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Author Reynolds, P.P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Title VII innovations in American medical and dental education: responding to 21st century priorities for the health of the American public Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication (up) Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Abbreviated Journal Acad Med  
  Volume 83 Issue 11 Pages 1015-1020  
  Keywords Academic Medical Centers/economics; Education, Medical, Graduate/economics; Education, Medical, Undergraduate/economics/methods; Family Practice/economics/*education; Financing, Government/legislation & jurisprudence; General Practice, Dental/economics/*education; Humans; *Medically Underserved Area; *Patient Care Team; Patient-Centered Care; *Professional Competence; Training Support/*legislation & jurisprudence; United States  
  Abstract The Title VII Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry grant program has been an engine for innovation by providing funds to develop and implement new curricula, new models of care delivery, and new methods of fellowship and faculty development. During period one, 1963-1975, the disciplines of family medicine and physicians assistants (PAs) first received funding to establish residency programs in family medicine and student training for PAs. Other innovations included interdisciplinary training and curricula in substance abuse and nutrition. During period two, 1976-1991, Title VII funds supported implementation of general dental residency programs. In family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics, ambulatory care training was expanded with a focus on community-oriented primary care and preventive medicine, as well as curricula in ethics, distance learning, behavioral health, and what is now called evidence-based medicine. During period two, Title VII also helped build the infrastructure of primary care through funding to recruit faculty, to expand training sites into community settings, and to incorporate topics relevant to primary care. During period three, 1992-present, innovations shifted to areas of clinical relevance or national priority, training in the care of vulnerable populations, and design of educational strategies to eliminate health disparities, often through collaborative partnerships between medicine, dentistry, and public health. This article focuses on three areas that reflect much of the current work of Title VII grantees: clinical skills and practice improvement, interdisciplinary models of training and patient care, and care of vulnerable and underserved populations.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.  
  Call Number Serial 499  
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Author Joanisse, M.; Gagnon, S.; Voloaca, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The impact of Stereotype Threat on the simulated driving performance of older drivers Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 50 Issue Pages 530-538  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Analysis of Variance; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Chi-Square Distribution; Computer Simulation; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Ontario; Questionnaires; *Stereotyping; Task Performance and Analysis; User-Computer Interface  
  Abstract Older drivers are perceived as being dangerous and overly cautious by other drivers. We tested the hypothesis that this negative stereotype has a direct influence on the performance of older drivers. Based on the Stereotype Threat literature, we predicted that older driving performance would be altered after exposure to a Stereotype Threat. Sixty-one older drivers aged 65 and above completed a simulated driving assessment course. Prior to testing, half of the participants were told that the objective of the study was to investigate why older adults aged 65 and above were more implicated in on-road accidents (Stereotype Threat condition) and half were showed a neutral statement. Results confirmed that exposure to the threat significantly altered driving performance. Older adults in the Stereotype Threat condition made more driving mistakes than those in the control group. Interestingly, under a Stereotype Threat condition, older adults tended to commit more speeding infractions. We also observed that domain identification (whether driving is deemed important or not) moderated the impact of the threat. Taken together, these results support recent older drivers' performance models suggesting that the interaction between individual and social factors need to be considered when examining older drivers' performance.  
  Call Number Serial 1060  
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Author Chen, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, X.C.; Ci, Y.; Huang, H.; Ma, J.; Chen, Y.; Guan, H. file  url
  Title Driver injury severity outcome analysis in rural interstate highway crashes: a two-level Bayesian logistic regression interpretation Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 97 Issue Pages 69-78  
  Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Adolescent; Adult; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Bayes Theorem; China; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Theoretical; *Rural Population; Safety/*statistics & numerical data; Seat Belts/utilization; Bayesian inference; Driver injury severity; Hierarchical model; Rural interstate highway; Traffic crash  
  Abstract There is a high potential of severe injury outcomes in traffic crashes on rural interstate highways due to the significant amount of high speed traffic on these corridors. Hierarchical Bayesian models are capable of incorporating between-crash variance and within-crash correlations into traffic crash data analysis and are increasingly utilized in traffic crash severity analysis. This paper applies a hierarchical Bayesian logistic model to examine the significant factors at crash and vehicle/driver levels and their heterogeneous impacts on driver injury severity in rural interstate highway crashes. Analysis results indicate that the majority of the total variance is induced by the between-crash variance, showing the appropriateness of the utilized hierarchical modeling approach. Three crash-level variables and six vehicle/driver-level variables are found significant in predicting driver injury severities: road curve, maximum vehicle damage in a crash, number of vehicles in a crash, wet road surface, vehicle type, driver age, driver gender, driver seatbelt use and driver alcohol or drug involvement. Among these variables, road curve, functional and disabled vehicle damage in crash, single-vehicle crashes, female drivers, senior drivers, motorcycles and driver alcohol or drug involvement tend to increase the odds of drivers being incapably injured or killed in rural interstate crashes, while wet road surface, male drivers and driver seatbelt use are more likely to decrease the probability of severe driver injuries. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insightful understanding of the internal mechanism of rural interstate crashes and beneficial references for developing effective countermeasures for rural interstate crash prevention.  
