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Author Lader, M. url  openurl
  Title Clinical pharmacology of anxiolytic drugs: past, present and future Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol  
  Volume 48 Issue (up) Pages 135-152  
  Keywords Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Anxiety Disorders/*drug therapy; Humans  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Grinnell @ engelk @ Serial 212  
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Author Swanson, L.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title The amygdala and its place in the cerebral hemisphere Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 985 Issue (up) Pages 174-184  
  Keywords Amygdala--anatomy, histology, physiology; Animals; Functional Laterality; Humans; Models, Neurological; Telencephalon--physiology  
  Abstract Developmental, gene expression, connectional, and neuron morphology evidence converges to suggest that cell groups of the amygdalar region participate in at least four distinct, though interrelated, functional systems associated with differentiated corticostriatopallidal projections. The amygdala is neither a structural nor a functional unit; instead, it is a collection of adjacent cell groups in the medial temporal lobe and adjacent regions of the caudal piriform lobe that was defined on gross anatomic terms.  
  Call Number Serial 44  
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Author Taffe, M.A.; Taffe, W.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Rhesus monkeys employ a procedural strategy to reduce working memory load in a self-ordered spatial search task Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 1413 Issue (up) Pages 43-50  
  Keywords Animals; Appetitive Behavior/*physiology; Humans; Locomotion/physiology; Macaca mulatta; Male; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Photic Stimulation/methods; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Spatial Behavior/*physiology  
  Abstract Several nonhuman primate species have been reported to employ a distance-minimizing, traveling salesman-like, strategy during foraging as well as in experimental spatial search tasks involving lesser amounts of locomotion. Spatial sequencing may optimize performance by reducing reference or episodic memory loads, locomotor costs, competition or other demands. A computerized self-ordered spatial search (SOSS) memory task has been adapted from a human neuropsychological testing battery (CANTAB, Cambridge Cognition, Ltd) for use in monkeys. Accurate completion of a trial requires sequential responses to colored boxes in two or more spatial locations without repetition of a previous location. Marmosets have been reported to employ a circling pattern of search, suggesting spontaneous adoption of a strategy to reduce working memory load. In this study the SOSS performance of rhesus monkeys was assessed to determine if the use of a distance-minimizing search path enhances accuracy. A novel strategy score, independent of the trial difficulty and arrangement of boxes, has been devised. Analysis of the performance of 21 monkeys trained on SOSS over 2 years shows that a distance-minimizing search strategy is associated with improved accuracy. This effect is observed within individuals as they improve over many cumulative sessions of training on the task and across individuals at any given level of training. Erroneous trials were associated with a failure to deploy the strategy. It is concluded that the effect of utilizing the strategy on this locomotion-free, laboratory task is to enhance accuracy by reducing demands on spatial working memory resources.  
  Call Number Serial 80  
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Author Forstermann, U.; Kleinert, H.; Gath, I.; Schwarz, P.; Closs, E.I.; Dun, N.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Expression and expressional control of nitric oxide synthases in various cell types Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Advances in Pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.) Abbreviated Journal Adv Pharmacol  
  Volume 34 Issue (up) Pages 171-186  
  Keywords Animals; Cells/*enzymology; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/*physiology; Humans; Isoenzymes/*biosynthesis/genetics; Nitric Oxide Synthase/*biosynthesis/genetics  
  Abstract Three isozymes of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) have been identified. Their cDNA- and protein structures as well as their genomic DNA structures have been described. NOS I (ncNOS, originally discovered in neurons) and NOS III (ecNOS, originally discovered in endothelial cells) are low output, Ca2+-activated enzymes whose physiological function is signal transduction. NOS II (iNOS, originally discovered in cytokine-induced macrophages) is a high output enzyme which produces toxic amounts of NO that represent an important component of the antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antineoplasic activity of these cells. Depending on the species, NOS II activity is largely (human) or completely (mouse and rat) Ca2+-independent. In the human species, the NOS isoforms I, II and III are encoded by three different genes located on chromosomes 12, 17 and 7, respectively. The amino acid sequences of the three human isozymes (deduced from the cloned cDNAs) show less than 59% identity. Across species, amino acid sequences are more than 90% conserved for NOS I and III, and greater 80% identical for NOS II. All NOS produce NO by oxidizing a guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine utilizing molecular oxygen and NADPH as co-substrates. All isoforms contain FAD, FMN and heme iron as prosthetic groups and require the cofactor BH4. NOS I and III are constitutively expressed in various cells. Nevertheless, expression of these isoforms is subject to regulation. Expression is enhanced by e.g. estrogens (for NOS I and III), shear stress, TGF-β1, and (in certain endothelial cells) high glucose (for NOS III). TNF-α reduces the expression of NOS III by a post-trancriptional mechanism destabilizing the mRNA. The regulation of the NOS I expression seems to be very complex as reflected by at least 8 different promoters transcribing 8 different exon 1 sequences which are expressed differently in different cell types. Expression of NOS II is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level and can be induced in many cell types with suitable agents such as LPS, cytokines, and other compounds. Whether some cells can express NOS II constitutively is still under debate. Pathways resulting in the induction of the NOS II promoter may vary in different cells. Activation of transcription factor NF-κB seems to be an essential step for NOS II induction in most cells. The induction of NOS II can be inhibited by a wide variety of immunomodulatory compounds acting at the transcriptional levels and/or post-transcriptionally.  
