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Author Yarnall, A.; Rochester, L.; Burn, D.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The interplay of cholinergic function, attention, and falls in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society Abbreviated Journal Mov Disord  
  Volume 26 Issue 14 Pages 2496-2503  
  Keywords (up) *Accidental Falls; Acetylcholine/*physiology; Attention/*physiology; Cholinergic Neurons/pathology/*physiology; Dementia/pathology/physiopathology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/pathology/*physiopathology  
  Abstract Dopamine loss in the substantia nigra causes several of the motor signs seen in Parkinson's disease, but there is now increasing evidence highlighting the importance of cholinergic loss in the pathophysiology of nonmotor symptoms. The nucleus basalis of Meynert supplies the majority of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex, with the pedunculopontine nucleus providing many subcortical structures with acetylcholine. Both these structures undergo degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), with more severe loss associated with cognitive impairment. The risk of dementia in PD is greater than that in control subjects, with impairments in attention, visuospatial function, and executive control dominating. Imaging studies have demonstrated degeneration of the cholinergic system in PD, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, with improvements in attention seen following the introduction of cholinesterase inhibitors. Conversely, anticholinergic drugs are associated with cognitive decline, with neuropathology studies indicating the presence of increased neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque formation. In addition, these drugs are also known to precipitate visual hallucinations, lending support to a cholinergic basis for visual hallucinations in PD. Gait, falls, and cognition may also be related, as evidenced by the findings that fallers perform less well on test of attention than nonfallers and that greater postural instability is associated with worse scores on attention and executive function. It is therefore feasible that cognition (namely, attention), visual hallucinations, falls, and gait are subserved by acetylcholine, and this is further explored in this clinically orientated review.  
  Call Number Serial 317  
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Author Long, N.; Forehand, R.; Fauber, R.; Brody, G.H. file  url
  Title Self-perceived and independently observed competence of young adolescents as a function of parental marital conflict and recent divorce Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 15-27  
  Keywords (up) *Achievement; Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology; Child; Cognition; *Divorce; Female; Humans; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Marriage; Mother-Child Relations; Peer Group; Self Concept; Social Desirability  
  Abstract The self-perceived and independently observed cognitive and social competence of young adolescents as a function of parental conflict and recent divorce was investigated. Subjects were 40 young adolescents between the ages of 11 years 1 month and 15 years 1 month. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used, with the independent variables being parental marital status (married vs. recently divorced) and parental conflict (high vs. low). Dependent variables included the following measures of adolescent competence: adolescent-completed measures of self-perceived competence, teacher-completed measures, behavioral observations, and school grades. The results indicated that the level of parental conflict, rather than parental marital status, appears to be the critical variable associated with adolescents' independently observed levels of cognitive and social competence. In regard to adolescents' self-perceived levels of cognitive and social competence, parental marital status was found to be the critical variable. The implications of these findings are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 286  
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Author Johnson, C.S.; Stapel, D.A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title No pain, no gain: the conditions under which upward comparisons lead to better performance Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Pers Soc Psychol  
  Volume 92 Issue 6 Pages 1051-1067  
  Keywords (up) *Achievement; Adult; *Attitude; *Competitive Behavior; Female; Humans; Male; *Motivation; Questionnaires; *Self Concept; *Social Desirability  
  Abstract In 3 studies, the authors explored the relation between threatening upward social comparisons and performance. In an initial study, participants were exposed to comparison targets who either threatened or boosted self-evaluations and then completed a performance task. Participants exposed to the threatening target performed better than those in a control group, whereas those exposed to the nonthreatening target performed worse. In Study 2, self-affirmation prior to comparison with threatening targets eliminated performance improvements. In Study 3, performance improvements were found only when the performance domain was different from the domain of success of the comparison target. These boundary conditions suggest that increases in performance following social comparison arise from individuals' motivations to maintain and repair self-evaluations. Implications for the study of the behavioral consequences of social comparison are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 514  
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Author Killgore, W.D.S.; Kahn-Greene, E.T.; Lipizzi, E.L.; Newman, R.A.; Kamimori, G.H.; Balkin, T.J. file  url
  Title Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills Type
  Year 2008 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 517-526  
  Keywords (up) *Adaptation, Psychological/drug effects; Adolescent; Adult; Assertiveness; *Awareness; Caffeine/administration & dosage; Culture; Defense Mechanisms; Double-Blind Method; *Emotions; Empathy; Female; Humans; Internal-External Control; Interpersonal Relations; Male; Personality Inventory; *Problem Solving/drug effects; Self Concept; Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy/*psychology; Superstitions/psychology; *Thinking; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) at rested baseline and again after 55.5 and 58 h of continuous wakefulness, respectively. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with lower scores on Total EQ (decreased global emotional intelligence), Intrapersonal functioning (reduced self-regard, assertiveness, sense of independence, and self-actualization), Interpersonal functioning (reduced empathy toward others and quality of interpersonal relationships), Stress Management skills (reduced impulse control and difficulty with delay of gratification), and Behavioral Coping (reduced positive thinking and action orientation). Esoteric Thinking (greater reliance on formal superstitions and magical thinking processes) was increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the neurobehavioral model suggesting that sleep loss produces temporary changes in cerebral metabolism, cognition, emotion, and behavior consistent with mild prefrontal lobe dysfunction.  
  Call Number Serial 264  
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Author Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords (up) *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D. file  url
  Title Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 365-370  
  Keywords (up) *Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; *Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Eating/*psychology; Emotions; Feeding Behavior/psychology; Female; Humans; Linear Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Motivation; Obesity/psychology; Overweight/psychology; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Self Report; Students; Young Adult; Assessment; Binge-eating; Emotions; Motivation; Obesity; Reward  
  Abstract The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain.  
  Call Number Serial 1202  
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Author Foote, H.W.; Hamer, J.D.; Roland, M.M.; Landy, S.R.; Smitherman, T.A. file  url
  Title Psychological flexibility in migraine: A study of pain acceptance and values-based action Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache Abbreviated Journal Cephalalgia  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 317-324  
  Keywords (up) *Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Chronic Pain/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Migraine Disorders/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Migraine; acceptance; acceptance and commitment therapy; disability; headache; psychological flexibility  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies of musculoskeletal pain patients confirm that acceptance of pain and values-based action are strong predictors of pain-related disability and that interventions fostering “psychological flexibility” confer positive outcomes. However, data on these processes in migraine remain limited. This cross-sectional study examined relations between components of psychological flexibility and headache among treatment-seeking migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 103 adults (M age = 41.5 (11.9) years; 88.2% female) with ICHD-confirmed migraine (71.8% episodic, 28.2% chronic) across three clinics completed measures of psychological flexibility and headache-related disability. Hierarchical regressions quantified relations between acceptance/values-based action and headache variables after first controlling for pain severity and gender. RESULTS: Acceptance of pain and values-based action accounted for 10% of unique variance in headache severity (DeltaR(2) p = 0.006) and up to 20% in headache-related disability (DeltaR(2) ps = 0.02 and < 0.001) but were weakly related to headache frequency. Psychological flexibility was more strongly associated with MIDAS-measured disability than was headache severity or headache frequency. Significant effects were typically of medium-to-large size and driven primarily by values-based action. CONCLUSIONS: Paralleling results from the broader chronic pain literature, pain acceptance and values-based action play significant roles in headache pain and disability. Further study of interventions targeting these processes may enhance existing treatments.  
  Call Number Serial 2062  
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Author Fisone, G.; Borgkvist, A.; Usiello, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS Abbreviated Journal Cell Mol Life Sci  
  Volume 61 Issue 7-8 Pages 857-872  
  Keywords (up) *Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists; *Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists; Animals; Basal Ganglia/cytology/metabolism; Caffeine/*metabolism/*pharmacology; Central Nervous System Stimulants/*metabolism; Dopamine/metabolism; Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32; Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism; Humans; Motor Activity/*drug effects; *Nerve Tissue Proteins; Neurons/metabolism; Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism; Parkinson Disease/metabolism; Phosphoproteins/metabolism; Receptor, Adenosine A1/metabolism; Receptor, Adenosine A2A/metabolism; Receptors, Dopamine D2/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Synaptic Transmission/physiology  
  Abstract The popularity of caffeine as a psychoactive drug is due to its stimulant properties, which depend on its ability to reduce adenosine transmission in the brain. Adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, a group of structures involved in various aspects of motor control. Caffeine acts as an antagonist to both types of receptors. Increasing evidence indicates that the psychomotor stimulant effect of caffeine is generated by affecting a particular group of projection neurons located in the striatum, the main receiving area of the basal ganglia. These cells express high levels of adenosine A(2A) receptors, which are involved in various intracellular processes, including the expression of immediate early genes and regulation of the dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated 32-kDa phosphoprotein DARPP-32. The present review focuses on the effects of caffeine on striatal signal transduction and on their involvement in caffeine-mediated motor stimulation.  
  Call Number Serial 215  
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Author Shapiro, J.R.; Neuberg, S.L. file  url
  Title From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Personality and Social Psychology Review : an Official Journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc Abbreviated Journal Pers Soc Psychol Rev  
  Volume 11 Issue 2 Pages 107-130  
  Keywords (up) *Affect; *Attitude; Humans; *Negotiating; *Social Behavior; *Stereotyping  
  Abstract More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions--the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.  
  Call Number Serial 1311  
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Author Juslin, P.N.; Laukka, P. file  url
  Title Emotional expression in speech and music: evidence of cross-modal similarities Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 1000 Issue Pages 279-282  
  Keywords (up) *Affect; Culture; *Facial Expression; Humans; *Music; *Speech  
  Abstract Many authors have speculated about a close relationship between vocal expression of emotions and musical expression of emotions, but evidence bearing on this relationship has unfortunately been lacking. This review of 104 studies of vocal expression and 41 studies of music performance reveals similarities between the 2 channels concerning (a) the accuracy with which discrete emotions were communicated to listeners and (b) the emotion-specific patterns of acoustic cues used to communicate each emotion. The patterns are generally consistent with K. R. Scherer's (1986) theoretical predictions. The results can explain why music is perceived as expressive of emotion, and they are consistent with an evolutionary perspective on vocal expression of emotions. Discussion focuses on theoretical accounts and directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 479  
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