  Call Number Serial 1784  
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Author Raymond, G.V.; Bauman, M.L.; Kemper, T.L. file  url
  Title Hippocampus in autism: a Golgi analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication (up) Acta Neuropathologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Neuropathol  
  Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 117-119  
  Keywords Adolescent; Autistic Disorder/*pathology; Child; Child, Preschool; Dendrites/pathology; Fatal Outcome; Female; Golgi Apparatus/chemistry/*pathology; Hippocampus/*pathology; Humans; Male; Staining and Labeling  
  Abstract Autism is a behaviorally defined syndrome in which neuropathological abnormalities have been identified in the limbic system and cerebellum. The morphology of hippocampal neurons in two cases of infantile autism was studied and compared to age-matched controls. CA4 neurons in autistic children were smaller in perikaryon area and dendritic branching of both CA4 and CA1 neurons was less than in controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies and suggest a curtailment in maturation in the pathogenesis of autism.  
  Call Number Serial 79  
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Author Dilsaver, S.C.; Alessi, N.E. file  url
  Title Antipsychotic withdrawal symptoms: phenomenology and pathophysiology Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication (up) Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 241-246  
  Keywords Antipsychotic Agents/*adverse effects; Brain/drug effects; Humans; Psychotic Disorders/*drug therapy; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/drug effects; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/*physiopathology  
  Abstract The authors review the literature discribing non-dyskinetic antipsychotic withdrawal phenomena. Withdrawal of these agents can cause nausea, emesis, anorexia, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, diaphoresis, myalgia, paresthesia, anxiety, agitation, restlessness, and insomnia. Psychotic relapse is often presaged by increased anxiety, agitation, restlessness and insomnia, but the temporal relationship of these prodromal symptoms to reduction in the dosage or discontinuation of neuroleptics distinguishes them from the effects of abrupt withdrawal.  
  Call Number Serial 213  
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Author Avery, D.H.; Wildschiodtz, G.; Smallwood, R.G.; Martin, D.; Rafaelsen, O.J. file  url
  Title REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication (up) Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand  
  Volume 74 Issue 3 Pages 269-280  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aging/physiology; Bipolar Disorder/*physiopathology; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm; Depressive Disorder/*physiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Menopause; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology; Sleep, REM/*physiology  
  Abstract REM latency and rectal and ear canal temperature were studied simultaneously in 11 controls and nine depressed patients; seven of the patients were studied when recovered. REM latency was shorter in the depressed group compared with controls and lengthened with recovery. The nocturnal and ear canal temperatures were higher in the depressed group compared with controls and decreased with recovery. REM latency and the nocturnal rectal temperature were negatively correlated when all the nights of the depressed patients were analyzed (r = -0.44) and when all the nights of the subjects were analyzed (r = -0.44). REM latency and nocturnal ear canal temperatures were negatively correlated when all the nights of the control group were analyzed (r = -0.34). The timing of the temperature rhythm did not appear to be correlated with the REM latency.  
  Call Number Serial 1148  
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Author Launiala, A.; Kulmala, T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The importance of understanding the local context: women's perceptions and knowledge concerning malaria in pregnancy in rural Malawi Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication (up) Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 111-117  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Malaria/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Malawi; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Questionnaires; Rural Population  
  Abstract A current problem of malaria prevention programmes is that not enough attention is paid to understanding the local socio-cultural context prior to programme implementation. The aim of this study is to discover how Yao women in rural Malawi understand and explain malaria in pregnancy, how they perceive it and what type of knowledge they have on it. Women's knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy is also investigated. At first phase a total of 34 in-depth interviews were conducted. At second phase a KAP survey (n=248) was conducted for cross-validation of the qualitative information. The findings showed that there is neither a vernacular word for malaria nor malaria in pregnancy. Women used a local word, malungo, to refer to malaria. Malungo is an ambiguous disease term because of its multiple meanings which are used interchangeably to refer to many types of feverish illnesses of various causes, not only malaria. Most women did not perceive malungo during pregnancy as a serious illness. There were several other diseases from anaemia, STDs to cholera etc. that were perceived to be more dangerous than malungo. The local meaning of malungo also entailed an assumption that it is a common but fairly harmless illness. Women had limited knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy, the best-known adverse effect being miscarriage (28%, 52/189). A socio-cultural understanding of the implementation context is prerequisite for planning meaningful programmes for the pregnant women in rural Africa.  
