more information
Search within Results:

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author (up) Briggs, C.A.; Gronlien, J.H.; Curzon, P.; Timmermann, D.B.; Ween, H.; Thorin-Hagene, K.; Kerr, P.; Anderson, D.J.; Malysz, J.; Dyhring, T.; Olsen, G.M.; Peters, D.; Bunnelle, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Role of channel activation in cognitive enhancement mediated by alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication British Journal of Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Br J Pharmacol  
  Volume 158 Issue 6 Pages 1486-1494  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation; Animals; Avoidance Learning/drug effects; Azabicyclo Compounds/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Cell Line; Cognition Disorders/drug therapy/physiopathology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Furans/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Humans; Male; Mice; Nicotinic Agonists/*pharmacology; Oocytes/drug effects/metabolism; Oxadiazoles/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Pyridazines/pharmacology; Pyrroles/pharmacology; Rats; Receptors, Nicotinic/*drug effects/metabolism; Xenopus laevis; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several agonists of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) have been developed for treatment of cognitive deficits. However, agonist efficacy in vivo is difficult to reconcile with rapid alpha7 nAChR desensitization in vitro; and furthermore, the correlation between in vitro receptor efficacy and in vivo behavioural efficacy is not well delineated. The possibility that agonists of this receptor actually function in vivo as inhibitors via desensitization has not been finally resolved. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Two structurally related alpha7 nAChR agonists were characterized and used to assess the degree of efficacy required in a behavioural paradigm. KEY RESULTS: NS6784 activated human and rat alpha7 nAChR with EC(50)s of 0.72 and 0.88 microM, and apparent efficacies of 77 and 97% respectively. NS6740, in contrast, displayed little efficacy at alpha7 nAChR (<2% in oocytes, < or =8% in GH4C1 cells), although its agonist-like properties were revealed by adding a positive allosteric modulator of alpha7 nAChRs or using the slowly desensitizing alpha7V274T receptor. In mouse inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory retention, NS6784 enhanced performance as did the 60% partial agonist A-582941. In contrast, NS6740 did not enhance performance, but blocked effects of A-582941. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that a degree of alpha7 nAChR agonist efficacy is required for behavioural effects in the IA paradigm, and that such behavioural efficacy is not due to alpha7 nAChR desensitization. Also, a partial agonist of very low efficacy for this receptor could be used as an inhibitor, in the absence of alpha7 nAChR antagonists with favourable CNS penetration.  
  Call Number Serial 1881  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Brimblecombe, P. file  url
openurl 
  Title London air pollution, 1500-1900 Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Atmospheric Environment Abbreviated Journal Atmos Environ  
  Volume 11 Issue 12 Pages 1157-1162  
  Keywords Air Pollution--history; Coal; History, 16th Century; History, 17th Century; History, 18th Century; History, 19th Century; Humans; London; Models, Theoretical; Seasons; Sulfur Dioxide--analysis; Vitamin D Deficiency--etiology  
  Abstract Documentary evidence for the changes in the air pollutant levels and climate of London are compared with the results obtained from a simple single box model for the annual mean SO2 and particulate levels in the London air. Sulphur dioxide reaches a maximum of nearly 200 &#956;g m&#8722;3 in a plateau that stretches from 16901880. Particulate concentrations show a peak at the end of the 19th century.  
  Call Number Serial 982  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
  Call Number Serial 2043  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Broberg, D.J.; Bernstein, I.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Candy as a scapegoat in the prevention of food aversions in children receiving chemotherapy Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Cancer Abbreviated Journal Cancer  
  Volume 60 Issue 9 Pages 2344-2347  
  Keywords Adolescent; Antineoplastic Agents/*adverse effects; *Avoidance Learning; *Candy; Child; Child, Preschool; Conditioning (Psychology); *Food Preferences; Humans; Nausea/chemically induced/*psychology  
  Abstract The effectiveness of a method for reducing the incidence of chemotherapy-induced learned food aversions was examined. Candy (coconut or rootbeer Lifesavers) was used as a scapegoat and given between the consumption of a meal and the administration of chemotherapy to determine whether this would lead to a greater willingness to consume items in that meal at a future test. This procedure produced evidence that the scapegoat had a significant protective effect: children were twice as likely to eat some portion of their test meal at the time of assessment if they had received the scapegoat at conditioning than when there was no intervention. Thus, the consumption of strongly flavored candies before chemotherapy appears to be a simple and effective way to reduce the impact of chemotherapy on preference for normal menu items.  
