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Author Barzilai, A.; Yamamoto, K.-I. file  url
  Title DNA damage responses to oxidative stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication DNA Repair Abbreviated Journal DNA Repair (Amst)  
  Volume 3 Issue 8-9 Pages 1109-1115  
  Keywords Animals; Apoptosis; Cell Cycle; Cell Lineage; *DNA Damage; *DNA Repair; Humans; Hypoxia; Mitochondria/pathology; Oxidation-Reduction; *Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species  
  Abstract The DNA damage response is a hierarchical process. DNA damage is detected by sensor proteins such as the MRN complex that transmit the information to transducer proteins such as ATM and ATR, which control the damage response through the phosphorylation of effector proteins. The extent of the DNA damage determines cell fate: cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or the activation of apoptotic pathways. In aerobic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a by-product of normal mitochondrial activity. If not properly controlled, ROS can cause severe damage to cellular macromolecules, especially the DNA. We describe here some of the cellular responses to alterations in the cellular redox state during hypoxia or oxidative stress. Oxidative damage in DNA is repaired primarily via the base excision repair (BER) pathway which appears to be the simplest of the three excision repair pathways. To allow time for DNA repair, the cells activate their cell cycle checkpoints, leading to cell cycle arrest and preventing the replication of damage and defective DNA.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1707  
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Author Driscoll, M.; Gerstbrein, B. file  url
  Title Dying for a cause: invertebrate genetics takes on human neurodegeneration Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Reviews. Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Genet  
  Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 181-194  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/genetics/pathology; Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology/genetics; Cell Death; Drosophila melanogaster/cytology/genetics; Humans; Hypoxia/genetics/pathology; Invertebrates/cytology/*genetics; Ion Channels/metabolism; Models, Neurological; Mutation; Nerve Degeneration/*genetics/*pathology; Neurons/drug effects/pathology; Parkinson Disease/genetics/pathology; Peptides/genetics  
  Abstract If invertebrate neurons are injured by hostile environments or aberrant proteins they die much like human neurons, indicating that the powerful advantages of invertebrate molecular genetics might be successfully used for testing specific hypotheses about human neurological diseases, for drug discovery and for non-biased screens for suppressors and enhancers of neurodegeneration. Recent molecular dissection of the genetic requirements for hypoxia, excitotoxicity and death in models of Alzheimer disease, polyglutamine-expansion disorders, Parkinson disease and more, is providing mechanistic insights into neurotoxicity and suggesting new therapeutic interventions. An emerging theme is that neuronal crises of distinct origins might converge to disrupt common cellular functions, such as protein folding and turnover.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1706  
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Author Rescigno, M. file  url
  Title Dendritic cell functions: Learning from microbial evasion strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Seminars in Immunology Abbreviated Journal Semin Immunol  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 119-124  
  Keywords Animals; Bacteria/immunology; Dendritic Cells/cytology/*immunology; Humans; Immune Evasion; Immune Tolerance; Macrophages/immunology; Phagocytosis; T-Lymphocytes/immunology; Dendritic cells; Immune evasion; Pathogens; Tolerance  
  Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) that are fundamental to initiate both immunity and tolerance. DCs play a 'sentinel' role to protect our body from potential pathogens and induce tolerogenic responses toward harmless antigens. The flexibility of DCs or macrophages to adapt to the environment and to respond accordingly can be hijacked by pathogens for their own interest to transform a potentially immunogenic APC into a tolerogenic cell with clear consequences in pathogen clearance. While these immune evasion mechanisms can be detrimental for the host, they can highlight important molecular pathways in DCs necessary for their function. In this review we will mention several mechanisms employed by pathogens to evade DC patrolling function.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1703  
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Author Shin, S.; Brodsky, I.E. file  url
  Title The inflammasome: Learning from bacterial evasion strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Seminars in Immunology Abbreviated Journal Semin Immunol  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 102-110  
  Keywords Animals; Bacteria/immunology; Bacterial Infections/*immunology; Humans; *Immune Evasion; Inflammasomes/*immunology; Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology; Caspase-1; Inflammasome; Microbial evasion; Salmonella; Yersinia  
  Abstract The innate immune system plays a critical role in defense against microbial infection and employs germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors to detect broadly conserved microbial structures or activities. Pattern recognition receptors of the nucleotide binding domain/leucine rich repeat (NLR) family respond to particular microbial products or disruption of cellular physiology, and mediate the activation of an arm of the innate immune response termed the inflammasome. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that are inducibly assembled in response to the contamination of the host cell cytosol by microbial products. Individual NLRs sense the presence of their cognate stimuli, and initiate assembly of inflammasomes via the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and the effector pro-enzyme caspase-1. Inflammasome activation leads to rapid release of pro-inflammatory mediators of the IL-1 family as well as the release of intracellular alarmins due to a lytic form of programmed cell death termed pyroptosis. Over the past 15 years, a great deal has been learned about the mechanisms that drive inflammasome activation in response to infection by diverse pathogens. However, pathogens have also evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress host defenses, and the mechanisms by which pathogens evade inflammasome activation are not well-understood. Here, we will discuss emerging evidence on how diverse pathogens evade inflammasome activation, and what these studies have revealed about inflammasome biology. Deeper understanding of pathogen evasion of inflammasome activation has the potential to lead to development of novel classes of immunomodulatory factors that could be used in the context of human inflammatory diseases.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1702  
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Author van den Berg, A.E.; Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P. file  url
  Title Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 70 Issue 8 Pages 1203-1210  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Environment; Environment Design/statistics & numerical data; Female; *Health Status; Health Surveys; Humans; *Life Change Events; Male; Mental Health; Middle Aged; Multilevel Analysis; Nature; Netherlands; Regression Analysis; *Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data; *Stress, Psychological; Young Adult  
  Abstract This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2), conducted in 2000-2002. Health measures included: (1) the number of health complaints in the last 14 days; (2) perceived mental health (measured by the GHQ-12); and (3) a single item measure of perceived general health ranging from 'excellent' to 'poor'. Percentages of green space in a 1-km and 3-km radius around the home were derived from the 2001 National Land cover Classification database (LGN4). Data were analysed using multilevel regression analysis, with GP practices as the group-level units. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, income, education level, and level of urbanity. The results show that the relationships of stressful life events with number of health complaints and perceived general health were significantly moderated by amount of green space in a 3-km radius. Respondents with a high amount of green space in a 3-km radius were less affected by experiencing a stressful life event than respondents with a low amount of green space in this radius. The same pattern was observed for perceived mental health, although it was marginally significant. The moderating effects of green space were found only for green space within 3 km, and not for green space within 1 km of residents' homes, presumably because the 3-km indicator is more affected by the presence of larger areas of green space, that are supposed to sustain deeper forms of restoration. These results support the notion that green space can provide a buffer against the negative health impact of stressful life events.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1701  
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Author Karidi, M.V.; Vassilopoulou, D.; Savvidou, E.; Vitoratou, S.; Maillis, A.; Rabavilas, A.; Stefanis, C.N. file  url
  Title Bipolar disorder and self-stigma: A comparison with schizophrenia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 184 Issue Pages 209-215  
  Keywords Adult; Bipolar Disorder/*psychology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Empathy; Employment; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Schizophrenic Psychology; Self Concept; Social Behavior; *Social Stigma; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; Bipolar disorder; Simi; Schizophrenia; Self-stigma  
  Abstract AIM: Even though numerous studies have focused on the effects of self-stigma on patients with schizophrenia, little is known about self-stigma of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, a self-administered scale of self-stigmatising attitudes of patients with BD and schizophrenia was used to explore these attitudes, examine the potential differences between the two groups and study the factors that influence stigma within groups. METHODS: Self-stigma of 120 patients with schizophrenia and BD was assessed with the Self-stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness (SIMI). Presence of clinical symptoms, overall functioning and level of self-esteem were also evaluated. RESULTS: Self-stigma is present in both groups but differs in its intensity. Patients with BD experience self-stigma in a lesser degree without affecting their social life or overall functioning. Patients with schizophrenia adopt more intense self-stigmatising attitudes leading to social exclusion and lower level of overall functioning. LIMITATIONS: The results are limited by the small sample size, whereas the inclusion of other questionnaires would broaden our insight to self-stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Self-stigma has a direct effect on overall functioning of patients with BD and schizophrenia tampering the clinical outcome of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it should be incorporated in every treatment plan and be addressed as a clinical symptom of the mental illness.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1692  
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Author Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Emond, Y.; Jansen, A. file  url
  Title From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 570-575  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Child, Preschool; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; *Fruit; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology; Psychology, Child; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Overweight is increasing rapidly in children, compelling researchers to seek for determinants of adverse food intake. In a previous experiment it was found that manipulating the restriction of attractive snacks increased the desirability and intake of these snacks. In the present study, we tested whether this paradoxical restricting effect is also seen in relatively less attractive but healthy food, i.e. fruit. Will fruit become more desirable through restriction, and will children eat more forbidden fruit than non-forbidden fruit? Two groups of young children were forbidden to eat fruits and sweets, respectively, whereas a control group was invited to eat everything. Desire for sweets remained high in the sweets-prohibition condition, whereas it decreased in the fruit-prohibition and no-prohibition conditions. No group differences were found regarding the desire for fruit. With respect to intake, children in both the fruit- and the sweets-prohibition condition consumed more of the formerly forbidden food during a taste session as compared to the no-prohibition condition. In addition, total food intake was higher in the two prohibition conditions than in the no-prohibition condition. These data indicate that the adverse effects of restriction apply to both attractive unhealthy and relatively less attractive but healthy food.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1691  
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Author Fisher, J.O.; Birch, L.L. file  url
  Title Restricting access to foods and children's eating Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 32 Issue 3 Pages 405-419  
  Keywords Child Behavior/*psychology; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Male; *Mother-Child Relations; Nutritional Requirements; Obesity/psychology; Sex Factors  
  Abstract This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related “risk” factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, 35 girls) and their parents. Children's snack food intake was measured immediately following a meal, in a setting offering free access to palatable snack foods. Child and maternal reports of restricting children's access to those snack foods were obtained. In addition, information on child and parent adiposity as well as parents' restrained and disinhibited eating was used to examine “risk” factors for restricting access. For girls only, child and maternal reports of restricting access predicted girls' snack food intake, with higher levels of restriction predicting higher levels of snack food intake. Maternal restriction, in turn, was predicted by children's adiposity. Additionally, parents' own restrained eating style predicted maternal restriction of girls' access to snack foods.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1690  
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Author Amorim, K.N.S.; Chagas, D.C.G.; Sulczewski, F.B.; Boscardin, S.B. file  url
  Title Dendritic Cells and Their Multiple Roles during Malaria Infection Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Immunology Research Abbreviated Journal J Immunol Res  
  Volume 2016 Issue Pages 2926436  
  Keywords Antigen Presentation; Dendritic Cells/*immunology; Humans; Immunologic Tests; Life Cycle Stages; Malaria/*immunology/parasitology; Plasmodium/growth & development/immunology; T-Lymphocytes/immunology  
  Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses, efficiently presenting antigens to T cells. This ability relies on the presence of numerous surface and intracellular receptors capable of sensing microbial components as well as inflammation and on a very efficient machinery for antigen presentation. In this way, DCs sense the presence of a myriad of pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria. Despite many efforts to control this infection, malaria is still responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Different groups have shown that DCs act during Plasmodium infection, and data suggest that the phenotypically distinct DCs subsets are key factors in the regulation of immunity during infection. In this review, we will discuss the importance of DCs for the induction of immunity against the different stages of Plasmodium, the outcomes of DCs activation, and also what is currently known about Plasmodium components that trigger such activation.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1687  
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Author Kohler, P.K.; Manhart, L.E.; Lafferty, W.E. file  url
  Title Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health  
  Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 344-351  
  Keywords Adolescent; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Program Evaluation; Risk Reduction Behavior; Sex Education/*methods; *Sexual Abstinence; *Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data; Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology/prevention & control; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The role that sex education plays in the initiation of sexual activity and risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) is controversial in the United States. Despite several systematic reviews, few epidemiologic evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs on a population level have been conducted. METHODS: Among never-married heterosexual adolescents, aged 15-19 years, who participated in Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth and reported on formal sex education received before their first sexual intercourse (n = 1719), we compared the sexual health risks of adolescents who received abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education to those of adolescents who received no formal sex education. Weighted multivariate logistic regression generated population-based estimates. RESULTS: Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report teen pregnancy (OR(adj) = .4, 95% CI = .22- .69, p = .001) than those who received no formal sex education, whereas there was no significant effect of abstinence-only education (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .38-1.45, p = .38). Abstinence-only education did not reduce the likelihood of engaging in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .8, 95% CI = .51-1.31, p = .40), but comprehensive sex education was marginally associated with a lower likelihood of reporting having engaged in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .49-1.02, p = .06). Neither abstinence-only nor comprehensive sex education significantly reduced the likelihood of reported STD diagnoses (OR(adj) = 1.7, 95% CI = .57-34.76, p = .36 and OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = .67-5.00, p = .24 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Teaching about contraception was not associated with increased risk of adolescent sexual activity or STD. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 1685  
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