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Author Chen, X.; Qian, Y.; Yan, F.; Tu, J.; Yang, X.; Xing, Y.; Chen, Z. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) 5'-triphosphate-siRNA activates RIG-I-dependent type I interferon production and enhances inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication in HepG2.2.15 cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication European Journal of Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Pharmacol  
  Volume 721 Issue 1-3 Pages 86-95  
  Keywords Base Sequence; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/*metabolism; DNA Replication/genetics; Hep G2 Cells; Hepatitis B Antigens/genetics/metabolism; Hepatitis B virus/*genetics/*physiology; Humans; Immunity, Innate; Interferon Type I/*biosynthesis/genetics; Polyphosphates/*chemistry; RNA Interference; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry/*genetics; Transcription, Genetic/genetics; Virus Replication/*genetics; 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide; 3p-siRNA; 5â²-Triphosphated siRNA; 5â²-triphosphated siRNA; BF-siRNA; Ciap; Elisa; Hbv; HBV e antigen; HBV s antigen; HBeAg; HBsAg; Hcc; HepG2.2.15 cells; Hepatitis B virus; Ifn; Ifnî±/β; Mtt; NC-siRNA; Od; Prr; Rig-I; RNA interference; RNAi; Rt-Pcr; Tlr; bifunctional siRNA; calf intestine alkaline phosphatase; double strand DNA; double strand RNA; dsDNA; dsRNA; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; hepatitis B virus; hepatocellular carcinoma; interferon; negative control siRNA; optical density; pathogen-recognition receptor; retinoic acid-inducible gene I; reverse transcription PCR; siRNA; single strand RNA; small interfering RNA; ssRNA; toll-like receptor  
  Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection often results in acute or chronic viral hepatitis and other liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for HBV usually have severe side effects and can cause development of drug-resistant mutants. An alternative and safe immunotherapeutic approach for HBV infection is urgently needed for effective anti-HBV therapy. In this study, we propose a new strategy for anti-HBV therapy that activates type-I interferon (IFN) antiviral innate immunity through stimulating pattern-recognition receptors with RNA interference (RNAi) using a 5'-end triphosphate-modified small interfering RNA (3p-siRNA). We designed and generated a 3p-siRNA targeting overlapping region of S gene and P gene of the HBV genome at the 5'-end of pregenomic HBV RNA. Our results demonstrated that 3p-siRNA induced a RIG-I-dependent antiviral type-I IFN response when transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells that support HBV replication. The 3p-siRNA significantly inhibited HBsAg and HBeAg secretion from HepG2.2.15 cells in a RIG-I-dependent manner, and the antiviral effect of 3p-siRNA was superior to that of siRNA. Furthermore, 3p-siRNA had more pronounced inhibition effects on the replication of HBV DNA and the transcription of mRNA than that of siRNA. Finally, 3p-siRNA displayed antiviral activity with long-term suppression of HBV replication. In conclusion, our findings suggest that 3p-siRNA could act as a powerful bifunctional antiviral molecule with potential for developing a promising therapeutic against chronic HBV infection.  
  Call Number Serial 1013  
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Author Wakabayashi, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) A case of infantile autism associated with Down's syndrome Type Journal Article
  Year 1979 Publication Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Autism Dev Disord  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 31-36  
  Keywords Age Factors; Autistic Disorder/*complications; Child; Child, Preschool; Down Syndrome/*complications; Humans; Infant; Language Development; Male; Motor Skills; Social Behavior; Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract There is increasing recognition that autism is a syndrome, not a disease entity. But it is not yet clear why some children develop autistic behavior more easily than others. It has been noted that autistic symptoms occur more frequently in children with mental retardation, blindness, congenital rubella, phenylketonuria, etc., and that there are very few cases of classical infantile autism in the general population. Very rarely has autism been associated with Down's syndrome. This is a report of a case of Down's syndrome and infantile autism.  
