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Author (up) Bornovalova, M.A.; Hicks, B.M.; Iacono, W.G.; McGue, M. file  url
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  Title Familial transmission and heritability of childhood disruptive disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The American Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Psychiatry  
  Volume 167 Issue 9 Pages 1066-1074  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Antisocial Personality Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Diseases in Twins/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Family/psychology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Male; Minnesota/epidemiology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Social Environment; Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence of a link between parental substance use disorders and antisocial behavior and childhood disruptive disorders in offspring, but it is unclear whether this transmission is specific to particular disorders or if a general liability accounts for familial resemblance. The authors examined whether the association between parental externalizing disorders and childhood disruptive disorders in preadolescent offspring is a result of the transmission of general or disorder-specific liabilities and estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to variation in these general and specific liability indicators. METHOD: Participants were 1,069 families consisting of 11-year-old twins and their biological mother and father. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously estimate the general and specific transmission effects of four parental externalizing disorders (conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence) on childhood disruptive disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder). RESULTS: Parent-child resemblance was accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to externalizing disorders, and this general liability was highly heritable. Specific effects were also detected, but for sibling rather than parental transmission. Specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects were detected for each childhood disruptive disorder, but only conduct disorder exhibited a significant shared environmental effect. CONCLUSIONS: A highly heritable general liability accounts for the parent-child transmission of externalizing psychopathology from parents to their preadolescent offspring. This general liability should be a focus of research for both etiology and intervention.  
  Call Number Serial 97  
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Author (up) Borre, Y.E.; Moloney, R.D.; Clarke, G.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Exp Med Biol  
  Volume 817 Issue Pages 373-403  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; *Behavior; Brain/*physiology; Brain Diseases/therapy; Cognition; Humans; Intestines/microbiology; Microbiome; Microbiota/*physiology; Probiotics/pharmacology; Signal Transduction; Tryptophan/metabolism  
  Abstract There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 2003  
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Author (up) Bourne, G.L.; Grainger, D.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Development and characterisation of an assay for furin activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Immunological Methods Abbreviated Journal J Immunol Methods  
  Volume 364 Issue 1-2 Pages 101-108  
  Keywords Anoxia/diagnosis/genetics/*metabolism; Antibodies/immunology/*metabolism; Biochemistry/methods; Cell Extracts/chemistry; Furin/*genetics/immunology/*metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Hep G2 Cells; Humans; Immunomodulation; *Immunosorbent Techniques; RNA, Messenger/*analysis; Reference Standards; Sensitivity and Specificity; Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology/metabolism  
  Abstract Furin is a serine endoprotease that is responsible for the proteolytic processing of proteins within the secretory pathway, including cytokines, hormones, integrins, other proteases, and also pathogen-derived proteins. It is likely that the level of furin activity determines the extent of processing of these substrates. Furin is ubiquitously expressed across all tissues, at low levels, but can be induced in response to environmental cues such as hypoxia and cytokine stimulation. However, all studies to date that have investigated furin expression have been limited to analysis of furin mRNA; there has been no assay sensitive enough to quantify endogenous furin. Though activity-based assays have been described for furin-like enzyme activity, we demonstrate that these assays are dominated by the activity of other enzymes and cannot be used to approximate furin activity. A sensitive and specific assay for furin activity was therefore developed and characterised, using an antibody capture step to immobilise furin from whole cell lysates. Furin activity is quantified relative to that of recombinant active furin protein, to allow estimation of active furin protein concentration. The assay has a minimum detection limit of 0.006 nM; sensitive enough to determine the furin activity of many of the cell lines tested. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by genetic modulation of furin expression. Furthermore, the assay was used to demonstrate that the cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) stimulates increased furin activity in HepG2 cells, confirming and extending previous reports that TGF-beta increases furin expression, and adding to the mounting body of evidence that cellular furin activity can be modulated.  
  Call Number Serial 525  
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Author (up) Bowler, D.M.; Gaigg, S.B.; Gardiner, J.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Effects of related and unrelated context on recall and recognition by adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuropsychologia Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychologia  
  Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 993-999  
  Keywords Adult; Association Learning--physiology; Autistic Disorder--physiopathology, psychology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Male; Mental Recall--physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Recognition (Psychology)--physiology  
  Abstract Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD (HFA) and matched typical comparison participants. In both experiments, participants studied words presented inside a red rectangle and were told to ignore context words presented outside the rectangle. Context words were either related or unrelated to the study words. The results showed that relatedness of context enhanced recall for the typical group only. However, recognition was enhanced by relatedness in both groups of participants. On a behavioural level, these findings confirm the Task Support Hypothesis [Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., & Berthollier, N. (2004). Source memory in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 533-542], which states that individuals with ASD will show greater difficulty on memory tests that provide little support for retrieval. The findings extend this hypothesis by showing that it operates at the level of relatedness between studied items and incidentally encoded context. By showing difficulties in memory for associated items, the findings are also consistent with conjectures that implicate medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe dysfunction in the memory difficulties of individuals with ASD.  
