more information
Search within Results:

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author (up) Billings, P.C.; Engelsberg, B.N.; Hughes, E.N. file  url
openurl 
  Title Proteins binding to cisplatin-damaged DNA in human cell lines Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Cancer Investigation Abbreviated Journal Cancer Invest  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 597-604  
  Keywords Cell Nucleus/metabolism; Cisplatin/*metabolism/*toxicity; DNA Adducts/*metabolism; *DNA Damage; DNA, Neoplasm/*drug effects/*metabolism; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism; HeLa Cells; Humans; Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism; Protein Binding  
  Abstract Cisplatin (CDDP) is a highly effective, frequently used cancer chemotherapeutic drug employed in the treatment of several human malignancies including ovarian, testicular, and bladder cancers. A common problem encountered with cisplatin therapy is intrinsic or acquired resistance to this drug. While the mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, and other chemotherapeutic agents, are not fully understood, one factor affecting the cellular response to CDDP may result from differences in the level of specific proteins that recognize CDDP-damaged DNA. We have developed a damaged DNA affinity precipitation technique that allows the direct visualization and characterization of cellular proteins that bind to cisplatin-damaged DNA. In the present study we have utilized this method to analyze proteins present in several mammalian cell lines that bind to cisplatin-damaged DNA. We demonstrate that HeLa cells, resistant to CDDP cytotoxicity, contain high levels of high-mobility-group proteins 1 and 2, which bind to CDDP-DNA. We also show that xeroderma pigmentosum cells of different genetic complementation groups contain variable levels of a 45-kDa protein that binds to CDDP-DNA. Thus, our results indicate that different human cell lines demonstrate qualitative and quantitative differences in the expression of cisplatin-damaged DNA binding proteins.  
  Call Number Serial 195  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bingham, R.; Banner, N. file  url
openurl 
  Title The definition of mental disorder: evolving but dysfunctional? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Medical Ethics Abbreviated Journal J Med Ethics  
  Volume 40 Issue 8 Pages 537-542  
  Keywords Concept Formation/*ethics; *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; *Homosexuality; Humans; Mental Disorders/*classification/*diagnosis/psychology; Prejudice; *Psychiatry; Concept of Mental Health; Psychiatry  
  Abstract Extensive and diverse conceptual work towards developing a definition of 'mental disorder' was motivated by the declassification of homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973. This highly politicised event was understood as a call for psychiatry to provide assurances against further misclassification on the basis of discrimination or socio-political deviance. Today, if a definition of mental disorder fails to exclude homosexuality, then it fails to provide this safeguard against potential abuses and therefore fails to do an important part of the work it was intended to do. We argue that fact-based definitions of mental disorder, relying on scientific theory, fail to offer a robust definition of mental disorder that excludes homosexuality. Definitions of mental disorder based on values do not fare better: these definitions are silent on questions about the diagnostic status of individuals in oppressive societies and over-inclusive of mental or behavioural states that happen to be negatively valued in the individual's social context. We consider the latest definition proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) in light of these observations. We argue that definition fails to improve on these earlier deficiencies. Its inclusion in the manual may offer false reassurance against repetition of past misclassifications. We conclude with a provocation that if candidate definitions of mental disorder are unable to exclude homosexuality, it might perhaps be preferable not to attempt a definition at all.  
  Call Number Serial 1383  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Birch, L.L.; Marlin, D.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 353-360  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans  
  Abstract The relationship between frequency of exposure to foods and preference for those foods was investigated in two experiments. Participants in both studies were two-year-old children. In Experiment 1, each of six children received 20, 15, 10, 5 or 2 exposures of five initially novel cheeses during a 26-day series of familiarization trials in which one pair of foods was presented per day. In Experiment 2, eight children received 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 exposures to five initially novel fruits, following the same familiarization procedures, for 25 days. The particular food assigned to an exposure frequency was counterbalanced over subjects. Initial novelty was ascertained through food history information. Within ten days after the familiarization trials, children were given ten choice trials, comprising all possible pairs of the five foods. Thurstone scaling solutions were obtained for the series of choices: when the resulting scale values for the five stimuli were correlated with exposure frequency, values of r = 0·95, p < 0·02; r = 0·97, p < 0·01; and r = 0·94, p < 0·02 were obtained for the data of Experiments 1, 2, and the combined sample, respectively. A second analysis, employing subjects rather than stimuli as degrees of freedom, revealed that 13 of 14 subjects chose the more familiar stimulus in the sequence of ten choice trials at greater than the level expected by chance, providing evidence for effects within subjects as well as consistency across subjects. These results indicate that preference is an increasing function of exposure frequency. The data are consistent with the mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) as well as with the literature on the role of neophobia in food selection of animals other than man.

Subject Headings: Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans

Keywords: I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences
 
  Call Number Serial 2686  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Block, J.H.; Block, J.; Gjerde, P.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The personality of children prior to divorce: a prospective study Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 827-840  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Divorce; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; *Personality; Personality Development; Prospective Studies; Sex Factors; Stress, Psychological/psychology  
  Abstract In a longitudinal study, the personalities of children from intact families at ages 3, 4, and 7 were reliably assessed by independent sets of raters using Q-items reflecting important psychological characteristics of children. A number of these families subsequently experienced divorce. The behavior of boys was found, as early as 11 years prior to parental separation or formal dissolution of marriage, to be consistently affected by what can be presumed to be predivorce familial stress. The behavior of boys from subsequently divorcing families was characterized by undercontrol of impulse, aggression, and excessive energy prior to parental divorce. The behavior of girls from subsequently divorcing families was found to be notably less affected by the stresses in families prior to parental divorce. The prospective relations afforded by the longitudinal analyses suggest that the behavior of conflicting, inaccessible parents during the preseparation period may have serious consequences for personality development, especially for boys. Hence, some characteristics of children commonly seen to be a consequence of divorce may be present prior to marital dissolution.  
  Call Number Serial 280  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Boeuf-Cazou, O.; Bongue, B.; Ansiau, D.; Marquie, J.-C.; Lapeyre-Mestre, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Impact of long-term benzodiazepine use on cognitive functioning in young adults: the VISAT cohort Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Clin Pharmacol  
  Volume 67 Issue 10 Pages 1045-1052  
  Keywords Adult; Aptitude/drug effects; Benzodiazepines/*administration & dosage/adverse effects; Cognition/*drug effects; Cohort Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Memory, Long-Term/drug effects; Mental Recall/drug effects; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Sex Factors  
  Abstract PURPOSE: Results from a number of studies have suggested a relationship between cognitive alteration and benzodiazepine use in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of benzodiazepine use on cognitive functions in a young adult population. METHODS: This study included 1,019 French salaried workers from the VISAT (Aging, Health and Work) cohort whose objective was to determine the long-term impact of working conditions on health and aging. Data were collected during interviews by occupational physicians in 1996, 2001 and 2006. Cognitive function was assessed using five cognitive tests (immediate free recall test, delayed free recall test, recognition test, Digit Symbol Substitution Subtest and visual search speed test). Cognitive scores obtained after a 10-year follow-up were investigated among three categories of benzodiazepine users, namely, non-users, occasional users and long-term users, using analysis of covariance models adjusted for several potential confounders in men and women separately. RESULTS: In the course of the 10 year-follow-up, 3.9% of subjects were defined as occasional users of benzodiazepine and 7.5% as long-term users. The analysis revealed a significant alteration of long-term memory in women whereas there was no significant association in men. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of benzodiazepine leads to specific impairment in long-term memory only in women.  
  Call Number Serial 265  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 365-370  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; *Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Eating/*psychology; Emotions; Feeding Behavior/psychology; Female; Humans; Linear Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Motivation; Obesity/psychology; Overweight/psychology; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Self Report; Students; Young Adult; Assessment; Binge-eating; Emotions; Motivation; Obesity; Reward  
  Abstract The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain.  
  Call Number Serial 1202  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bonello, T.T.; Stehn, J.R.; Gunning, P.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title New approaches to targeting the actin cytoskeleton for chemotherapy Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Future Medicinal Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Future Med Chem  
  Volume 1 Issue 7 Pages 1311-1331  
  Keywords Actin Cytoskeleton/chemistry/*drug effects/physiology; Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex/genetics/metabolism; Cortactin/genetics/metabolism; Destrin/genetics/metabolism; Gelsolin/genetics/metabolism; Humans; Microfilament Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry; Myosin Type II/genetics/metabolism; Neoplasms/drug therapy/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Tropomyosin/genetics/metabolism; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family/genetics/metabolism  
  Abstract The actin cytoskeleton is indispensable for normal cellular function. In particular, several actin-based structures coordinate cellular motility, a process hijacked by tumor cells in order to facilitate their propagation to distant sites. The actin cytoskeleton, therefore, represents a point for chemotherapeutic intervention. The challenge in disrupting the actin cytoskeleton is in preserving actin-driven contraction of cardiac and skeletal muscle. By targeting actin-binding proteins with altered expression in malignancy, it may be possible to achieve tumor-specific toxicity. A number of actin-binding proteins act cooperatively and synergistically to regulate actin structures required for motility. The actin cytoskeleton is characterized by a significant degree of plasticity. Targeting specific actin-binding proteins for chemotherapy will only be successful if no other compensatory mechanisms exist.  
  Call Number Serial 1054  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bonello, T.T.; Stehn, J.R.; Gunning, P.W. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title New approaches to targeting the actin cytoskeleton for chemotherapy Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Future Medicinal Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Future Med Chem  
  Volume 1 Issue 7 Pages 1311-1331  
  Keywords Actin Cytoskeleton/chemistry/*drug effects/physiology; Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex/genetics/metabolism; Cortactin/genetics/metabolism; Destrin/genetics/metabolism; Gelsolin/genetics/metabolism; Humans; Microfilament Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry; Myosin Type II/genetics/metabolism; Neoplasms/drug therapy/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Tropomyosin/genetics/metabolism; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family/genetics/metabolism  
  Abstract The actin cytoskeleton is indispensable for normal cellular function. In particular, several actin-based structures coordinate cellular motility, a process hijacked by tumor cells in order to facilitate their propagation to distant sites. The actin cytoskeleton, therefore, represents a point for chemotherapeutic intervention. The challenge in disrupting the actin cytoskeleton is in preserving actin-driven contraction of cardiac and skeletal muscle. By targeting actin-binding proteins with altered expression in malignancy, it may be possible to achieve tumor-specific toxicity. A number of actin-binding proteins act cooperatively and synergistically to regulate actin structures required for motility. The actin cytoskeleton is characterized by a significant degree of plasticity. Targeting specific actin-binding proteins for chemotherapy will only be successful if no other compensatory mechanisms exist.  
  Call Number Serial 1081  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Boomsma, D.; Busjahn, A.; Peltonen, L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Classical twin studies and beyond Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Nature Reviews. Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Genet  
  Volume 3 Issue 11 Pages 872-882  
  Keywords Female; Genetic Research; Humans; Male; Pedigree; *Twin Studies as Topic/methods  
  Abstract Twin studies have been a valuable source of information about the genetic basis of complex traits. To maximize the potential of twin studies, large, worldwide registers of data on twins and their relatives have been established. Here, we provide an overview of the current resources for twin research. These can be used to obtain insights into the genetic epidemiology of complex traits and diseases, to study the interaction of genotype with sex, age and lifestyle factors, and to study the causes of co-morbidity between traits and diseases. Because of their design, these registers offer unique opportunities for selected sampling for quantitative trait loci linkage and association studies.  
  Call Number Serial 1635  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Borgers, M.; Van den Bossche, H.; De Brabander, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title The mechanism of action of the new antimycotic ketoconazole Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication The American Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Med  
  Volume 74 Issue 1b Pages 2-8  
  Keywords Animals; *Antifungal Agents; Candida albicans/drug effects/growth & development/metabolism; Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects; Culture Media; Ergosterol/biosynthesis; Fatty Acids/biosynthesis; Fungi/drug effects/growth & development/metabolism/ultrastructure; Humans; Imidazoles/*pharmacology; Ketoconazole; Phagocytes/drug effects; Phospholipids/biosynthesis; Piperazines/*pharmacology; Rats; Sterols/biosynthesis; Triglycerides/biosynthesis  
  Abstract Ketoconazole is one of the new members of the imidazole series with a broad-spectrum antifungal profile. Although sharing its basic active principles with the other imidazoles, ketoconazole obtains its superior in vivo activity mainly from its good oral absorption and its lower degree of inactivation once absorbed. Its selective toxicity for yeasts and fungi is found to be primarily linked to the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis and to interference with other membrane lipids. In vitro growth studies revealed that ketoconazole's activity was more pronounced against the invasive morphogenetic form than against the saprophytic form of Candida albicans, which at least partly explains its prominent in vivo potency. At extremely low concentrations (10 ng/ml-1) ketoconazole prevents the development of the very form that is responsible for the expression of clinical symptoms. In contrast to other imidazoles, ketoconazole's action on the morphogenesis of the organism is not influenced by serum. The synergistic action with host defense cells, as demonstrated in culture systems, is another inherent property of this drug and may have a great impact on the eradication of systemic fungal infections. These effects of ketoconazole have been studied in a variety of fungal organisms with the aid of phase-contrast, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy in order to characterize ketoconazole's profile in comparison to the other imidazole derivatives.  
  Call Number Serial 1032  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations: