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Author Wolman, R.; Taylor, K. file  url
  Title Psychological effects of custody disputes on children Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Behavioral Sciences & the law Abbreviated Journal Behav Sci Law  
  Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages 399-417  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child; *Child Custody/legislation & jurisprudence; *Child Psychology; Divorce; Family; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Massachusetts; Psychological Tests; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors  
  Abstract This two-group, repeated measures examination of the psychological impact of child custody contests on children reports a subset of data from an ongoing longitudinal study of 95 children and their parents from 43 divorcing families. The authors report clinical observations concerning children's experience of custody litigation, as well as comparisons of baseline and post-test responses of contested and uncontested groups on measures of locus of control, separation anxiety and family concept. Contested children exhibited significantly greater internality of control orientation than the normative sample. Contested children's test scores also suggested significantly less separation anxiety and significantly more positive family concept than the uncontested group at post-test. The implications of these unanticipated findings are discussed.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 288  
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Author Forehand, R.; Biggar, H.; Kotchick, B.A. file  url
  Title Cumulative risk across family stressors: short- and long-term effects for adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-128  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Analysis of Variance; Child; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; *Family Relations; Female; Humans; Juvenile Delinquency/statistics & numerical data; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract This study examined the relationship between number of family risk factors during adolescence and three areas of psychosocial adjustment (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement) in adolescence and 6 years later in young adulthood. Risk factors examined included parental divorce, interparental conflict, maternal physical health problems, maternal depressive mood, and mother-adolescent relationship difficulties. The findings indicated both concurrent and long-term associations between number of family risk factors and psychosocial adjustment; however, the results differed based on area of adjustment examined and whether concurrent or longitudinal data were considered. Furthermore, a steep increase in adjustment difficulties occurred when number of risk factors increased from three to four. The results are discussed in the framework of four hypotheses which were tested, and clinical implications are delineated.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 289  
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Author Hotz, G.; Helm-Estabrooks, N. file  url
  Title Perseveration. Part I: a review Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Brain Injury : [BI] Abbreviated Journal Brain Inj  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 151-159  
  Keywords Attention/physiology; Brain/pathology/physiopathology; Brain Damage, Chronic/pathology/*physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Humans; Mental Recall/physiology; Neurologic Examination; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Stereotyped Behavior/*physiology  
  Abstract Perseveration refers to the inappropriate continuation or repetition of a response or activity. It is associated with a variety of neurological disorders and, when pronounced, is thought to be pathognomonic of brain damage. Perseveration manifests itself in several different forms which have had various labels applied, and many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms underlying these perseverative behaviours. In this article we review descriptions and classifications of perseveration as it occurs in various neurological disorders, and then discuss some of the neurobehavioural and neuropathological mechanisms thought to account for it.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 291  
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Author Burt, S.A.; Barnes, A.R.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Developmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1668-1677  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adoption/psychology; Aggression/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Causality; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Female; Genotype; Humans; Internal-External Control; Juvenile Delinquency/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 293  
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Author Williams, M.V.; Parker, R.M.; Baker, D.W.; Parikh, N.S.; Pitkin, K.; Coates, W.C.; Nurss, J.R. file  url
  Title Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association Abbreviated Journal Jama  
  Volume 274 Issue 21 Pages 1677-1682  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; California; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Educational Status; Ethnic Groups; Female; Georgia; *Health Services Accessibility; Hospitals, Public; Hospitals, Urban; Humans; Male; Medical Indigency; Middle Aged; *Outpatients; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of patients to complete successfully basic reading and numeracy tasks required to function adequately in the health care setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Two urban, public hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 2659 predominantly indigent and minority patients, 1892 English-speaking and 767 Spanish-speaking, presenting for acute care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Functional health literacy as measured by the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA), an instrument that measures ability to read and understand medical instructions and health care information presented in prose passages and passages containing numerical information (eg, prescription bottle labels and appointment slips). RESULTS: A high proportion of patients were unable to read and understand written basic medical instructions. Of 2659 patients, 1106 (41.6%) were unable to comprehend directions for taking medication on an empty stomach, 691 (26%) were unable to understand information regarding when a next appointment is scheduled, and 1582 (59.5%) could not understand a standard informed consent document. A total of 665 (35.1%) of 1892 English-speaking patients and 473 (61.7%) of 767 Spanish-speaking patients had inadequate or marginal functional health literacy. The prevalence of inadequate or marginal functional health literacy among the elderly (age > or = 60 years) was 81.3% (187/230) for English-speaking patients and 82.6% (57/69) for Spanish-speaking patients, and was significantly higher (P < .001) than in younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients at our institutions cannot perform the basic reading tasks required to function in the health care environment. Inadequate health literacy may be an important barrier to patients' understanding of their diagnoses and treatments, and to receiving high-quality care.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 295  
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Author McDowell, J.J. file  url
  Title The importance of Herrnstein's mathematical statement of the law of effect for behavior therapy Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication The American Psychologist Abbreviated Journal Am Psychol  
  Volume 37 Issue 7 Pages 771-779  
  Keywords Adult; *Behavior Therapy; Female; Humans; Male; *Mathematics; Mental Disorders/therapy; Reinforcement (Psychology); Reinforcement Schedule  
  Abstract Suggests that R. Herrnstein's (1970) mathematical statement of the law of effect improves on Skinner's view of reinforcement by asserting (a) that response rate varies hyperbolically with reinforcement rate and (b) that responding is governed not only by reinforcement obtained for responding but also by reinforcement obtained from all other concurrent sources. Data from pigeons and rats and from normal and mentally retarded humans in laboratory and clinical situations support this new view of reinforcement. Clinically, Herrnstein's equation requires a broader environmental approach to conceptualizing cases and to applying reinforcement principles in therapy. The equation can help clinicians design treatment regimens more efficiently, and it suggests 4 new intervention strategies that may be especially useful in difficult cases (e.g., when standard procedures are contraindicated or in environments that already supply large amounts of reinforcement). (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number (up) Serial 296  
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Author Kalb, S.; Reis, M.T.; Cowperthwaite, M.C.; Fox, D.J.; Lefevre, R.; Theodore, N.; Papadopoulos, S.M.; Sonntag, V.K.H. file  url
  Title Dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: incidence and risk factors Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication World Neurosurgery Abbreviated Journal World Neurosurg  
  Volume 77 Issue 1 Pages 183-187  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Bone Plates; Braces; Cervical Vertebrae--surgery; Decompression, Surgical--adverse effects; Deglutition Disorders--epidemiology, etiology; Disability Evaluation; Ethnic Groups; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Neurosurgical Procedures--adverse effects; Postoperative Complications--epidemiology, etiology; Questionnaires; Reoperation; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Smoking--adverse effects; Spine--surgery  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for the development of dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery. METHODS: The records of 249 patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery were reviewed. The presence and severity of dysphagia were assessed with the Dysphagia Disability Index 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Age; sex; ethnicity; cigarette smoking; previous cervical surgeries; reoperation for same pathology; type of procedure, incision, and instrumentation; number and levels involved; side of procedure, length of surgery; and use of postoperative bracing were analyzed. RESULTS: During the first 6 months after surgery, 27 (10.8%) patients developed dysphagia. From these patients the presence of dysphagia at 6 weeks and at 3 and 6 months was 88.8%, 29.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. By 12 months, dysphagia had resolved in all cases. The mean age of patients with dysphagia was 55 years (SD 12.98) and 50 years (SD 12.07) in patients without dysphagia (P = 0.05). Dysphagic patients had an average of 2.2 (SD 1.15) levels operated compared with 1.84 (SD 0.950) in nondysphagic patients (P = 0.05). Patients who developed dysphagia were most often treated at C4-5 (67%) and C5-6 (81%: P < 0.001). Although mean operative time was slightly longer in patients with dysphagia (186 minutes) compared with those without (169 minutes), the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In our patients, the incidence of dysphagia was low, and it had completely resolved at 12 months in all cases. Risk factors for dysphagia were multilevel procedures, involvement of C4-5 and C5-6, and age.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 300  
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Author Kaur, J.; Ledward, D.A.; Park, R.W.; Robson, R.L. file  url
  Title Factors affecting the heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Letters in Applied Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Lett Appl Microbiol  
  Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 325-330  