  Call Number Serial 219  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Broemer, M.; Meier, P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Trends in Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Trends Cell Biol  
  Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 130-140  
  Keywords Animals; Apoptosis/*physiology; Humans; Ubiquitin/*chemistry/metabolism/*physiology; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/*chemistry/metabolism/*physiology  
  Abstract Ubiquitin is a protein modifier that is conjugated to target proteins either as a single moiety or as polyubiquitin chains. Over the past several years, an increasing number of ubiquitin ligases and ubiquitin-deconjugating enzymes have been identified; these modulate cell survival by degradative and non-degradative means. Mutations that affect ubiquitin-mediated signalling are tightly linked to various human pathologies including tumorigenesis. Unravelling how the ubiquitin-signal is conjugated, edited and 'read' is crucial to understanding cellular processes such as endocytic trafficking, NF-kappaB signalling, gene expression, DNA repair and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize recent advances that start to elucidate how the ubiquitin message is used as a versatile tool to regulate apoptosis, for example in the conjugation of ubiquitin to caspases. This results in steric interference with substrate entry and allosteric conformational impairment of the catalytic pocket of the caspase.  
  Call Number Serial 1101  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Broemer, M.; Meier, P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Trends in Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Trends Cell Biol  
  Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 130-140  
  Keywords Animals; Apoptosis/*physiology; Humans; Ubiquitin/*chemistry/metabolism/*physiology; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/*chemistry/metabolism/*physiology  
  Abstract Ubiquitin is a protein modifier that is conjugated to target proteins either as a single moiety or as polyubiquitin chains. Over the past several years, an increasing number of ubiquitin ligases and ubiquitin-deconjugating enzymes have been identified; these modulate cell survival by degradative and non-degradative means. Mutations that affect ubiquitin-mediated signalling are tightly linked to various human pathologies including tumorigenesis. Unravelling how the ubiquitin-signal is conjugated, edited and 'read' is crucial to understanding cellular processes such as endocytic trafficking, NF-kappaB signalling, gene expression, DNA repair and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize recent advances that start to elucidate how the ubiquitin message is used as a versatile tool to regulate apoptosis, for example in the conjugation of ubiquitin to caspases. This results in steric interference with substrate entry and allosteric conformational impairment of the catalytic pocket of the caspase.  
  Call Number Serial 1102  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Brown, R.G.; Marsden, C.D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Internal versus external cues and the control of attention in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Brain : a Journal of Neurology Abbreviated Journal Brain  
  Volume 111 ( Pt 2) Issue Pages 323-345  
  Keywords *Attention; *Cues; Humans; Neuropsychological Tests; Parkinson Disease/*psychology; Reaction Time  
  Abstract In recent years, several attempts have been made to characterize the nature of the cognitive deficits shown by patients with Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested variously that they have difficulty in switching cognitive set, in performing effortful (or controlled) as opposed to automatic tasks, or that their impairment is found in tasks which maximize the amount of 'self-directed task specific planning'. It is proposed that this latter distinction may be reformulated in terms of the degree of internal versus external attentional control which is required by the task. An experiment is described which attempted to manipulate this parameter. A version of the Stroop colour-word test was used, in which the words 'red' and 'green' were presented in the complementary coloured 'ink'. Subjects responded either to the colour of the ink in which the word was written or the colour named by the word. The relevant attribute changed at intervals during the course of the experiment. In one condition, the relevant stimulus attribute was cued before each trial. In another condition, subjects had to remember which attribute was currently relevant. Results revealed that patients with Parkinson's disease were impaired mainly on the second version of the task which required internal attentional control. The results are discussed in relation to the models of Working Memory (Baddeley, 1986), and attentional control (Norman and Shallice, 1980). Exploration of these models leads to the formulation of a theory in which the crucial determinant of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is reduced resources in the Supervisory Attentional System. Provided the demands of the task are within the patient's available attentional resources the patient may not show any deficit. If, however, the attentional demands exceed available resources, as in tasks which depend upon internal cues, then deficits will be observed.  