  Call Number Serial 134  
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Author Citron, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Alzheimer's disease: treatments in discovery and development Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Nature Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Neurosci  
  Volume 5 Suppl Issue (up) Pages 1055-1057  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/metabolism/physiopathology/*therapy; Amyloid beta-Peptides/*antagonists & inhibitors/biosynthesis; Animals; Brain/*drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology; Disease Models, Animal; *Drug Design; Drug Evaluation/trends; Drug Industry/trends; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Humans  
  Abstract Alzheimer's disease is the single biggest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs are safe, but of limited benefit to most patients. This review discusses the scientific basis and current status of promising disease-modifying therapies in the discovery and development stages. I describe the major targets of anti-amyloid therapy and the main focus of disease modification approaches. In addition, two new potential treatment approaches supported by retrospective epidemiology are outlined.  
  Call Number Serial 137  
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Author Ross, R.S.; Sherrill, K.R.; Stern, C.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The hippocampus is functionally connected to the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex during context dependent decision making Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 1423 Issue (up) Pages 53-66  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Brain Mapping; Corpus Striatum/blood supply/*physiology; Decision Making/*physiology; Face; Female; Functional Laterality; Hippocampus/blood supply/*physiology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Neural Pathways/blood supply/*physiology; Oxygen/blood; Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology; Photic Stimulation/methods; Prefrontal Cortex/blood supply/*physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Statistics as Topic; Young Adult  
  Abstract Many of our everyday actions are only appropriate in certain situations and selecting the appropriate behavior requires that we use current context and previous experience to guide our decisions. The current study examined hippocampal functional connectivity with prefrontal and striatal regions during a task that required participants to make decisions based on the contextual retrieval of overlapping sequential representations. Participants learned four sequences comprised of six faces each. An overlapping condition was created by having two sequences with two identical faces as the middle images. A non-overlapping condition contained two sequences that did not share any faces between them. Hippocampal functional connectivity was assessed during the presentation period and at the critical choice, where participants had to make a contextually dependent decision. The left hippocampus showed significantly increased functional connectivity with dorsal and ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex during the presentation period of the overlapping compared to the non-overlapping condition after participants knew the sequences. At the critical choice point of the overlapping condition, the left hippocampus showed stronger functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex. These functional connectivity results suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in decision making by predicting the possibilities of what might come next, allowing orbitofrontal and striatal regions to evaluate the expected choice options in order to make the correct action at the choice point.  
  Call Number Serial 152  
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Author Brown, R.G.; Marsden, C.D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Internal versus external cues and the control of attention in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Brain : a Journal of Neurology Abbreviated Journal Brain  
  Volume 111 ( Pt 2) Issue (up) Pages 323-345  
  Keywords *Attention; *Cues; Humans; Neuropsychological Tests; Parkinson Disease/*psychology; Reaction Time  
  Abstract In recent years, several attempts have been made to characterize the nature of the cognitive deficits shown by patients with Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested variously that they have difficulty in switching cognitive set, in performing effortful (or controlled) as opposed to automatic tasks, or that their impairment is found in tasks which maximize the amount of 'self-directed task specific planning'. It is proposed that this latter distinction may be reformulated in terms of the degree of internal versus external attentional control which is required by the task. An experiment is described which attempted to manipulate this parameter. A version of the Stroop colour-word test was used, in which the words 'red' and 'green' were presented in the complementary coloured 'ink'. Subjects responded either to the colour of the ink in which the word was written or the colour named by the word. The relevant attribute changed at intervals during the course of the experiment. In one condition, the relevant stimulus attribute was cued before each trial. In another condition, subjects had to remember which attribute was currently relevant. Results revealed that patients with Parkinson's disease were impaired mainly on the second version of the task which required internal attentional control. The results are discussed in relation to the models of Working Memory (Baddeley, 1986), and attentional control (Norman and Shallice, 1980). Exploration of these models leads to the formulation of a theory in which the crucial determinant of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is reduced resources in the Supervisory Attentional System. Provided the demands of the task are within the patient's available attentional resources the patient may not show any deficit. If, however, the attentional demands exceed available resources, as in tasks which depend upon internal cues, then deficits will be observed.  
