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Author (up) Busuttil, F.; Rahim, A.A.; Phillips, J.B. file  url
  Title Combining Gene and Stem Cell Therapy for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Stem Cells and Development Abbreviated Journal Stem Cells Dev  
  Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 231-238  
  Keywords Animals; Cellular Microenvironment; *Genetic Therapy; Humans; Nerve Regeneration/physiology; Peripheral Nerves/*physiology; *Stem Cell Transplantation; Tissue Engineering/*methods; gene therapy; peripheral nerve regeneration; tissue engineering  
  Abstract Despite a substantially increased understanding of neuropathophysiology, insufficient functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury remains a significant clinical challenge. Nerve regeneration following injury is dependent on Schwann cells, the supporting cells in the peripheral nervous system. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells adopt a proregenerative phenotype, which supports and guides regenerating nerves. However, this phenotype may not persist long enough to ensure functional recovery. Tissue-engineered nerve repair devices containing therapeutic cells that maintain the appropriate phenotype may help enhance nerve regeneration. The combination of gene and cell therapy is an emerging experimental strategy that seeks to provide the optimal environment for axonal regeneration and reestablishment of functional circuits. This review aims to summarize current preclinical evidence with potential for future translation from bench to bedside.  
  Call Number Serial 2132  
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Author (up) Buu, M.M.C.; Sanders, L.M.; Mayo, J.A.; Milla, C.E.; Wise, P.H. file  url
  Title Assessing Differences in Mortality Rates and Risk Factors Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in California Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chest Abbreviated Journal Chest  
  Volume 149 Issue 2 Pages 380-389  
  Keywords Adolescent; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Cystic Fibrosis/*mortality; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Hispanic Americans; Humans; Infant; Male; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/*methods; Prevalence; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Survival Rate/trends; cystic fibrosis; ethnicity; health disparities; pediatric pulmonology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past 30 years, therapeutic advances have extended the median lifespan of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Hispanic patients are a vulnerable subpopulation with a high prevalence of risk factors for worse health outcomes. The consequences of these differences on health outcomes have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the difference in health outcomes, including mortality rate, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with CF. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of CF Foundation Patient Registry data of California residents with CF, diagnosed during or after 1991, from 1991 to 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported. The primary outcome was mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated from a Cox regression model, stratified by sex, and adjusted for socioeconomic status, clinical risk factors, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 1,719 patients, 485 (28.2%) self-identified as Hispanic. Eighty-five deaths occurred, with an overall mortality rate of 4.9%. The unadjusted mortality rate was higher among Hispanic patients than among non-Hispanic patients (9.1% vs 3.3%, P < .0001). Compared with non-Hispanic patients, Hispanic patients had a lower survival rate 18 years after diagnosis (75.9% vs 91.5%, P < .0001). Adjusted for socioeconomic status and clinical risk factors, Hispanic patients had an increased rate of death compared with non-Hispanic patients (hazard ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients with CF have a higher mortality rate than do non-Hispanic patients, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status and clinical severity. Further investigation into the mechanism for the measured difference in lung function will help inform interventions and improve the health of all patients with CF.  
  Call Number Serial 1377  
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Author (up) Cahill, L. file  url
  Title The neurobiology of emotionally influenced memory. Implications for understanding traumatic memory Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 821 Issue Pages 238-246  
  Keywords Brain/*physiopathology; Catecholamines/physiology; Emotions/*physiology; Humans; Memory/*physiology; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*physiopathology/*psychology; Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology/*psychology  
  Abstract Substantial evidence from animal and human subject studies converges on the view that memory for emotionally arousing events is modulated by an endogenous memory-modulating system consisting, at minimum, of stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex. Within the normal range of emotions experienced, this system is viewed as an evolutionarily adaptive method of creating memory strength that is, in general, proportional to memory importance. In conditions of extreme emotional stress, the operation of this normally adaptive system may underly the formation of strong, “intrusive” memories characteristic of PTSD. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of memory modulation should lead to an improved ability to treat or prevent traumatic memories.  
  Call Number Serial 382  
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Author (up) Calhoun, W.J.; Ameredes, B.T.; King, T.S.; Icitovic, N.; Bleecker, E.R.; Castro, M.; Cherniack, R.M.; Chinchilli, V.M.; Craig, T.; Denlinger, L.; DiMango, E.A.; Engle, L.L.; Fahy, J.V.; Grant, J.A.; Israel, E.; Jarjour, N.; Kazani, S.D.; Kraft, M.; Kunselman, S.J.; Lazarus, S.C.; Lemanske, R.F.; Lugogo, N.; Martin, R.J.; Meyers, D.A.; Moore, W.C.; Pascual, R.; Peters, S.P.; Ramsdell, J.; Sorkness, C.A.; Sutherland, E.R.; Szefler, S.J.; Wasserman, S.I.; Walter, M.J.; Wechsler, M.E.; Boushey, H.A. file  url
  Title Comparison of physician-, biomarker-, and symptom-based strategies for adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in adults with asthma: the BASALT randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association Abbreviated Journal Jama  
  Volume 308 Issue 10 Pages 987-997  
  Keywords Administration, Inhalation; Adrenal Cortex Hormones--administration & dosage; Adult; Asthma--complications, drug therapy, physiopathology; Biological Markers--analysis; Breath Tests; Double-Blind Method; Female; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Male; Middle Aged; Nitric Oxide--analysis; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Respiratory Function Tests; Treatment Failure  
  Abstract CONTEXT: No consensus exists for adjusting inhaled corticosteroid therapy in patients with asthma. Approaches include adjustment at outpatient visits guided by physician assessment of asthma control (symptoms, rescue therapy, pulmonary function), based on exhaled nitric oxide, or on a day-to-day basis guided by symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy based on exhaled nitric oxide or day-to-day symptoms is superior to guideline-informed, physician assessment-based adjustment in preventing treatment failure in adults with mild to moderate asthma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized, parallel, 3-group, placebo-controlled, multiply-blinded trial of 342 adults with mild to moderate asthma controlled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy (n = 114 assigned to physician assessment-based adjustment [101 completed], n = 115 to biomarker-based [exhaled nitric oxide] adjustment [92 completed], and n = 113 to symptom-based adjustment [97 completed]), the Best Adjustment Strategy for Asthma in the Long Term (BASALT) trial was conducted by the Asthma Clinical Research Network at 10 academic medical centers in the United States for 9 months between June 2007 and July 2010. INTERVENTIONS: For physician assessment-based adjustment and biomarker-based (exhaled nitric oxide) adjustment, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids was adjusted every 6 weeks; for symptom-based adjustment, inhaled corticosteroids were taken with each albuterol rescue use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was time to treatment failure. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in time to treatment failure. The 9-month Kaplan-Meier failure rates were 22% (97.5% CI, 14%-33%; 24 events) for physician assessment-based adjustment, 20% (97.5% CI, 13%-30%; 21 events) for biomarker-based adjustment, and 15% (97.5% CI, 9%-25%; 16 events) for symptom-based adjustment. The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs biomarker-based adjustment was 1.2 (97.5% CI, 0.6-2.3). The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs symptom-based adjustment was 1.6 (97.5% CI, 0.8-3.3). CONCLUSION: Among adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma controlled with low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy, the use of either biomarker-based or symptom-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids was not superior to physician assessment-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids in time to treatment failure.  
  Call Number Serial 548  
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Author (up) Campbell, P.; Jordan, K.P.; Dunn, K.M. file  url
  Title The role of relationship quality and perceived partner responses with pain and disability in those with back pain Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.) Abbreviated Journal Pain Med  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 204-214  
  Keywords Adjustment Disorders/*epidemiology/*psychology/rehabilitation; Adult; Aged; Caregivers/*psychology; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity/trends; Cross-Sectional Studies; Empathy; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Low Back Pain/*epidemiology/*psychology/rehabilitation; Male; Middle Aged; *Social Support; Spouses/*psychology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations of key constructs of relationship quality (cohesion, consensus, and satisfaction) and perceived partner responses to pain behavior (e.g., solicitous and negative responses) with the outcomes of pain and disability in those with long-term low back pain, and to explore the role of the patient's depressive symptom mood state on those associations. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires on pain intensity, disability, relationship quality, perceived partner reactions to pain, and depressive symptoms were collected from participants (N = 174) taking part in a longitudinal study on low back pain within a primary care sample. RESULTS: Participants reporting more consensus (e.g., agreement about sexual intimacy, level of affection) in their relationships had significantly higher pain intensity (P = 0.03), and solicitous partner responses (P = 0.04) were significantly positively associated with disability levels. However, the findings for pain intensity were only present in those with higher levels of depression, while the association of solicitous responses with disability was only significant in those with lower levels of depression, indicating a suppression effect of depression on pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms play a significant role in determining the associations between relationship quality, perceived partner reactions, and pain and disability. The relationship construct of consensus and perceived solicitous responses were associated with pain and disability. These findings illustrate the importance of social context and patient mood state on the outcomes for those with low back pain.  
