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients, aiding in neutralisation of drugs and carcinogens, and affecting the metabolism of lipids.3 Gut bacteria modulate intestinal motility, barrier function and visceral perception.4

An interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS) may seem difficult to conceive at first sight, but clinicians are well aware of the benefit of oral antibiotics and laxatives in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.5 Data accumulated from animal studies indicate that there is central sensing of gastrointestinal infections. For example, acute infection with Campylobacter jejuni results in anxiety-like behaviour and rapid activation of vagal pathways prior to onset of immune responses,6 while chronic Helicobacter pylori infection in mice leads to abnormal feeding behaviour and upregulation of tumour necrosis factor &#945; (TNF&#945;) in the median eminence of the hypothalamus.7 Rapid and sustained gut&#65533;brain communication may confer a significant advantage to the host, as central activation in response to changes in commensals or pathogens would allow better control of gut function and immunity.
 
  Call Number Serial 2096  
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Author (up) Bernhardt, B.A.; Soucier, D.; Hanson, K.; Savage, M.S.; Jackson, L.; Wapner, R.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Women's experiences receiving abnormal prenatal chromosomal microarray testing results Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Genetics in Medicine : Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Abbreviated Journal Genet Med  
  Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 139-145  
  Keywords Adult; Chromosome Aberrations; Chromosome Disorders--diagnosis, genetics, psychology; Female; Genetic Counseling--methods, psychology; Genetic Testing--methods; Humans; Pilot Projects; Pregnancy; Prenatal Diagnosis--methods, psychology; Truth Disclosure  
  Abstract PURPOSE: Genomic microarrays can detect copy-number variants not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. This technology is diffusing rapidly into prenatal settings even though the clinical implications of many copy-number variants are currently unknown. We conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore the experiences of women receiving abnormal results from prenatal microarray testing performed in a research setting. METHODS: Participants were a subset of women participating in a multicenter prospective study “Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis by Array-based Copy Number Analysis.” Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 women receiving abnormal prenatal microarray results. RESULTS: We found that five key elements dominated the experiences of women who had received abnormal prenatal microarray results: an offer too good to pass up, blindsided by the results, uncertainty and unquantifiable risks, need for support, and toxic knowledge. CONCLUSION: As prenatal microarray testing is increasingly used, uncertain findings will be common, resulting in greater need for careful pre- and posttest counseling, and more education of and resources for providers so they can adequately support the women who are undergoing testing.  
  Call Number Serial 560  
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Author (up) Bertrand, D.; Gopalakrishnan, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Biochemical Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Biochem Pharmacol  
  Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1155-1163  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation; Animals; Binding Sites; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*drug effects; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract Allosteric modulation refers to the concept that proteins could exist in multiple conformational states and that binding of allosteric ligands alters the energy barriers or “isomerization coefficients” between various states. In the context of ligand gated ion channels such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it implies that endogenous ligand acetylcholine binds at the orthosteric site, and that molecules that bind elsewhere on the nAChR subunit(s) acts via allosteric interactions. For example, studies with the homomeric alpha7 nAChRs indicate that such ligand interactions can be well described by an allosteric model, and that positive allosteric effectors can affect energy transitions by (i) predominantly affecting the peak current response (Type I profile) or, (ii) both peak current responses and time course of agonist-evoked response (Type II profile). The recent discovery of chemically heterogeneous group of molecules capable of differentially modifying nAChR properties without interacting at the ligand binding site illustrates the adequacy of the allosteric model to predict functional consequences. In this review, we outline general principles of the allosteric concept and summarize the profiles of novel compounds that are emerging as allosteric modulators at the alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChR subtypes.  
  Call Number Serial 1877  
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Author (up) Bertrand, D.; Gopalakrishnan, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Biochemical Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Biochem Pharmacol  
  Volume 74 Issue 8 Pages 1155-1163  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation; Animals; Binding Sites; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*drug effects; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract Allosteric modulation refers to the concept that proteins could exist in multiple conformational states and that binding of allosteric ligands alters the energy barriers or “isomerization coefficients” between various states. In the context of ligand gated ion channels such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it implies that endogenous ligand acetylcholine binds at the orthosteric site, and that molecules that bind elsewhere on the nAChR subunit(s) acts via allosteric interactions. For example, studies with the homomeric alpha7 nAChRs indicate that such ligand interactions can be well described by an allosteric model, and that positive allosteric effectors can affect energy transitions by (i) predominantly affecting the peak current response (Type I profile) or, (ii) both peak current responses and time course of agonist-evoked response (Type II profile). The recent discovery of chemically heterogeneous group of molecules capable of differentially modifying nAChR properties without interacting at the ligand binding site illustrates the adequacy of the allosteric model to predict functional consequences. In this review, we outline general principles of the allosteric concept and summarize the profiles of novel compounds that are emerging as allosteric modulators at the alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChR subtypes.  
