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Author Cattaneo, L.; Fabbri-Destro, M.; Boria, S.; Pieraccini, C.; Monti, A.; Cossu, G.; Rizzolatti, G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 104 Issue 45 Pages 17825-17830  
  Keywords Autistic Disorder--physiopathology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comprehension--physiology; Electromyography; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intention; Male; Motor Activity; Perception--physiology; Reference Values  
  Abstract Experiments in monkeys demonstrated that many parietal and premotor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show a markedly different activation when this act is part of actions that have different goals (e.g., grasping for eating vs. grasping for placing). Many of these “action-constrained” neurons have mirror properties firing selectively to the observation of the initial motor act of the actions to which they belong motorically. By activating a specific action chain from its very outset, this mechanism allows the observers to have an internal copy of the whole action before its execution, thus enabling them to understand directly the agent's intention. Using electromyographic recordings, we show that a similar chained organization exists in typically developing children, whereas it is impaired in children with autism. We propose that, as a consequence of this functional impairment, high-functioning autistic children may understand the intentions of others cognitively but lack the mechanism for understanding them experientially.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 18  
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Author Eckel, L.A. file  url
  Title The ovarian hormone estradiol plays a crucial role in the control of food intake in females Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 517-524  
  Keywords Animals; Brain--physiology; Eating--physiology; Estradiol--physiology; Estrogen Receptor alpha--physiology; Estrogen Receptor beta--physiology; Female; Humans  
  Abstract Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol's feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has been studied most extensively in rats and mice. Accordingly, much of the data reviewed here is derived from the rodent literature. Adult female rats display a robust decrease in food intake during estrus and ovariectomy promotes hyperphagia and weight gain, both of which can be prevented by a physiological regimen of estradiol treatment. Behavioral analyses have demonstrated that the feeding inhibitory effect of estradiol is mediated entirely by a decrease in meal size. In rats, estradiol appears to exert this action indirectly via interactions with peptide and neurotransmitter systems implicated in the direct control of meal size. Here, I summarize research examining the neurobiological mechanism underlying estradiol's anorexigenic effect. Central estrogen receptors (ERs) have been implicated and activation of one ER subtype in particular, ERalpha, appears both sufficient and necessary for the estrogenic control of food intake. Future studies are necessary to identify the critical brain areas and intracellular signaling pathways responsible for estradiol's anorexigenic effect. A clearer understanding of the estrogenic control of food intake is prerequisite to elucidating the biological factors that contribute to obesity and eating disorders, both of which are more prevalent in women, compared to men.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 22  
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Author Nardini, M.; Burgess, N.; Breckenridge, K.; Atkinson, J. file  url
  Title Differential developmental trajectories for egocentric, environmental and intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 101 Issue 1 Pages 153-172  
  Keywords Child; Child, Preschool; Cognition; Environment; Humans; Memory; Space Perception  
  Abstract We studied the development of spatial frames of reference in children aged 3-6 years, who retrieved hidden toys from an array of identical containers bordered by landmarks under four conditions. By moving the child and/or the array between presentation and test, we varied the consistency of the hidden toy with (i) the body, and (ii) the testing room. The toy's position always remained consistent with (iii) the array and bordering landmarks. We found separate, additive performance advantages for consistency with body and room. These effects were already present at 3 years. A striking finding was that the room effect, which implies allocentric representations of the room and/or egocentric representations updated by self-motion, was much stronger in the youngest children than the body effect, which implies purely egocentric representations. Children as young as 3 years therefore had, and greatly favoured, spatial representations that were not purely egocentric. Viewpoint-independent recall based only on the array and bordering landmarks emerged at 5 years. There was no evidence that this later-developing ability, which implies object-referenced (intrinsic) representations, depended on verbal encodings. These findings indicate that core components of adult spatial competence, including parallel egocentric and nonegocentric representations of space, are present as early as 3 years. These are supplemented by later-developing object-referenced representations.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 23  
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Author Gerstadt, C.L.; Hong, Y.J.; Diamond, A. url  openurl
  Title The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 129-153  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cognition; Female; Humans; Language; Language Tests; Male; Task Performance and Analysis  
  Abstract One hundred and sixty children 3 1/2-7 years of age (10 M, 10 F at each 6-month interval) were tested on a task that requires inhibitory control of action plus learning and remembering two rules. They were asked to say “day” whenever a black card with the moon and stars appeared and to say “night” when shown a white card with a bright sun. Children < 5 years had great difficulty. They started out performing well, but could not sustain this over the course of the 16-trial session. Response latency decreased from 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 years. Children < 4 1/2 years performed well when they took very long to respond. To test whether the requirement to learn and remember two rules alone was sufficient to cause children difficulty, 80 children 3 1/2-5 years old were tested on a control version of the task (“say 'day' to one abstract design and 'night' to another”). Even the youngest children performed at a high level. We conclude that the requirement to learn and remember two rules is not in itself sufficient to account for the poor performance of the younger children in the experimental condition.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 43  