  Keywords Animals; Escherichia coli O157/drug effects/growth & development/*physiology; *Heat-Shock Response/drug effects; Humans; Polyphosphates/pharmacology; Poultry/microbiology; Swine/microbiology; Time Factors; Water  
  Abstract Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been reported as being not particularly heat resistant. However, several factors which might increase its heat resistance have been investigated in this study using five strains. Increase in growth temperature to 40 degrees C, as found in the cow gut, heat-shock at sub-lethal temperatures of 42, 45, 48 and 50 degrees C, and variable heating rate (1 degree C min-1 to 23 degrees C min-1) had no dramatic effect on heat resistance. Growth phase had a marked impact on heat resistance; late stationary phase cells were more heat-resistant than were log phase cells. The difference in heat resistance between the two phases of growth became more pronounced when cells were resuspended in fresh nutrient broth; heat resistance of late stationary phase cells increased dramatically whereas no such effect was observed with log phase cells. The addition of polyphosphates to the heating medium did not increase heat resistance. A reduction in water activity of the heating medium from 0.995 to levels between 0.980 and 0.960 also resulted in a marked increase in heat resistance. This effect was more pronounced under conditions of extremely low water activity created by resuspending late stationary phase cells in sunflower oil. Survivors were detected even after a heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 1 h or 70 degrees C for 5 min. It can be confirmed that this serotype has no unusual heat resistance and that the heating environment markedly affects resistance.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 313  
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Author Somolinos, M.; Garcia, D.; Manas, P.; Condon, S.; Pagan, R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Effect of environmental factors and cell physiological state on Pulsed Electric Fields resistance and repair capacity of various strains of Escherichia coli Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication International Journal of Food Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Food Microbiol  
  Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 260-267  
  Keywords Colony Count, Microbial; Electromagnetic Fields/*adverse effects; Escherichia coli/*growth & development/*physiology; Escherichia coli O157/growth & development/physiology; *Food Microbiology; Food Preservation/*methods; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Kinetics; Temperature; Time Factors  
  Abstract The aim was to determine the resistance variation of four strains of Escherichia coli to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF), the role of the sigma factor RpoS in PEF resistance, as well as the influence of several environmental factors and the cell physiological state on the PEF resistance and repair capacity. The rpoS null mutant, E. coli BJ4L1, exhibited decreased PEF resistance as compared with its wild-type parent, BJ4. W3110 and O157:H7 were the most PEF-resistant strains: whereas 2 and more than 3 Log10 cycles of BJ4 and BJ4L1 cells, respectively, were inactivated after 50 pulses at 35 kV/cm, only 0.5 Log10 cycle of inactivation of W3110 and O157:H7 was attained. A different pattern was observed and the resistance variation among strains was largely reduced, when selective recovery media were used. At exponential growth phase, the resistance of the four strains was lower, and more than 4 Log10 cycles of inactivation of all strains tested were attained at 30 kV/cm. Previous heat and cold shock treatments scarcely influenced cell PEF resistance. PEF survival increased with the reduction in water activity of the treatment medium to 0.94: the occurrence of sublethally injured cells was negligible, and less than 1 Log10 cycle of inactivation was attained at 35 kV/cm. PEF-treated cells were sensitive to a subsequent storage at pH 4.0 or in the presence of sorbic acid, attaining a final inactivation of 4-5 Log10 cycles after 24 hour-incubation. In conclusion, the work confirms the role of rpoS in PEF resistance. E. coli strains exhibit large differences in PEF resistance. These differences were less important when cells were recovered under selective conditions. Both resistance variation among strains and occurrence of sublethal damage were noticeably influenced by the environmental factors tested.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 314  
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Author Coccaro, E.F.; Bergeman, C.S.; McClearn, G.E. file  url
  Title Heritability of irritable impulsiveness: a study of twins reared together and apart Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res  
  Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 229-242  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aggression; Environment; Female; Hostility; Humans; Impulsive Behavior/*genetics; Male; Middle Aged; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/*genetics; Personality Inventory; Questionnaires; Receptors, Serotonin/genetics/physiology; Twins/*genetics  
  Abstract The heritability of self-reported personality traits related to impulsiveness, irritability, and the inhibition of assertive or aggressive behavior was examined in up to 500 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs raised together or apart. Two factors related to “(lack of) assertiveness/aggression” (Factor I) and “impulsive irritability” (Factor II) were examined using traditional and model-fitting procedures. Results of model-fitting procedures were consistent with a genetic, but not a shared environmental, influence for both factors. Further analysis suggested a nonadditive genetic influence for Factor II and an additive influence for Factor I. Bivariate model-fitting analyses suggest that self-reported “irritable impulsiveness” and “(lack of) assertiveness/aggressiveness” show substantial, though different, genetic influences.  
  Call Number (up) Serial 315  
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