  Call Number Serial 1887  
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Author (up) Besson, M.; Schon, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Comparison between language and music Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 930 Issue Pages 232-258  
  Keywords Brain/*physiology; Humans; *Language; Mental Processes/*physiology; *Music  
  Abstract Similarities and differences between language and music processing are examined from an evolutionary and a cognitive perspective. Language and music cannot be considered single entities; they need to be decomposed into different component operations or levels of processing. The central question concerns one of the most important claims of the generative grammar theory, that is, the specificity of language processing: do the computations performed to process language rely on specific linguistic processes or do they rely on general cognitive principles? Evidence from brain imaging results is reviewed, noting that this field is currently in need of metanalysis of the available results to precisely evaluate this claim. A series of experiments, mainly using the event-related brain potentials method, were conducted to compare different levels of processing in language and music. Overall, results favor language specificity when certain aspects of semantic processing in language are compared with certain aspects of melodic and harmonic processing in music. By contrast, results support the view that general cognitive principles are involved when aspects of syntactic processing in language are compared with aspects of harmonic processing in music. Moreover, analysis of the temporal structure led to similar effects in language and music. These tentative conclusions must be supported by other brain imaging results to shed further light on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain structure-function relationship.  
  Call Number Serial 476  
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Author (up) Bhadra, K.; Kumar, G.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Therapeutic potential of nucleic acid-binding isoquinoline alkaloids: binding aspects and implications for drug design Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Medicinal Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Med Res Rev  
  Volume 31 Issue 6 Pages 821-862  
  Keywords Alkaloids/*chemistry; Animals; Benzophenanthridines/chemistry; Berberine/analogs & derivatives/chemistry; Berberine Alkaloids/chemistry; Calorimetry/methods; Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/*methods; DNA/chemistry; *Drug Design; Humans; Isoquinolines/*chemistry; Mice; Models, Chemical; Nucleic Acids/*chemistry; RNA/chemistry; Spectrophotometry/methods; Temperature  
  Abstract Isoquinoline alkaloids represent a group of natural products with remarkable importance in the contemporary biomedical research and drug discovery programs. Several members of this group exhibit immense pharmacological and biological properties, including potential anticancer properties. Although the molecular targets of these alkaloids are not yet clearly delineated, extensive research in this area continues to build up new data that are clinically exploitable. The gross structural features of many of the members DNA interaction are more or less clear, but the mystery still remains on many aspects of their binding, including specificity and energetics. RNA-binding aspects of these alkaloids are being elucidated. More recent advancements in analytical instrumentation have enabled clearer elucidation and correlation of the structural and energetic aspects of the interaction. In this review, we report up-to-date details of the interaction of berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine of the protoberberine group, sanguinarine from the benzophananthridine group, and several of their synthetic derivatives, such as coralyne, berberrubine, palmatrubine, and jatrorubin with nucleic acids have been reviewed. These studies, taken together up to now, have led to interesting knowledge on the mode, mechanism, specificity of binding, and correlation between structural aspects and energetics enabling a complete set of guidelines for design of new drugs. In contemporary research, several derivatives of these natural alkaloids are being prepared and investigated in several laboratories for ultimate discovery of new compounds that can be used as effective therapeutic agents.  
  Call Number Serial 400  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Feng, X. file  url
openurl 
  Title Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 109 Issue 2-3 Pages 93-100  
  Keywords Adult; Brain/*physiology; Child; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Mental Recall/*physiology; *Multilingualism; *Proactive Inhibition; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.  
  Call Number Serial 942  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Viswanathan, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 494-500  
  Keywords Canada; Child; Child Development/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Discrimination Learning; Female; Humans; India; Male; *Multilingualism; Neuropsychological Tests; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Reaction Time  
  Abstract The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the 'faces task', developed by [Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1341-1354] to isolate the components of executive functioning responsible for previously reported differences between monolingual and bilingual children and to determine the generality of these differences by comparing bilinguals in two cultures. Three components of executive control were investigated: response suppression, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Ninety children, 8-years old, belonged to one of three groups: monolinguals in Canada, bilinguals in Canada, and bilinguals in India. The bilingual children in both settings were faster than monolinguals in conditions based on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility but there was no significant difference between groups in response suppression or on a control condition that did not involve executive control. The children in the two bilingual groups performed equivalently to each other and differently from the monolinguals on all measures in which there were group differences, consistent with the interpretation that bilingualism is responsible for the enhanced executive control. These results contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for the reported bilingual advantages by identifying the processes that are modified by bilingualism and establishing the generality of these findings across bilingual experiences. They also contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive control and their development.  
  Call Number Serial 1179  
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Author (up) Bignami, A.; Eng, L.F.; Dahl, D.; Uyeda, C.T. file  url
openurl 
  Title Localization of the glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes by immunofluorescence Type Journal Article
  Year 1972 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 43 Issue 2 Pages 429-435  
  Keywords Animals; Antibodies; Antibody Formation; Brain/*pathology; *Brain Chemistry; Cerebellum/immunology; Cross Reactions; Dementia/pathology; Dogs/immunology; *Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Gliosis/pathology; Guinea Pigs/immunology; Humans; Immune Sera; Male; Medulla Oblongata/immunology; Middle Aged; *Nerve Tissue Proteins; *Neuroglia; Optic Nerve/immunology; Rabbits/immunology; Rats/immunology  
  Abstract The glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein, a brain specific protein extracted from severely gliosed human tissue, is not species specific; cross-reaction occurs between anti-human GFA protein antibodies and brain extracts of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and dog. Using anti-GFA protein antiserum, astrocytes are selectively stained with the indirect immunofluorescence technique in both normal and pathological (gliosed) brain tissue.  
  Call Number Serial 113  
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