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Author Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
  Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 573-598  
  Keywords *Conflict (Psychology); Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Personnel Management; *Prejudice; Psychological Theory; *Role  
  Abstract A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.  
  Call Number Serial 271  
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Author Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J.; Makhijani, M.G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages 125-145  
  Keywords Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Culture; *Social Behavior; Social Environment  
  Abstract This article presents a synthesis of research on the relative effectiveness of women and men who occupy leadership and managerial roles. Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective. However, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms, and women were more effective than men in roles that were defined in less masculine terms. Also, men were more effective than women to the extent that leader and subordinate roles were male-dominated numerically. These and other findings are discussed from the perspective of social-role theory of sex differences in social behavior as well as from alternative perspectives.  
  Call Number Serial 272  
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Author Hom, P.W.; Roberson, L.; Ellis, A.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Challenging conventional wisdom about who quits: revelations from corporate America Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Applied Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Psychol  
  Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 1-34  
  Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data; Canada; Career Mobility; Employee Performance Appraisal/statistics & numerical data; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Female; Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data; Humans; Industry/*manpower; Male; Middle Aged; Minority Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Personnel Turnover/*statistics & numerical data; *Sex Ratio; Socioeconomic Factors; United States  
  Abstract Findings from 20 corporations from the Attrition and Retention Consortium, which collects quit statistics about 475,458 professionals and managers, extended and disputed established findings about who quits. Multilevel analyses revealed that company tenure is curvilinearly related to turnover and that a job's past attrition rate strengthens the (negative) performance- exit relationship. Further, women quit more than men, while African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans quit more than White Americans, though racial differences disappeared after confounds were controlled for. African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American women quit more than men of the same ethnicities and White Americans, but statistical controls nullified evidence for dual discrimination toward minority women. Greater corporate flight among women and minorities during early employment nonetheless hampers progress toward a more diversified workforce in corporate America.  
  Call Number Serial 273  
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Author Amato, P.R. file  url
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  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author Amato, P.R.; Keith, B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 26-46  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development  
  Abstract This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 277  
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Author Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author Aro, H.M.; Palosaari, U.K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: a follow-up study Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 62 Issue 3 Pages 421-429  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Cohort Studies; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Self Concept; Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a long-term study of the effects of divorce, children in a Finnish town who had completed questionnaires in school at age 16 were followed up with postal questionnaires at age 22. Depression in young adulthood was found to be slightly more common among children from divorced families. In addition, the life trajectories of children in divorced families revealed more stressful paths and more distress in both adolescence and young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 279  
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Author Block, J.H.; Block, J.; Gjerde, P.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The personality of children prior to divorce: a prospective study Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 827-840  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Divorce; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; *Personality; Personality Development; Prospective Studies; Sex Factors; Stress, Psychological/psychology  
  Abstract In a longitudinal study, the personalities of children from intact families at ages 3, 4, and 7 were reliably assessed by independent sets of raters using Q-items reflecting important psychological characteristics of children. A number of these families subsequently experienced divorce. The behavior of boys was found, as early as 11 years prior to parental separation or formal dissolution of marriage, to be consistently affected by what can be presumed to be predivorce familial stress. The behavior of boys from subsequently divorcing families was characterized by undercontrol of impulse, aggression, and excessive energy prior to parental divorce. The behavior of girls from subsequently divorcing families was found to be notably less affected by the stresses in families prior to parental divorce. The prospective relations afforded by the longitudinal analyses suggest that the behavior of conflicting, inaccessible parents during the preseparation period may have serious consequences for personality development, especially for boys. Hence, some characteristics of children commonly seen to be a consequence of divorce may be present prior to marital dissolution.  
  Call Number Serial 280  
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Author Buchanan, C.M.; Maccoby, E.E.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Caught between parents: adolescents' experience in divorced homes Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 62 Issue 5 Pages 1008-1029  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Anxiety/psychology; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/psychology; *Personality Development; Social Environment  
  Abstract This study examined adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents to see whether this construct helps to explain (1) variability in their postdivorce adjustment and (2) associations between family/child characteristics and adolescent adjustment. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old (N = 522) were interviewed by telephone 4 1/2 years after their parents' separation. Feeling caught between parents was related to high parental conflict and hostility and low parental cooperation. Being close to both parents was associated with low feelings of being caught. The relation between time spent with each parent and feeling caught depended on the coparenting relationship. Adolescents in dual residence were especially likely to feel caught when parents were in high conflict, and especially unlikely to feel caught when parents cooperated. Feeling caught was related to poor adjustment outcomes. Parental conflict was only related to adjustment outcomes indirectly, through adolescents' feelings of being caught.  
  Call Number Serial 281  
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Author Chase-Lansdale, P.L.; Cherlin, A.J.; Kiernan, K.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: a developmental perspective Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 66 Issue 6 Pages 1614-1634  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/psychology; Child; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Individuality; Learning Disorders/diagnosis/psychology; Male; *Personality Development; Personality Inventory; Risk Factors  
  Abstract The effects of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence on the mental health of young adults (age 23) were examined, using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a longitudinal, multimethod, nationally representative survey of all children born in Great Britain during 1 week in 1958 (N = 17,414). Children were assessed at birth and subsequently followed up at ages 7, 11, 16, and 23 by means of maternal and child interviews, and by psychological, school, and medical assessments. Parental divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on adult mental health, as measured by the Malaise Inventory total score, and controlling for economic status, children's emotional problems, and school performance preceding marital dissolution. The likelihood of scoring above the clinical cutoff of the Malaise Inventory rose from 8% to 11% due to parental divorce. This indicated that the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of divorce, but that the large majority of individuals did not exhibit such risks. Path analyses revealed that the negative effects of divorce on adult mental health operated indirectly through higher emotional problems and lower levels of school achievement and family economic status at age 16. Results related to timing of divorce, remarriage, and interactions between age 7 emotional problems and divorce, and between age 7 emotional problems and child gender, are also discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 282  
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