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Author Johnson, K.E.; Scott, P.; Mervis, C.B. file  url
  Title What are theories for? Concept use throughout the continuum of dinosaur expertise Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Child Psychol  
  Volume 87 Issue 3 Pages 171-200  
  Keywords Animals; Child; Child Development; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dinosaurs; Female; Humans; Knowledge; Logic; Male; Models, Psychological  
  Abstract Although it is now well established that object concepts are situated within broader systems of theoretical knowledge, it is less clear how theories influence the use of object concepts at various points throughout the continuum of expertise. Two studies were conducted to investigate the impact of specific theories (concerning dinosaurs) and overarching framework theories (of biology) on children's and adults' performance on categorization tasks involving familiar and less familiar concepts. Although expertise increased the quantity of deep feature knowledge possessed by children and increased their understanding of biologically adaptive relations among features, few aspects of children's performance generalized beyond highly familiar dinosaurs. Children's specific theories related to dinosaurs were empirically constrained and relatively dissociated from other types of biological knowledge. The interaction of specific concept knowledge with broader framework theories of biology throughout the continuum of expertise is considered.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 42  
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Author Foltz, D.R.; Jansen, L.E.T.; Black, B.E.; Bailey, A.O.; Yates, J.R. 3rd; Cleveland, D.W. url  doi
  Title The human CENP-A centromeric nucleosome-associated complex Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Cell Biol  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 458-469  
  Keywords Amino Acid Sequence; Autoantigens--chemistry, isolation & purification; metabolism; Centromere--metabolism; Chromatin Assembly Factor-1; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly--genetics; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone--chemistry, isolation & purification, metabolism; Chromosomes, Human genetics; DNA-Binding Proteins--metabolism; HeLa Cells; Histones--chemistry; Humans; Mitosis--genetics; Molecular Sequence Data; Nucleosomes--metabolism; Protein Binding; Signal Transduction  
  Abstract The basic element for chromosome inheritance, the centromere, is epigenetically determined in mammals. The prime candidate for specifying centromere identity is the array of nucleosomes assembled with CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant. Here, we show that CENP-A nucleosomes directly recruit a proximal CENP-A nucleosome associated complex (NAC) comprised of three new human centromere proteins (CENP-M, CENP-N and CENP-T), along with CENP-U(50), CENP-C and CENP-H. Assembly of the CENP-A NAC at centromeres is dependent on CENP-M, CENP-N and CENP-T. Facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) and nucleophosmin-1 (previously implicated in transcriptional chromatin remodelling and as a multifunctional nuclear chaperone, respectively) are absent from histone H3-containing nucleosomes, but are stably recruited to CENP-A nucleosomes independent of CENP-A NAC. Seven new CENP-A-nucleosome distal (CAD) centromere components (CENP-K, CENP-L, CENP-O, CENP-P, CENP-Q, CENP-R and CENP-S) are identified as assembling on the CENP-A NAC. The CENP-A NAC is essential, as disruption of the complex causes errors of chromosome alignment and segregation that preclude cell survival despite continued centromere-derived mitotic checkpoint signalling.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 13  
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Author Kressel, K.; Jaffee, N.; Tuchman, B.; Watson, C.; Deutsch, M. file  url
  Title A typology of divorcing couples: implications for mediation and the divorce process Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Family Process Abbreviated Journal Fam Process  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 101-116  
  Keywords Adult; Child; Communication; Decision Making; Divorce--legislation & jurisprudence; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Family Characteristics; Humans; Male; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract An experimental mediation procedure for the negotiation of divorce settlement agreements was studied through the intensive analysis of nine completed mediation cases. The audio recordings of mediation sessions and postdivorce interviews with both of the former marital partners provided the material on which the analysis is based. Five additional couples, drawn from a similar population but who used the traditional adversarial system, provided a comparative perspective. High levels of prenegotiation conflict and nonmutuality of the decision to divorce were negatively related to attitudes toward mediation and behavior during negotiations. The report focuses on four distinctive patterns of divorce decision-making. The typology is based on three primary dimensions: degree of ambivalence; frequency and openness of communication; and level and overtness of conflict. Couples exhibiting the enmeshed and autistic patterns of divorce were the most difficult for mediators to work with and had the poorest postdivorce adjustment; couples exhibiting the direct and disengaged conflict patterns fared better, both in mediation and in the postdivorce period. The potential importance of intercouple differences for the divorce mediation process and postdivorce adjustment are considered.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 14  
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Author Hoeft, F.; Walter, E.; Lightbody, A.A.; Hazlett, H.C.; Chang, C.; Piven, J.; Reiss, A.L. file  url
  Title Neuroanatomical differences in toddler boys with fragile x syndrome and idiopathic autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Archives of General Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Arch Gen Psychiatry  
  Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 295-305  
  Keywords Amygdala--pathology, physiopathology; Autistic Disorder--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Brain--pathology, physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex--pathology, physiopathology; Child, Preschool; Communication; Developmental Disabilities--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Fragile X Syndrome--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Frontal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology; Genetic Diseases, Inborn--genetics; Gyrus Cinguli--pathology, physiopathology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Infant; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Reference Values; Social Behavior; Stereotyped Behavior--physiology; Temporal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder for which there is no known unifying etiology or pathogenesis. Many conditions of atypical development can lead to autism, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is presently the most common known single-gene cause of autism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whole-brain morphometric patterns that discriminate young boys with FXS from those with idiopathic autism (iAUT) as well as control participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in vivo neuroimaging study. SETTING: Academic medical centers. PATIENTS: Young boys (n = 165; aged 1.57-4.15 years) diagnosed as having FXS or iAUT as well as typically developing and idiopathic developmentally delayed controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Univariate voxel-based morphometric analyses, voxel-based morphometric multivariate pattern classification (linear support vector machine), and clustering analyses (self-organizing map). RESULTS: We found that frontal and temporal gray and white matter regions often implicated in social cognition, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal region, temporal pole, amygdala, insula, and dorsal cingulum, were aberrant in FXS and iAUT as compared with controls. However, these differences were in opposite directions for FXS and iAUT relative to controls; in general, greater volume was seen in iAUT compared with controls, who in turn had greater volume than FXS. Multivariate analysis showed that the overall pattern of brain structure in iAUT generally resembled that of the controls more than FXS, both with and without AUT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that FXS and iAUT are associated with distinct neuroanatomical patterns, further underscoring the neurobiological heterogeneity of iAUT.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 17  
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Author Lu, Z.-xiang; Peng, J.; Su, B. file  url
  Title A human-specific mutation leads to the origin of a novel splice form of neuropsin (KLK8), a gene involved in learning and memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Human Mutation Abbreviated Journal Hum Mutat  
  Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 978-984  
  Keywords Alternative Splicing; Animals; Base Sequence; Cognition; Evolution, Molecular; Genetic Variation; HeLa Cells; Humans; Kallikreins--genetics; Learning; Memory; Models, Genetic; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutation; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid  
  Abstract Neuropsin (kallikrein 8, KLK8) is a secreted-type serine protease preferentially expressed in the central nervous system and involved in learning and memory. Its splicing pattern is different in human and mouse, with the longer form (type II) only expressed in human. Sequence analysis suggested a recent origin of type II during primate evolution. Here we demonstrate that the type II form is absent in nonhuman primates, and is thus a human-specific splice form. With the use of an in-vitro splicing assay, we show that a human-specific T to A mutation (c.71-127T>A) triggers the change of splicing pattern, leading to the origin of a novel splice form in the human brain. Using mutation assay, we prove that this mutation is not only necessary but also sufficient for type II expression. Our results demonstrate a molecular mechanism for the creation of novel proteins through alternative splicing in the central nervous system during human evolution.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 40  
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Author Gabbard, G.O.; Twemlow, S.W.; Jones, F.C. url  openurl
  Title Differential diagnosis of altered mind/body perception Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry  
  Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 361-369  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Body Image; Child; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis; Consciousness Disorders--diagnosis, psychology; Depersonalization--diagnosis, psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Psychological Tests; Reality Testing; Schizophrenia--diagnosis; Schizophrenic Psychology  
  Abstract Considerable confusion exists in the psychiatric literature concerned with states of consciousness in which there is an altered perception of the mind/body relationship; related but different terms are often used interchangeably, with a lack of definitional rigor. The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to this group of related phenomena by differentiating out-of-body experience (OBE) from depersonalization, autoscopic phenomena and schizophrenic body distortions (such as boundary loss), which are the principal entities with which the syndrome may be confused. The problem of variable definition of the syndromes is compounded by the fact that some studies deal with psychiatric or medical patients, others focus on nonpatients, and still others deal with both groups. The fact that some groups of persons with experiences of altered mind/body perception do not define themselves as patients, do not seek treatment, and may not need treatment underscores the need for clarification. Following an explication of the different syndromes and their characteristics, we will briefly consider treatment implications.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 31  
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