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Author Izumi, B.T.; Alaimo, K.; Hamm, M.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Farm-to-school programs: perspectives of school food service professionals Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior Abbreviated Journal J Nutr Educ Behav  
  Volume 42 Issue 2 Pages 83-91  
  Keywords Administrative Personnel/*psychology; Adult; *Agriculture; *Attitude to Health; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Costs and Cost Analysis; Crops, Agricultural/economics/standards; Female; *Food Services/organization & administration; Fruit/economics/supply & distribution; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; *Motivation; Schools; Students/psychology; Vegetables/economics/supply & distribution; Workforce  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study used a case study approach to explore the potential of farm-to-school programs to simultaneously improve children's diets and provide farmers with viable market opportunities. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews were the primary data collection strategy. SETTING: Seven farm-to-school programs in the Upper Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Seven school food service professionals, 7 farmers, and 4 food distributors recruited from 7 farm-to-school programs. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Interviews probed why farmers, school food service professionals, and food distributors participate in farm-to-school programs and how they characterize the opportunities and challenges to local school food procurement. ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using thematic coding and data displays. RESULTS: School food service professionals described 3 motivators for buying locally grown food for their cafeterias: (1) “The students like it,” (2) “The price is right,” and (3) “We're helping our local farmer.” Students' preference for locally grown food was related to food quality, influence of school staff, and relationships with farmers. Buying food directly from farmers and wholesalers was associated with lower prices and flexible specifications, and the “local feel.” CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Understanding school food service professionals' motivations for buying locally grown food is critical to the sustainability of farm-to-school programs.

Subject headings: administrative personnel/*psychology; adult; *agriculture; *attitude to health; child; child nutritional physiological phenomena/physiology; costs and cost analysis; crops, agricultural/economics/standards; female; *food services/organization & administration; fruit/economics/supply & distribution; humans; interviews as topic; male; *motivation; schools; students/psychology; vegetables/economics/supply & distribution; workforce

Keywords: farm-to-school programs: perspectives of school food service professionals
 
  Call Number Serial (down) 2919  
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Author Birch, L.L.; Marlin, D.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 353-360  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans  
  Abstract The relationship between frequency of exposure to foods and preference for those foods was investigated in two experiments. Participants in both studies were two-year-old children. In Experiment 1, each of six children received 20, 15, 10, 5 or 2 exposures of five initially novel cheeses during a 26-day series of familiarization trials in which one pair of foods was presented per day. In Experiment 2, eight children received 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 exposures to five initially novel fruits, following the same familiarization procedures, for 25 days. The particular food assigned to an exposure frequency was counterbalanced over subjects. Initial novelty was ascertained through food history information. Within ten days after the familiarization trials, children were given ten choice trials, comprising all possible pairs of the five foods. Thurstone scaling solutions were obtained for the series of choices: when the resulting scale values for the five stimuli were correlated with exposure frequency, values of r = 0·95, p < 0·02; r = 0·97, p < 0·01; and r = 0·94, p < 0·02 were obtained for the data of Experiments 1, 2, and the combined sample, respectively. A second analysis, employing subjects rather than stimuli as degrees of freedom, revealed that 13 of 14 subjects chose the more familiar stimulus in the sequence of ten choice trials at greater than the level expected by chance, providing evidence for effects within subjects as well as consistency across subjects. These results indicate that preference is an increasing function of exposure frequency. The data are consistent with the mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) as well as with the literature on the role of neophobia in food selection of animals other than man.

