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Author Wecker, N.S.; Kramer, J.H.; Hallam, B.J.; Delis, D.C. file  url
openurl 
Title Mental flexibility: age effects on switching Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 345-352  
Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Processes/*physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data; Predictive Value of Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Recognition (Psychology)/*physiology; Regression Analysis; Verbal Learning/physiology  
Abstract Mental flexibility is required to track and systematically alternate between 2 response sets. In this study, 719 individuals, 20 to 89 years old, engaged in 3 different tasks that required verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching. Of importance, each task allowed for independent measurement of component skills that are embedded in the higher level tasks. When gender, education, Full Scale IQ, and component skills were partialed out by multiple regression analyses, significant age effects were revealed for each task. This study provides evidence that executive functions--and verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching in particular--are affected by age independently from age-related changes in component skills. The results are discussed in terms of theories of executive control and neurologic correlates across the adult life span.  
Call Number Serial 2178  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
openurl 
Title The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
Volume 103 Issue 3 Pages 403-428  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*psychology; Attention; *Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Reaction Time  
Abstract A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity). Several types of evidence, such as the discovery of considerable shared age-related variance across various measures of speed and large attenuation of the age-related influences on cognitive measures after statistical control of measures of speed, are consistent with this theory.  
Call Number Serial 2177  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
openurl 
Title Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 532-545  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Memory/physiology; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Neuropsychological Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Psychometrics; Reference Values; Space Perception/physiology; Verbal Behavior/physiology; Weights and Measures/*standards  
Abstract Although frequently mentioned in contemporary neuropsychology, the term executive functioning has been a source of considerable confusion. One way in which the meaning of a variable can be investigated involves examining its pattern of relations with established cognitive abilities. This method was applied to a variety of variables hypothesized to assess executive functioning in 2 data sets, 1 consisting of 328 adults between 18 and 93 years of age and a 2nd composite data set based on nearly 7,000 healthy adults between 18 and 95 years of age. Most of the hypothesized executive functioning variables were strongly related to reasoning and perceptual speed abilities, and very few had any unique relations with age after taking into consideration the relations of age through the cognitive abilities. These results raise questions about the extent to which neuropsychological tests of executive functioning measure a distinct dimension of variation in normal adults.  
Call Number Serial 2176  
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Author Gajer, P.; Brotman, R.M.; Bai, G.; Sakamoto, J.; Schutte, U.M.E.; Zhong, X.; Koenig, S.S.K.; Fu, L.; Ma, Z.S.; Zhou, X.; Abdo, Z.; Forney, L.J.; Ravel, J. file  url
openurl 
Title Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Science Translational Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sci Transl Med  
Volume 4 Issue 132 Pages 132ra52  
Keywords Bacteria/classification/genetics; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Metabolome; Metabolomics; Metagenome/genetics/*physiology; Models, Biological; Phylogeny; Time Factors; Vagina/*microbiology; Microbiome  
Abstract Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis.  
Call Number Serial 2175  
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Author Zhan, Q.; Fan, S.; Bae, I.; Guillouf, C.; Liebermann, D.A.; O'Connor, P.M.; Fornace, A.J.J. file  url
openurl 
Title Induction of bax by genotoxic stress in human cells correlates with normal p53 status and apoptosis Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Oncogene Abbreviated Journal Oncogene  
Volume 9 Issue 12 Pages 3743-3751  
Keywords Apoptosis/*genetics; Gene Expression Regulation/*drug effects/genetics/radiation effects; *Genes, p53; Humans; Mutagens/*toxicity; Neoplasms/genetics; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*genetics; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; Tumor Cells, Cultured; bcl-2-Associated X Protein  
Abstract DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation (IR) activate the tumor suppressor p53 and in some cases can cause apoptosis. M1 cells, which do not express the endogenous tumor suppressor gene p53, undergo apoptosis following activation of a temperature sensitive p53 transgene, where it has been shown that bax, an important mediator of apoptosis, is a p53 target gene (Selvakumaran et al, Oncogene 9, 1791-8, 1994). Since p53 can function as a transcription factor after activation by IR, the genetic response to this stress was examined in a panel of human cells with defined p53 status. Like the p53-regulated gene gadd45, bax was rapidly induced, as measured by increased mRNA levels, in the p53 wt (wild type) human myeloid line ML-1, and it was not induced in cells lacking functional p53. However, unlike other p53-regulated genes, bax was only induced in p53 wt cells in which IR also triggered apoptosis. In the case of bcl2, which opposes bax function, mRNA levels were reduced in ML-1 cells after IR. Thus, bax appears to be an unique p53-regulated gene in that its induction by IR not only requires functional p53 but also requires that the cells be apoptosis “proficient.”  
Call Number Serial 2172  
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