  Call Number Serial 158  
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Author Woodhead, M.; Blasi, F.; Ewig, S.; Garau, J.; Huchon, G.; Ieven, M.; Ortqvist, A.; Schaberg, T.; Torres, A.; van der Heijden, G.; Read, R.; Verheij, T.J.M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections--full version Type
  Year 2011 Publication Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Abbreviated Journal Clin Microbiol Infect  
  Volume 17 Suppl 6 Issue (up) Pages E1-59  
  Keywords Adult; Bronchiectasis/drug therapy; Community-Acquired Infections/*drug therapy; Cross Infection/*drug therapy; Disease Management; Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Pneumonia/drug therapy; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy; Respiratory Tract Infections/*drug therapy  
  Abstract This document is an update of Guidelines published in 2005 and now includes scientific publications through to May 2010. It provides evidence-based recommendations for the most common management questions occurring in routine clinical practice in the management of adult patients with LRTI. Topics include management outside hospital, management inside hospital (including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), acute exacerbations of bronchiectasis) and prevention. Background sections and graded evidence tables are also included. The target audience for the Guideline is thus all those whose routine practice includes the management of adult LRTI.  
  Call Number Serial 178  
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Author Fawcett, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Targeting treatment in patients with mixed symptoms of anxiety and depression Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychiatry  
  Volume 51 Suppl Issue (up) Pages 40-43  
  Keywords Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use; Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use; Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology/*therapy; Clinical Trials as Topic; Comorbidity; Depressive Disorder/epidemiology/*therapy; Drug Therapy, Combination; Humans; Panic; Risk Factors; Suicide/psychology  
  Abstract Patients with major depression often exhibit clinical anxiety. Although not included among DSM-III-R criteria for major depression, clinical anxiety may be the most important symptom to assess in planning the treatment for this affective disorder. By actively treating the anxiety component, psychiatrists can modify serious suicide risk factors in some patients and provide the immediate benefits that will induce others to comply with antidepressant therapy.  
  Call Number Serial 210  
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Author Hasebe, K.; Kawai, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kawamura, K.; Tanaka, T.; Narita, M.; Nagase, H.; Suzuki, T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Possible pharmacotherapy of the opioid kappa receptor agonist for drug dependence Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 1025 Issue (up) Pages 404-413  
  Keywords Animals; Humans; Morphinans/chemistry/metabolism/*therapeutic use; Receptors, Opioid, kappa/*agonists/metabolism; Spiro Compounds/chemistry/metabolism/*therapeutic use; Substance-Related Disorders/*drug therapy/metabolism/psychology  
  Abstract Because there are few efficacious medications for drug dependence, many clinical trials are being conducted in earnest to find such medications. Considerable evidence has shown that opioid kappa receptor agonists attenuate several behavioral responses induced by drugs of abuse. Although this raises the possibility that opioid kappa receptor agonists may be useful for the treatment of drug dependence on drugs of abuse, it has been previously reported that treatment with selective opioid kappa receptor agonists causes a psychotomimetic effect and dysphoria both in clinical studies and experimental animal models. As a result, we found the novel opioid kappa receptor agonist TRK-820, another chemical class of opioid kappa receptor agonist that has a morphinan scaffold unlike prototypical opioid kappa receptor agonists, by application of a modified message-address concept. TRK-820 showed high selectivity for an opioid kappa receptor, and strong agonistic activity in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Like other opioid kappa receptor agonists, TRK-820 could markedly suppress the rewarding effects induced by morphine and cocaine and the discriminative stimulus effect of cocaine. Furthermore, TRK-820 attenuated the mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine-withdrawal aversion in a conditioned place preference paradigm. It is worthwhile to note that unlike prototypical opioid kappa receptor agonists, TRK-820 failed to produce a significant place aversion in rodents at doses that were sufficient to produce significant antinociception. Taken together, these findings indicate that TRK-820 may be useful for the treatment of drug dependence without any aversive effects.  
  Call Number Serial 232  
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