Subject Headings: Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans

Keywords: I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences
 
  Call Number Serial (down) 2686  
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Author Moaddab, A.; Dildy, G.A.; Brown, H.L.; Bateni, Z.H.; Belfort, M.A.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, H.; Clark, S.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Health Care Disparity and State-Specific Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 2005-2014 Type
  Year 2016 Publication Obstetrics and Gynecology Abbreviated Journal Obstet Gynecol  
  Volume 128 Issue 4 Pages 869-875  
  Keywords Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data; Female; *Healthcare Disparities; Humans; Infant; Infant Mortality; Maternal Mortality; *Maternal-Child Health Services; *Perinatal Care; Pregnancy; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with differential state maternal mortality ratios and to quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to such variation. METHODS: In a population-level analysis study, we analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated. We performed a maximum likelihood factor analysis with varimax rotation retaining variables that were significant (P<.05) in the univariate analysis to deal with multicollinearity among the existing variables. RESULTS: The United States has experienced a continued increase in maternal mortality ratio since 2007 with rates of 21-22 per 100,000 live births in 2013 and 2014. This increase in mortality was most dramatic in non-Hispanic black women. There was a significant correlation between state mortality ranking and the percentage of non-Hispanic black women in the delivery population. Cesarean deliveries, unintended births, unmarried status, percentage of non-Hispanic black deliveries, and four or less prenatal visits were significantly (P<.05) associated with increased maternal mortality ratio. CONCLUSION: Interstate differences in maternal mortality ratios largely reflect a different proportion of non-Hispanic black or unmarried patients with unplanned pregnancies. Racial disparities in health care availability, access, or utilization by underserved populations are an important issue faced by states in seeking to decrease maternal mortality.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2252  
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Author Wecker, N.S.; Kramer, J.H.; Hallam, B.J.; Delis, D.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Mental flexibility: age effects on switching Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 345-352  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Processes/*physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data; Predictive Value of Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Recognition (Psychology)/*physiology; Regression Analysis; Verbal Learning/physiology  
  Abstract Mental flexibility is required to track and systematically alternate between 2 response sets. In this study, 719 individuals, 20 to 89 years old, engaged in 3 different tasks that required verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching. Of importance, each task allowed for independent measurement of component skills that are embedded in the higher level tasks. When gender, education, Full Scale IQ, and component skills were partialed out by multiple regression analyses, significant age effects were revealed for each task. This study provides evidence that executive functions--and verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching in particular--are affected by age independently from age-related changes in component skills. The results are discussed in terms of theories of executive control and neurologic correlates across the adult life span.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2178  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
  Volume 103 Issue 3 Pages 403-428  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*psychology; Attention; *Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Reaction Time  
  Abstract A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity). Several types of evidence, such as the discovery of considerable shared age-related variance across various measures of speed and large attenuation of the age-related influences on cognitive measures after statistical control of measures of speed, are consistent with this theory.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2177  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 532-545  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Memory/physiology; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Neuropsychological Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Psychometrics; Reference Values; Space Perception/physiology; Verbal Behavior/physiology; Weights and Measures/*standards  
  Abstract Although frequently mentioned in contemporary neuropsychology, the term executive functioning has been a source of considerable confusion. One way in which the meaning of a variable can be investigated involves examining its pattern of relations with established cognitive abilities. This method was applied to a variety of variables hypothesized to assess executive functioning in 2 data sets, 1 consisting of 328 adults between 18 and 93 years of age and a 2nd composite data set based on nearly 7,000 healthy adults between 18 and 95 years of age. Most of the hypothesized executive functioning variables were strongly related to reasoning and perceptual speed abilities, and very few had any unique relations with age after taking into consideration the relations of age through the cognitive abilities. These results raise questions about the extent to which neuropsychological tests of executive functioning measure a distinct dimension of variation in normal adults.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2176  
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Author Gajer, P.; Brotman, R.M.; Bai, G.; Sakamoto, J.; Schutte, U.M.E.; Zhong, X.; Koenig, S.S.K.; Fu, L.; Ma, Z.S.; Zhou, X.; Abdo, Z.; Forney, L.J.; Ravel, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Science Translational Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sci Transl Med  
  Volume 4 Issue 132 Pages 132ra52  
  Keywords Bacteria/classification/genetics; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Metabolome; Metabolomics; Metagenome/genetics/*physiology; Models, Biological; Phylogeny; Time Factors; Vagina/*microbiology; Microbiome  
  Abstract Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2175  
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Author Zhan, Q.; Fan, S.; Bae, I.; Guillouf, C.; Liebermann, D.A.; O'Connor, P.M.; Fornace, A.J.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Induction of bax by genotoxic stress in human cells correlates with normal p53 status and apoptosis Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Oncogene Abbreviated Journal Oncogene  
  Volume 9 Issue 12 Pages 3743-3751  
  Keywords Apoptosis/*genetics; Gene Expression Regulation/*drug effects/genetics/radiation effects; *Genes, p53; Humans; Mutagens/*toxicity; Neoplasms/genetics; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*genetics; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; Tumor Cells, Cultured; bcl-2-Associated X Protein  
  Abstract DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation (IR) activate the tumor suppressor p53 and in some cases can cause apoptosis. M1 cells, which do not express the endogenous tumor suppressor gene p53, undergo apoptosis following activation of a temperature sensitive p53 transgene, where it has been shown that bax, an important mediator of apoptosis, is a p53 target gene (Selvakumaran et al, Oncogene 9, 1791-8, 1994). Since p53 can function as a transcription factor after activation by IR, the genetic response to this stress was examined in a panel of human cells with defined p53 status. Like the p53-regulated gene gadd45, bax was rapidly induced, as measured by increased mRNA levels, in the p53 wt (wild type) human myeloid line ML-1, and it was not induced in cells lacking functional p53. However, unlike other p53-regulated genes, bax was only induced in p53 wt cells in which IR also triggered apoptosis. In the case of bcl2, which opposes bax function, mRNA levels were reduced in ML-1 cells after IR. Thus, bax appears to be an unique p53-regulated gene in that its induction by IR not only requires functional p53 but also requires that the cells be apoptosis “proficient.”  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2172  
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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
  Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
  Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2171  
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Author Wilens, T.E.; Biederman, J.; Kwon, A.; Ditterline, J.; Forkner, P.; Moore, H.; Swezey, A.; Snyder, L.; Henin, A.; Wozniak, J.; Faraone, S.V. file  url
openurl 
  Title Risk of substance use disorders in adolescents with bipolar disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 43 Issue 11 Pages 1380-1386  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Bipolar Disorder/*complications/*psychology; Case-Control Studies; Child; Female; Humans; Male; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology/*psychology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Previous work in adults and youths has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUD). Considering the public health importance of this issue, the authors now report on a controlled study of adolescents with and without BPD to evaluate the risk of SUD. METHOD: Probands with DSM-IV BPD (n=57, mean age +/- SD=13.3 +/- 2.4 years) and without DSM-IV BPD (n=46, 13.6 +/- 2.2 years) were studied. Structured psychiatric interviews and multiple measures of SUD were collected. RESULTS: Bipolar disorder was associated with a highly significant risk factor for SUD (32% versus 7%, Z=2.9, p=.004) that was not accounted for by conduct disorder (adjusted odds ratio=5.4, p=.018). Adolescent-onset BPD (> or =13 years) was associated with a higher risk of SUD compared with those with child-onset BPD (chi1=9.3, p=.002). CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly indicate that BPD, especially adolescent onset, is a significant risk factor for SUD independently of conduct disorder.  
  Call Number Serial (down) 2170  
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