  Call Number Serial 970  
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Author Kennedy, S.H.; Williams, I.A.; Brodribb, J.; Barlow, D.H.; Shaw, R.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) A comparison of nafarelin acetate and danazol in the treatment of endometriosis Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Fertility and Sterility Abbreviated Journal Fertil Steril  
  Volume 53 Issue 6 Pages 998-1003  
  Keywords Adult; Amenorrhea/chemically induced; Analysis of Variance; Danazol/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Double-Blind Method; Endometriosis/*drug therapy; Estradiol/biosynthesis; Female; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/adverse effects/*analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use; Humans; Nafarelin; Pregnadienes/*therapeutic use; Tissue Adhesions/drug therapy; Uterine Neoplasms/*drug therapy  
  Abstract Nafarelin 400 micrograms daily and danazol 600 mg daily were compared in a double-blind randomized study. Eighty-two patients with endometriosis were treated for 6 months after an initial laparoscopy and 74 had a second laparoscopy. Twenty-two (30%) patients had complete disease regression, 42 (57%) patients had a partial regression, and in 10 (13%) patients disease was unchanged or worse. Both treatments led to significant regression of active disease but not of adhesions. At 3 months follow-up, 34 (64%) patients reported their symptoms were improved, 15 (28%) reported no change, and 4 (8%) were worse. Nafarelin was associated with more hot flushes and headaches, and danazol with more weight gain. No significant differences, however, were noted in treatment efficacy between the two groups.  
  Call Number Serial 1038  
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Author Hazuda, H.P.; Comeaux, P.J.; Stern, M.P.; Haffner, S.M.; Eifler, C.W.; Rosenthal, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) A comparison of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans in epidemiologic research. Methodological findings from the San Antonio Heart Study Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol  
  Volume 123 Issue 1 Pages 96-112  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; *Epidemiologic Methods; Female; Hispanic Americans/*classification; Humans; Male; Mexico/ethnology; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Texas  
  Abstract Because the issue of how to empirically identify Mexican Americans in health-related research is still unresolved, the authors compared the performance of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans across five distinct population subgroups: men and women in two age strata, and residents in low, middle, and high socioeconomic neighborhoods. Individual surname had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in the pooled population sample and varied the most widely on these parameters across population subgroups. Parental surnames, which are available on vital statistics and could easily be added to other health records used in secondary analyses, offered a significant improvement over individual surname in classifying persons as Mexican American. The San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) algorithm, a nine-item indicator which uses parental surnames, birthplace of both parents, self-declared ethnic identity, and ethnic background of grandparents, had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and varied the least on these parameters across different sex, age, and socioeconomic status population subgroups. The performance of all indicators was lower at the higher socioeconomic status levels. The findings suggest that it may be useful to use parental surnames as an indicator for Mexican-American ethnicity in research involving vital statistics and to add parental surnames to other health records frequently used in secondary analyses. Since the SAHS algorithm can be adapted for use with non-Mexican origin Hispanic subgroups, it may be a useful indicator for Mexican-American (or other Hispanic) ethnicity in survey research.  
  Call Number Serial 1381  
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Author Williams, H.A.H.A.; Jones, C.O.H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) A critical review of behavioral issues related to malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa: what contributions have social scientists made? Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 501-523  
  Keywords Africa South of the Sahara; Antimalarials/therapeutic use; Humans; Malaria/*prevention & control; *Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Research; *Social Medicine/organization & administration  
  Abstract In 1996, Social Science & Medicine published a review of treatment seeking for malaria (McCombie, 1996). Since that time, a significant amount of socio-behavioral research on the home management of malaria has been undertaken. In addition, recent initiatives such as Roll Back Malaria have emphasized the importance of social science inputs to malaria research and control. However, there has been a growing feeling that the potential contributions that social science could and should be making to malaria research and control have yet to be fully realized. To address these issues, this paper critically reviews and synthesizes the literature (published, unpublished and technical reports) pertaining to the home management of illness episodes of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa from 1996 to the end of 2000, and draws conclusions about the use of social science in malaria research and control. The results suggest that while we have amassed increasing quantities of descriptive data on treatment seeking behavior, we still have little understanding of the rationale of drug use from the patient perspective and, perhaps more importantly, barely any information on the rationale of provider behaviors. However, the results underline the dynamic and iterative nature of treatment seeking with multiple sources of care frequently being employed during a single illness episode; and highlight the importance in decision making of gender, socio-economic and cultural position of individuals within households and communities. Furthermore, the impact of political, structural and environmental factors on treatment seeking behaviors is starting to be recognised. Programs to address these issues may be beyond single sector (malaria control programme) interventions, but social science practice in malaria control needs to reflect a realistic appraisal of the complexities that govern human behavior and include critical appraisal and proposals for practical action. Major concerns arising from the review were the lack of evidence of 'social scientist' involvement (particularly few from endemic countries) in much of the published research; and concerns with methodological rigor. To increase the effective use of social science, we should focus on a new orientation for field research (including increased methodological rigor), address the gaps in research knowledge, strengthen the relationship between research, policy and practice; and concentrate on capacity strengthening and advocacy.  
  Call Number Serial 165  
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Author Silbersweig, D.A.; Stern, E.; Frith, C.; Cahill, C.; Holmes, A.; Grootoonk, S.; Seaward, J.; McKenna, P.; Chua, S.E.; Schnorr, L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) A functional neuroanatomy of hallucinations in schizophrenia Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 378 Issue 6553 Pages 176-179  
  Keywords Adult; Brain/blood supply/*physiopathology; Cerebrovascular Circulation; Hallucinations/*physiopathology; Humans; Male; Schizophrenia/drug therapy/*physiopathology; Tomography, Emission-Computed  
  Abstract Hallucinations, perceptions in the absence of external stimuli, are prominent among the core symptoms of schizophrenia. The neural correlates of these brief, involuntary experiences are not well understood, and have not been imaged selectively. We have used new positron emission tomography (PET) methods to study the brain state associated with the occurrence of hallucinations in six schizophrenic patients. Here we present a group study of five patients with classic auditory verbal hallucinations despite medication, demonstrating activations in subcortical nuclei (thalamic, striatal), limbic structures (especially hippocampus), and paralimbic regions (parahippocampal and cingulate gyri, as well as orbitofrontal cortex). We also present a case study of a unique, drug-naive patient with visual as well as auditory verbal hallucinations, demonstrating activations in visual and auditory/linguistic association cortices as part of a distributed cortical-subcortical network. Activity in deep brain structures, identified with group analysis, may generate or modulate hallucinations, and the particular neocortical regions entrained in individual patients may affect their specific perceptual content. The interaction of these distributed neural systems provides a biological basis for the bizarre reports of schizophrenic patients.  
  Call Number Serial 497  
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Author Heekeren, H.R.; Marrett, S.; Bandettini, P.A.; Ungerleider, L.G. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) A general mechanism for perceptual decision-making in the human brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 431 Issue 7010 Pages 859-862  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/physiology; Brain/cytology/*physiology; Decision Making/*physiology; Face; Female; Haplorhini/physiology; Housing; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; *Models, Neurological; Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology; Photic Stimulation; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/physiology; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract Findings from single-cell recording studies suggest that a comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned lower-level sensory neurons may be a general mechanism by which higher-level brain regions compute perceptual decisions. For example, when monkeys must decide whether a noisy field of dots is moving upward or downward, a decision can be formed by computing the difference in responses between lower-level neurons sensitive to upward motion and those sensitive to downward motion. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging and a categorization task in which subjects decide whether an image presented is a face or a house to test whether a similar mechanism is also at work for more complex decisions in the human brain and, if so, where in the brain this computation might be performed. Activity within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is greater during easy decisions than during difficult decisions, covaries with the difference signal between face- and house-selective regions in the ventral temporal cortex, and predicts behavioural performance in the categorization task. These findings show that even for complex object categories, the comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned neurons could be a general mechanism by which the human brain computes perceptual decisions.  
  Call Number Serial 1353  
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Author Fearon, E.R.; Vogelstein, B. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Cell Abbreviated Journal Cell  
  Volume 61 Issue 5 Pages 759-767  
  Keywords Alleles; Chromosome Deletion; Colorectal Neoplasms/*genetics; Heterozygote; Humans; Models, Genetic; Mutation; Oncogenes/genetics; Suppression, Genetic  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Serial 1723  
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Author Sarmah, A.K.; Meyer, M.T.; Boxall, A.B.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Chemosphere Abbreviated Journal Chemosphere  
  Volume 65 Issue 5 Pages 725-759  
  Keywords Animals; *Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology/toxicity; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/*veterinary; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Environmental Monitoring; *Environmental Pollutants/metabolism/toxicity; *Global Health; Humans; Manure/microbiology; Risk Assessment; Soil Microbiology; *Veterinary Drugs/pharmacology/toxicity  
  Abstract Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.  
  Call Number Serial 2133  
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Author Sarmah, A.K.; Meyer, M.T.; Boxall, A.B.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title (up) A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Chemosphere Abbreviated Journal Chemosphere  
  Volume 65 Issue 5 Pages 725-759  
  Keywords Animals; *Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology/toxicity; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/*veterinary; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Environmental Monitoring; *Environmental Pollutants/metabolism/toxicity; *Global Health; Humans; Manure/microbiology; Risk Assessment; Soil Microbiology; *Veterinary Drugs/pharmacology/toxicity  
  Abstract Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.  
  Call Number Serial 2149  
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