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Author Hom, P.W.; Roberson, L.; Ellis, A.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Challenging conventional wisdom about who quits: revelations from corporate America Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Applied Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Psychol  
  Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 1-34  
  Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data; Canada; Career Mobility; Employee Performance Appraisal/statistics & numerical data; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Female; Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data; Humans; Industry/*manpower; Male; Middle Aged; Minority Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Personnel Turnover/*statistics & numerical data; *Sex Ratio; Socioeconomic Factors; United States  
  Abstract Findings from 20 corporations from the Attrition and Retention Consortium, which collects quit statistics about 475,458 professionals and managers, extended and disputed established findings about who quits. Multilevel analyses revealed that company tenure is curvilinearly related to turnover and that a job's past attrition rate strengthens the (negative) performance- exit relationship. Further, women quit more than men, while African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans quit more than White Americans, though racial differences disappeared after confounds were controlled for. African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American women quit more than men of the same ethnicities and White Americans, but statistical controls nullified evidence for dual discrimination toward minority women. Greater corporate flight among women and minorities during early employment nonetheless hampers progress toward a more diversified workforce in corporate America.  
  Call Number Serial 273  
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Author de Groat, W.C.; Yoshimura, N. file  url
  Title (up) Changes in afferent activity after spinal cord injury Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Neurourology and Urodynamics Abbreviated Journal Neurourol Urodyn  
  Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 63-76  
  Keywords Afferent Pathways/metabolism/*physiopathology; Animals; Central Nervous System/metabolism/*physiopathology; Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism/*physiopathology; Genetic Therapy/methods; Humans; Mechanotransduction, Cellular; Nerve Fibers, Myelinated; Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated; Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism; Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques; Neuronal Plasticity; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide/metabolism; Potassium Channels/metabolism; Recovery of Function; Reflex; Sodium Channels/metabolism; Spinal Cord Injuries/complications/metabolism/*physiopathology/therapy; Urinary Bladder/*innervation; Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/etiology/metabolism/*physiopathology/therapy; *Urination; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism  
  Abstract AIMS: To summarize the changes that occur in the properties of bladder afferent neurons following spinal cord injury. METHODS: Literature review of anatomical, immunohistochemical, and pharmacologic studies of normal and dysfunctional bladder afferent pathways. RESULTS: Studies in animals indicate that the micturition reflex is mediated by a spinobulbospinal pathway passing through coordination centers (periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center) located in the rostral brain stem. This reflex pathway, which is activated by small myelinated (Adelta) bladder afferent nerves, is in turn modulated by higher centers in the cerebral cortex involved in the voluntary control of micturition. Spinal cord injury at cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary voiding, as well as the normal reflex pathways that coordinate bladder and sphincter function. Following spinal cord injury, the bladder is initially areflexic but then becomes hyperreflexic due to the emergence of a spinal micturition reflex pathway. The recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury is dependent in part on the plasticity of bladder afferent pathways and the unmasking of reflexes triggered by unmyelinated, capsaicin-sensitive, C-fiber bladder afferent neurons. Plasticity is associated with morphologic, chemical, and electrical changes in bladder afferent neurons and appears to be mediated in part by neurotrophic factors released in the spinal cord and the peripheral target organs. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal cord injury at sites remote from the lumbosacral spinal cord can indirectly influence properties of bladder afferent neurons by altering the function and chemical environment in the bladder or the spinal cord.  
  Call Number Serial 2147  
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Author Gortmaker, S.L.; Swinburn, B.A.; Levy, D.; Carter, R.; Mabry, P.L.; Finegood, D.T.; Huang, T.; Marsh, T.; Moodie, M.L. file  url
  Title (up) Changing the future of obesity: science, policy, and action Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Lancet (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Lancet  
  Volume 378 Issue 9793 Pages 838-847  
  Keywords Cost-Benefit Analysis; Food Industry; *Government Programs; Health Care Costs; Health Personnel; *Health Policy; *Health Promotion; Humans; International Cooperation; Obesity/economics/*epidemiology/*prevention & control/therapy; United Nations  
  Abstract The global obesity epidemic has been escalating for four decades, yet sustained prevention efforts have barely begun. An emerging science that uses quantitative models has provided key insights into the dynamics of this epidemic, and enabled researchers to combine evidence and to calculate the effect of behaviours, interventions, and policies at several levels--from individual to population. Forecasts suggest that high rates of obesity will affect future population health and economics. Energy gap models have quantified the association of changes in energy intake and expenditure with weight change, and have documented the effect of higher intake on obesity prevalence. Empirical evidence that shows interventions are effective is limited but expanding. We identify several cost-effective policies that governments should prioritise for implementation. Systems science provides a framework for organising the complexity of forces driving the obesity epidemic and has important implications for policy makers. Many parties (such as governments, international organisations, the private sector, and civil society) need to contribute complementary actions in a coordinated approach. Priority actions include policies to improve the food and built environments, cross-cutting actions (such as leadership, healthy public policies, and monitoring), and much greater funding for prevention programmes. Increased investment in population obesity monitoring would improve the accuracy of forecasts and evaluations. The integration of actions within existing systems into both health and non-health sectors (trade, agriculture, transport, urban planning, and development) can greatly increase the influence and sustainability of policies. We call for a sustained worldwide effort to monitor, prevent, and control obesity.  
  Call Number Serial 1274  
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Author Wang, Q.; Leichtman, M.D.; White, S.H. file  url
  Title (up) Childhood memory and self-description in young Chinese adults: the impact of growing up an only child Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 69 Issue 1 Pages 73-103  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; China; Female; Humans; Male; Memory; Only Child--psychology; Self Concept; Self-Assessment  
  Abstract This study examined the relationship between self-description and childhood memory in 255 Chinese young adults. Ninety-nine participants were from only child families and 156 had siblings. All participants completed two questionnaires: a version of the Twenty Statements Test of Kuhn and McPartland (Kuhn, M.H., McPartland, T.S., 1954. An empirical investigation of self-attitudes. American Sociological Review 19, 68-76) eliciting self-descriptions, and an instrument asking for earliest and other childhood memories. Based on theories positing a relationship between autobiography and the organization of the self, we predicted differences on both measures between only- and sibling-child participants. Findings indicated that compared with sibling children, only children had more private and fewer collective self-descriptions, earlier first memories, more specific and more self-focused memories. In addition, autobiographical measures were influenced by cohort, gender, preschool attendance, and urban/rural family effects. Findings are discussed in terms of literature on autobiography, the self and childhood in China.  
  Call Number Serial 37  
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Author Amato, P.R. file  url
  Title (up) Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author Kelly, J.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 8 Pages 963-973  
  Keywords Adult; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/*psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Domestic Violence/*psychology; Humans; Marriage/*psychology; *Social Adjustment  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. METHOD: Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. RESULTS: Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. CONCLUSIONS: While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.  
  Call Number Serial 285  
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Author Au, T.K. file  url
  Title (up) Chinese and English counterfactuals: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 15 Issue 1-3 Pages 155-187  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Child; *Cognition; Female; Humans; *Language; Linguistics; Male; Thinking  
  Abstract Bloom (1981) found that Chinese speakers were less likely than English speakers to give counterfactual interpretations to a counterfactual story. These findings, together with the presence of a distinct counterfactual marker (the subjunctive) in English, but not in Chinese, were interpreted as evidence for the weak form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. A series of five studies was designed to replicate these findings, using both Chinese and English versions of a new counterfactual story as well as the story used by Bloom. In these studies, bilingual Chinese showed little difficulty in understanding either story in either language, insofar as the English and Chinese were idiomatic. For one story, the Chinese bilinguals performed better in Chinese than American subjects did in English. Nearly monolingual Chinese who did not know the English subjunctive also gave mostly counterfactual responses. These findings suggest that the mastery of the English subjunctive is probably quite tangenital to counterfactual reasoning in Chinese. In short, the present research yielded no support for the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.  
  Call Number Serial 1719  
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Author Mena-Segovia, J.; Winn, P.; Bolam, J.P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Cholinergic modulation of midbrain dopaminergic systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Brain Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Rev  
  Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 265-271  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/*physiology; Animals; Dopamine/*metabolism; Humans; Mesencephalon/cytology/*physiology; Neural Pathways/physiology; Neurons/physiology  
  Abstract Dopamine neurons in the midbrain respond to behavioral events and environmental stimuli. Their different patterns of activation in turn modulate the activity of forebrain regions and modulate the expression of selective behavioral responses. However, their activity is closely dependent on the cholinergic systems in the brainstem. Ascending cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei target dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta and ventral tegmental area following a topographical gradient. These projections, by means of the activation of acetylcholine receptors, influence the firing of dopamine neurons and therefore their responsiveness, ultimately affecting the release of dopamine in their forebrain targets. Brainstem cholinergic neurons are thus in a position to critically influence the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, and thereby have a critical role in the expression of behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 316  
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Author Weinberger, A.H.; Platt, J.; Jiang, B.; Goodwin, R.D. file  url
  Title (up) Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Alcohol Use Relapse Among Adults in Recovery from Alcohol Use Disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research Abbreviated Journal Alcohol Clin Exp Res  
  Volume 39 Issue 10 Pages 1989-1996  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Alcoholism/*epidemiology/*prevention & control; Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Mood Disorders/epidemiology; Recurrence; Risk Factors; Smoking/*epidemiology; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology; Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology; United States/epidemiology; Young Adult; Alcohol Use Disorders; Epidemiology; Nicotine Dependence; Relapse; Smoking  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. METHODS: Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 (2004 to 2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N = 9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (nonsmoker, daily cigarette smoker, and nondaily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. RESULTS: Both daily and nondaily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 nonsmoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and nondaily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence 3 years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances.  
  Call Number Serial 1946  
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Author Vikram, A.; Jesudhasan, P.R.; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Pillai, S.D.; Jayaraman, A.; Patil, B.S. file  url
  Title (up) Citrus flavonoid represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and motility in S. Typhimurium LT2 Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication International Journal of Food Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Food Microbiol  
  Volume 145 Issue 1 Pages 28-36  
  Keywords Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects; Bacterial Proteins/drug effects; Biofilms/drug effects/growth & development; Cell Line, Tumor; Citrus/*chemistry; Flagella/drug effects; Flavanones/*pharmacology; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; *Genomic Islands; Humans; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Salmonella typhimurium/*drug effects/genetics/growth & development/pathogenicity; Virulence  
  Abstract Salmonellosis is one of the leading health problems worldwide. With the rise of drug resistance strains, it has become imperative to identify alternative strategies to counter bacterial infection. Natural products were used historically to identify novel compounds with various bioactivities. Citrus species is a rich source of flavonoids. Naringenin, a flavonone, is present predominantly in grapefruit. Previously we have demonstrated that naringenin is potent inhibitor of cell-cell signaling. The current study was undertaken to understand the effect of naringenin on Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. The cDNA microarrays were employed to study the response of S. Typhimurium to naringenin treatment. Naringenin specifically repressed 24 genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and down-regulated 17 genes involved in flagellar and motility. Furthermore, phenotypic assays support the result of microarray analysis. In addition, naringenin seems to repress SPI-1 in pstS/hilD-dependent manner. Altogether the data suggest that naringenin attenuated S. Typhimurium virulence and cell motility. This is the first molecular evidence to demonstrate effect of naringenin on bacterial virulence and cell motility.  
  Call Number Serial 1580  
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