  Call Number Serial 164  
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Author Laveist, T.A.; Thorpe, R.J.J.; Mance, G.A.; Jackson, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Overcoming confounding of race with socio-economic status and segregation to explore race disparities in smoking Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication (up) Addiction (Abingdon, England) Abbreviated Journal Addiction  
  Volume 102 Suppl 2 Issue Pages 65-70  
  Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Baltimore/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Humans; *Prejudice; Prevalence; Smoking/epidemiology/*ethnology; *Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract AIMS: We examined the nature of racial disparities in smoking status within a sample that accounts for two major confounding factors in health disparities research--racial segregation and socio-economic status. Also, we sought to determine the generalizability of our sample. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study in south-west Baltimore, MD (EHDIC-SWB) and a subsample of respondents in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) that was matched to EHIDC-SWB. The final matched data set sample size was 2948 adults (1474 EHDIC-SWB; 1474 matched NHIS). MEASUREMENTS: Our outcome variables were life-time and current smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked daily. Independent variables include race, age gender, educational attainment and income. FINDINGS: In the adjusted models, whites had greater odds than blacks of current smoking and reported smoking more cigarettes in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but there were no race differences in current smoking status or in the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the NHIS. The prevalence rates for both life-time and current smoking were substantially greater in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but in comparisons of blacks and whites across samples we found that the magnitude of the difference between the samples was greatest for whites. CONCLUSIONS: Unadjusted national estimates of race disparities as reported in national reports may be biased because of differential risk exposure among people of different race groups. Race differences in social and environmental contexts account partially for racial differences in smoking patterns.  
  Call Number Serial 373  
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Author McEwen, A.; West, R.; McRobbie, H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Effectiveness of specialist group treatment for smoking cessation vs. one-to-one treatment in primary care Type
  Year 2006 Publication (up) Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 31 Issue 9 Pages 1650-1660  
  Keywords Adult; Community Health Nursing/organization & administration; Community Pharmacy Services; Counseling/organization & administration; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; London; Male; Middle Aged; Primary Health Care/*methods; *Psychotherapy, Group; Smoking/*prevention & control; Smoking Cessation/*methods; Socioeconomic Factors; State Medicine/organization & administration; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Using a quasi-experimental design, this paper contributes to an important debate about the most effective form of psychological treatment to aid smoking cessation: group treatment provided by specialists or one-to-one treatment provided in the community by primary care nurses or pharmacists. METHODS: Data were routinely collected from 1501 clients of a large London stop smoking service that offered both group and one-to-one treatment. RESULTS: A quarter (25%) of the clients were continuously abstinent 4 weeks post-quit: 30% for those receiving group treatment and 19% for one-to-one (Fisher's exact [2-sided]<.001). The difference between the specialist and community-based treatment remained after all possible confounding factors were controlled for (OR: 2.27, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the same service with the same management structure and training programme, group treatment offered by the specialist service yielded higher success rates than counselling by trained primary care nurses and pharmacists.  
  Call Number Serial 202  
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Author Parrott, D.J.; Drobes, D.J.; Saladin, M.E.; Coffey, S.F.; Dansky, B.S. file  url
  Title Perpetration of partner violence: effects of cocaine and alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication (up) Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1587-1602  
  Keywords Adult; Alcoholism/psychology; Cocaine-Related Disorders/psychology; Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry); Female; Humans; Interview, Psychological; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sex Distribution; Spouse Abuse/*psychology; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; Substance-Related Disorders/*psychology  
  Abstract The present study examined the effects of substance dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on perpetration of partner violence. Participants were 72 men and 124 women diagnosed with and/or without PTSD and cocaine or alcohol dependence. Participants were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID-IV) and completed the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 (CTS-2). Analyses indicated that participants with comorbid cocaine dependence and PTSD reported the highest frequency of partner violence relative to all other groups. Main effects were also detected for drug dependence and PTSD. Results suggest that substance dependence and PTSD alone are associated with increased violence in couples, and most importantly, the presence of PTSD serves to further potentiate the perpetration of partner violence among cocaine-dependent individuals.  
  Call Number Serial 226  
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