  Call Number Serial 2069  
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Author (up) Capp, S.J.; Williams, M.G. file  url
  Title Promoting student success and well-being: a stress management course Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Holistic Nursing Practice Abbreviated Journal Holist Nurs Pract  
  Volume 26 Issue 5 Pages 272-276  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Education, Nursing; Health; Humans; Problem-Based Learning; Stress, Psychological; Students, Nursing  
  Abstract Nursing students need to be prepared for a highly complex and challenging profession. This article describes an experiential course where students learn stress management skills and develop a stress management plan. These skills can be used during their nursing education and then transferred to clinical practice.  
  Call Number Serial 461  
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Author (up) Caspers, K.M.; Yucuis, R.; Troutman, B.; Spinks, R. file  url
  Title Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy Abbreviated Journal Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 32  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adoption/*psychology; Adult; Aged; Behavior; Community Mental Health Services/*utilization; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; *Object Attachment; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Patient Participation/*statistics & numerical data; Psychometrics; Stress, Psychological; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/*psychology/*therapy; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. METHODS: Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. RESULTS: Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.  
  Call Number Serial 1721  
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Author (up) Cattaneo, L.; Fabbri-Destro, M.; Boria, S.; Pieraccini, C.; Monti, A.; Cossu, G.; Rizzolatti, G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 104 Issue 45 Pages 17825-17830  
  Keywords Autistic Disorder--physiopathology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comprehension--physiology; Electromyography; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intention; Male; Motor Activity; Perception--physiology; Reference Values  
  Abstract Experiments in monkeys demonstrated that many parietal and premotor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show a markedly different activation when this act is part of actions that have different goals (e.g., grasping for eating vs. grasping for placing). Many of these “action-constrained” neurons have mirror properties firing selectively to the observation of the initial motor act of the actions to which they belong motorically. By activating a specific action chain from its very outset, this mechanism allows the observers to have an internal copy of the whole action before its execution, thus enabling them to understand directly the agent's intention. Using electromyographic recordings, we show that a similar chained organization exists in typically developing children, whereas it is impaired in children with autism. We propose that, as a consequence of this functional impairment, high-functioning autistic children may understand the intentions of others cognitively but lack the mechanism for understanding them experientially.  
  Call Number Serial 18  
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Author (up) Caunt, C.J.; Sale, M.J.; Smith, P.D.; Cook, S.J. file  url
  Title MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitors and cancer therapy: the long and winding road Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Nature Reviews. Cancer Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Cancer  
  Volume 15 Issue 10 Pages 577-592  
  Keywords Humans; MAP Kinase Kinase 1/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; MAP Kinase Kinase 2/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/metabolism; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/*therapeutic use; Signal Transduction/drug effects  
  Abstract The role of the ERK signalling pathway in cancer is thought to be most prominent in tumours in which mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinases RAS, BRAF, CRAF, MEK1 or MEK2 drive growth factor-independent ERK1 and ERK2 activation and thence inappropriate cell proliferation and survival. New drugs that inhibit RAF or MEK1 and MEK2 have recently been approved or are currently undergoing late-stage clinical evaluation. In this Review, we consider the ERK pathway, focusing particularly on the role of MEK1 and MEK2, the 'gatekeepers' of ERK1/2 activity. We discuss their validation as drug targets, the merits of targeting MEK1 and MEK2 versus BRAF and the mechanisms of action of different inhibitors of MEK1 and MEK2. We also consider how some of the systems-level properties (intrapathway regulatory loops and wider signalling network connections) of the ERK pathway present a challenge for the success of MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitors, discuss mechanisms of resistance to these inhibitors, and review their clinical progress.  
  Call Number Serial 2024  
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Author (up) Cavedini, P.; Bassi, T.; Ubbiali, A.; Casolari, A.; Giordani, S.; Zorzi, C.; Bellodi, L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Neuropsychological investigation of decision-making in anorexia nervosa Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res  
  Volume 127 Issue 3 Pages 259-266  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*psychology; Body Mass Index; Bulimia/epidemiology/psychology; Cognition Disorders/*diagnosis/*etiology; *Decision Making; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Gambling/psychology; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Severity of Illness Index  
  Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) could be considered a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder in which an impairment of the cognitive domain related to decision-making was found. We explored this function in AN patients, as well as possible differences between restricting type and binge/purge type, with the aim of examining the hypothesis that AN is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Decision-making was assessed in 59 inpatients with AN and 82 control subjects using the Gambling task, which simulates real-life decision-making by assessing the ability to balance immediate rewards against long-term negative consequences. We confirmed the supposed deficit of decision-making in AN. However, restricting and binge eating/purge subtypes showed different patterns of decision-making impairment. Poor performance on the Gambling task is not a mere consequence of starvation and does not appear to be related to illness severity. The decision-making deficiency that some AN patients show is linked to those individual features that contribute to the phenomenological expression of the disorder.  
  Call Number Serial 91  
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