  Call Number Serial 57  
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Author (up) Brabin, B.J.; Romagosa, C.; Abdelgalil, S.; Menendez, C.; Verhoeff, F.H.; McGready, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Owens, S.; D'Alessandro, U.; Nosten, F.; Fischer, P.R.; Ordi, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The sick placenta-the role of malaria Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Placenta Abbreviated Journal Placenta  
  Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 359-378  
  Keywords Cytokines/immunology; Female; Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology/parasitology; Fetal Weight; Humans; Immunity, Cellular/immunology; Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology; Immunohistochemistry; Infant, Low Birth Weight; Infant, Newborn; Malaria/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Falciparum/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Vivax/immunology/pathology; Placenta/immunology/pathology/physiopathology; Placenta Diseases/immunology/*pathology; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic; Premature Birth/epidemiology/etiology/parasitology  
  Abstract The human placenta is an ideal site for the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, and as a consequence serious health problems arise for the mother and her baby. The pathogenesis of placental malaria is only partially understood, but it is clear that it leads to a distinct epidemiological pattern of malaria during pregnancy. The objectives of this review are: (1) To review recent data on the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy, with emphasis on placental malaria; (2) to describe the pathological changes and immunological factors related to placental malaria; and (3) to discuss briefly the functional consequences of this infection for the mother and her baby. The review attempts to bring together local events at the maternal-fetal interface which encompass immunological and pathological processes which relate to the epidemiological pattern of malaria in pregnancy in areas of both high and low malaria transmission. An integrated understanding of the epidemiological, immunological and pathological processes must be achieved in order to understand how to control malaria in pregnancy. The yearly exposure of at least 50 million pregnancies to malaria infection makes it the commonest and most recurrent parasitic infection directly affecting the placenta. These statistics and our limited understanding of its pathogenesis suggest the research priorities on this subject.  
  Call Number Serial 147  
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Author (up) Bradwejn, J. file  url
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  Title Benzodiazepines for the treatment of panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder: clinical issues and future directions Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie Abbreviated Journal Can J Psychiatry  
  Volume 38 Issue Suppl 4 Pages S109-13  
  Keywords Anti-Anxiety Agents/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Anxiety Disorders/*drug therapy/physiopathology; Arousal/drug effects/physiology; Benzodiazepines; Brain/drug effects/physiopathology; Humans; Panic Disorder/*drug therapy/physiopathology; Receptors, GABA-A/drug effects/physiology  
  Abstract For several decades, benzodiazepines have shown their effectiveness in the treatment of various manifestations of anxiety. Recent diagnostic systems have divided these manifestations of anxiety into categories and separate pathologies, such as generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Researchers have studied the use and efficacy of benzodiazepine receptor agonists in patients with these distinct diagnostic categories. Clinical studies on generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder usually suggest equivalent efficacy among benzodiazepine agonists, although truly comparative studies with two or three drugs are scarce. Further work is needed on the differences in side-effects, pharmacokinetics and discontinuation reactions for benzodiazepines. Concerns about benzodiazepine dependency--justified or not--and about discontinuation reactions have motivated the search for newer benzodiazepines without these problems. This paper reviews the efficacy and comparative studies of benzodiazepines that are currently available and discusses recent developments in research on newer benzodiazepines molecules.  
  Call Number Serial 211  
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Author (up) Branco, T.; Staras, K. file  url
openurl 
  Title The probability of neurotransmitter release: variability and feedback control at single synapses Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nature Reviews. Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Neurosci  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 373-383  
  Keywords Animals; Feedback, Physiological/*physiology; Humans; Neurons/*physiology; Neurotransmitter Agents/*metabolism; Probability; Synapses/*physiology; Synaptic Transmission/*physiology  
  Abstract Information transfer at chemical synapses occurs when vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release neurotransmitter. This process is stochastic and its likelihood of occurrence is a crucial factor in the regulation of signal propagation in neuronal networks. The reliability of neurotransmitter release can be highly variable: experimental data from electrophysiological, molecular and imaging studies have demonstrated that synaptic terminals can individually set their neurotransmitter release probability dynamically through local feedback regulation. This local tuning of transmission has important implications for current models of single-neuron computation.  
  Call Number Serial 1322  
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Author (up) Brandt, A.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Polio, politics, publicity, and duplicity: ethical aspects in the development of the Salk vaccine Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication International Journal of Health Services : Planning, Administration, Evaluation Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Serv  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 257-270  
  Keywords Child; Drug Evaluation/methods; Federal Government; Government Regulation; History, 20th Century; *Human Experimentation; Humans; Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/*history; Politics; United States; Public Health Service  
  Abstract This paper is an historical account of the discovery, testing, and early distribution of the Salk polio vaccine. The discovery posed fundamental dilemmas of medical research, pharmaceutical production, and public health. This paper assesses the ethical problems which arose, and examines critically their resolution. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (March of Dimes) financed and directed the discovery of the vaccine, subsequent field trials, and early distribution. The Foundation's role is analyzed with special attention to the conflicts between its philanthropic and scientific functions. The reat public demand which the discovery of the vaccine generated created a need for federal control which was only partly met. The federal government did not have sufficient institutional and legal mechanisms to assure the safety of the vaccine and protect the public. This discussion illustrates the failure of the government to keep pace with medical technology.  
  Call Number Serial 187  
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Author (up) Brecx, M.; Netuschil, L.; Reichert, B.; Schreil, G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Efficacy of Listerine, Meridol and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on plaque, gingivitis and plaque bacteria vitality Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Journal of Clinical Periodontology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Periodontol  
  Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 292-297  
  Keywords Adult; Amines/*therapeutic use; Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use; Dental Plaque/*drug therapy/microbiology; Double-Blind Method; Drug Combinations/therapeutic use; Female; Fluorides/*therapeutic use; Gingivitis/*drug therapy; Humans; Male; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Mouthwashes/*therapeutic use; Product Surveillance, Postmarketing; Salicylates/*therapeutic use; Terpenes/*therapeutic use; *Tin Fluorides  
  Abstract The experimental gingivitis model was used to compare the anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis and anti-microbial efficacies of a phenolic compound (Listerine) and an amine/stannous fluoride mouthwash (Meridol), using a placebo preparation as negative control and a chlorhexidine solution as positive control in a double-blind study. After professional toothcleaning, 36 volunteers performed optimal oral hygiene for a period of 2 weeks. They then ceased all oral hygiene procedures for 21 days during which they rinsed twice daily with 1 of the 4 mouthrinses. After 3 weeks of rinsing, plaque indices remained the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, while subjects using Listerine or Meridol harbored similar indices significantly lower than that of individuals rinsing with the placebo solution. Up to that time, the gingival index scores were equal in all groups except for the chlorhexidine group in which the values only amounted to half of these encountered in the other groups. The plaque vitality scores showed a bactericidal effect in vivo of chlorhexidine during the entire time of experimental gingivitis. In contrast, the data gave no evidence of an antibacterial effect in vivo of Listerine. The efficacy of Meridol to kill micro-organisms was similar to chlorhexidine during the early stages of plaque accumulation and, with time, became insignificant. This study has demonstrated that chlorhexidine was superior to Listerine and Meridol in its ability to maintain low plaque scores and gingival health during this 3-week period of no mechanical oral hygiene. Moreover, it was also shown that Meridol was as effective as Listerine in reducing plaque accumulation and, in contrast to Listerine, possessed a remarkable but transient antibacterial effect in vivo.  
  Call Number Serial 1052  
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Author (up) Brecx, M.; Netuschil, L.; Reichert, B.; Schreil, G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Efficacy of Listerine, Meridol and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on plaque, gingivitis and plaque bacteria vitality Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Journal of Clinical Periodontology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Periodontol  
  Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 292-297  
  Keywords Adult; Amines/*therapeutic use; Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use; Dental Plaque/*drug therapy/microbiology; Double-Blind Method; Drug Combinations/therapeutic use; Female; Fluorides/*therapeutic use; Gingivitis/*drug therapy; Humans; Male; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Mouthwashes/*therapeutic use; Product Surveillance, Postmarketing; Salicylates/*therapeutic use; Terpenes/*therapeutic use; *Tin Fluorides  
  Abstract The experimental gingivitis model was used to compare the anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis and anti-microbial efficacies of a phenolic compound (Listerine) and an amine/stannous fluoride mouthwash (Meridol), using a placebo preparation as negative control and a chlorhexidine solution as positive control in a double-blind study. After professional toothcleaning, 36 volunteers performed optimal oral hygiene for a period of 2 weeks. They then ceased all oral hygiene procedures for 21 days during which they rinsed twice daily with 1 of the 4 mouthrinses. After 3 weeks of rinsing, plaque indices remained the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, while subjects using Listerine or Meridol harbored similar indices significantly lower than that of individuals rinsing with the placebo solution. Up to that time, the gingival index scores were equal in all groups except for the chlorhexidine group in which the values only amounted to half of these encountered in the other groups. The plaque vitality scores showed a bactericidal effect in vivo of chlorhexidine during the entire time of experimental gingivitis. In contrast, the data gave no evidence of an antibacterial effect in vivo of Listerine. The efficacy of Meridol to kill micro-organisms was similar to chlorhexidine during the early stages of plaque accumulation and, with time, became insignificant. This study has demonstrated that chlorhexidine was superior to Listerine and Meridol in its ability to maintain low plaque scores and gingival health during this 3-week period of no mechanical oral hygiene. Moreover, it was also shown that Meridol was as effective as Listerine in reducing plaque accumulation and, in contrast to Listerine, possessed a remarkable but transient antibacterial effect in vivo.  
  Call Number Serial 1079  
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