  Call Number Serial 158  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bruckmuller, S.; Branscombe, N.R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The British Journal of Social Psychology / the British Psychological Society Abbreviated Journal Br J Soc Psychol  
  Volume 49 Issue Pt 3 Pages 433-451  
  Keywords Achievement; *Career Mobility; Choice Behavior; Efficiency, Organizational/*economics; Employee Performance Appraisal; Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; Judgment; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Innovation/*economics; Power (Psychology); Prejudice; Stereotyping; Women, Working/*psychology  
  Abstract The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.  
  Call Number Serial 269  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bryant, R.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 53 Issue 9 Pages 789-795  
  Keywords Humans; Risk Factors; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; Time Factors  
  Abstract The benefits of providing early intervention for people recently exposed to trauma have highlighted the need to develop means to identify people who will develop chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review provides an overview of prospective studies that have indexed the acute reactions to trauma that are predictive of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Ten studies of the predictive power of the acute stress disorder diagnosis indicate that this diagnosis does not have adequate predictive power. There is no convergence across studies on any constellation of acute symptoms that predict posttraumatic stress disorder. A review of biological and cognitive mechanisms occurring in the acute posttraumatic phase suggests that these factors may provide more accurate means of predicting chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Recommendations for future research to facilitate identification of key markers of acutely traumatized people who will develop posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1162  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bryant, R.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.; Creamer, M.; McFarlane, A.C.; Silove, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title A multisite analysis of the fluctuating course of posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication JAMA Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal JAMA Psychiatry  
  Volume 70 Issue 8 Pages 839-846  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Australia/epidemiology; Brain Injuries/diagnosis/epidemiology/*psychology; *Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Injury Severity Score; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Severity of Illness Index; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis/epidemiology/*psychology; Stress, Psychological/complications/diagnosis/epidemiology; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract IMPORTANCE: Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. OBJECTIVE: To test the roles of initial psychiatric reactions, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and ongoing stressors on delayed-onset PTSD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective cohort study, patients were selected from recent admissions to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia. A total of 1084 traumatically injured patients were assessed during hospital admission from April 1, 2004, through February 28, 2006, and 785 (72.4%) were followed up at 3, 12, and 24 months after injury. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Severity of PTSD was determined at each assessment with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. RESULTS: Of those who met PTSD criteria at 24 months, 44.1% reported no PTSD at 3 months and 55.9% had subsyndromal or full PTSD. In those who displayed subsyndromal or full PTSD at 3 months, PTSD severity at 24 months was predicted by prior psychiatric disorder, initial PTSD symptom severity, and type of injury. In those who displayed no PTSD at 3 months, PTSD severity at 24 months was predicted by initial PTSD symptom severity, MTBI, length of hospitalization, and the number of stressful events experienced between 3 and 24 months. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data highlight the complex trajectories of PTSD symptoms over time. This study also points to the roles of ongoing stress and MTBI in delayed cases of PTSD and suggests the potential of ongoing stress to compound initial stress reactions and lead to a delayed increase in PTSD symptom severity. This study also provides initial evidence that MTBI increases the risk of delayed PTSD symptoms, particularly in those with no acute symptoms.  
  Call Number Serial 1306  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations: