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Author Nardini, M.; Burgess, N.; Breckenridge, K.; Atkinson, J. file  url
  Title Differential developmental trajectories for egocentric, environmental and intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume (down) 101 Issue 1 Pages 153-172  
  Keywords Child; Child, Preschool; Cognition; Environment; Humans; Memory; Space Perception  
  Abstract We studied the development of spatial frames of reference in children aged 3-6 years, who retrieved hidden toys from an array of identical containers bordered by landmarks under four conditions. By moving the child and/or the array between presentation and test, we varied the consistency of the hidden toy with (i) the body, and (ii) the testing room. The toy's position always remained consistent with (iii) the array and bordering landmarks. We found separate, additive performance advantages for consistency with body and room. These effects were already present at 3 years. A striking finding was that the room effect, which implies allocentric representations of the room and/or egocentric representations updated by self-motion, was much stronger in the youngest children than the body effect, which implies purely egocentric representations. Children as young as 3 years therefore had, and greatly favoured, spatial representations that were not purely egocentric. Viewpoint-independent recall based only on the array and bordering landmarks emerged at 5 years. There was no evidence that this later-developing ability, which implies object-referenced (intrinsic) representations, depended on verbal encodings. These findings indicate that core components of adult spatial competence, including parallel egocentric and nonegocentric representations of space, are present as early as 3 years. These are supplemented by later-developing object-referenced representations.  
  Call Number Serial 23  
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Author Pesic, P. file  url
  Title Hearing the irrational: music and the development of the modern concept of number Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Isis; an International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences Abbreviated Journal Isis  
  Volume (down) 101 Issue 3 Pages 501-530  
  Keywords History, 16th Century; Humans; Mathematics/*history; Music/*history  
  Abstract Because the modern concept of number emerged within a quadrivium that included music alongside arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy, musical considerations affected mathematical developments. Michael Stifel embedded the then-paradoxical term “irrational numbers” (numerici irrationales) in a musical context (1544), though his philosophical aversion to the “cloud of infinity” surrounding such numbers finally outweighed his musical arguments in their favor. Girolamo Cardano gave the same status to irrational and rational quantities in his algebra (1545), for which his contemporaneous work on music suggested parallels and empirical examples. Nicola Vicentino's attempt to revive ancient “enharmonic” music (1555) required and hence defended the use of “irrational proportions” (proportiones inrationales) as if they were numbers. These developments emerged in richly interactive social and cultural milieus whose participants interwove musical and mathematical interests so closely that their intense controversies about ancient Greek music had repercussions for mathematics as well. The musical interests of Stifel, Cardano, and Vicentino influenced their respective treatments of “irrational numbers.” Practical as well as theoretical music both invited and opened the way for the recognition of a radically new concept of number, even in the teeth of paradox.  
  Call Number Serial 420  
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Author Chen, C.-H.; Tu, C.-C.; Kuo, H.-Y.; Zeng, R.-F.; Yu, C.-S.; Lu, H.H.-S.; Liou, M.-L. file  url
  Title Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Appl Microbiol Biotechnol  
  Volume (down) 101 Issue 2 Pages 771-781  
  Keywords Bacteria/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Cluster Analysis; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry/genetics; Disinfection/*methods; *Environmental Microbiology; *Hospitals; Housekeeping, Hospital/*methods; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Metagenomics; Phylogeny; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Taiwan; 16S rRNA metagenomics; Acinetobacter; Environmental cleaning methods; Healthcare-associated infection; Medical intensive care unit; Respiratory care centre  
  Abstract Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics. A total of 36 samples, including 9 samples per sampling time, from each ward were analysed. The clinical isolates were recorded during the sampling time. A large amount of microbial diversity was detected, and human skin microbiota (HSM) was predominant in both wards. In addition, the colonization rate of the HSM in the MICU was higher than that in the RCC, especially for Moraxellaceae. A higher alpha-diversity (p = 0.005519) and a lower UniFrac distance was shown in the RCC due to the lack of daily cleaning. Moreover, a significantly higher abundance among Acinetobacter sp., Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was shown in the RCC compared to the MICU using the paired t test. We concluded that cleaning changes might contribute to the difference in diversity between two wards.  
  Call Number Serial 2098  
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Author Tolhurst, R.; Nyonator, F.K. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Looking within the household: gender roles and responses to malaria in Ghana Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Abbreviated Journal Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg  
  Volume (down) 100 Issue 4 Pages 321-326  
  Keywords Attitude; Child; Family Characteristics; Female; *Gender Identity; Ghana; Health Services Accessibility/standards; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Malaria/*therapy; Male; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology  
  Abstract Studies of factors affecting treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study supported district-level government workers in the Volta Region of Ghana in conducting a situational analysis of gender inequities in relation to the malaria burden and access to healthcare services for malaria in one community in their district. Qualitative and participatory methods, such as focus group discussions, in-depth individual interviews and ranking exercises, were used. The study found that women who lacked either short- or long-term economic support from male relatives, or disagreed with their husbands or family elders about appropriate treatment-seeking, faced difficulties in accessing health care for children with malaria. This illustrates the significant influence of women's access to resources and decision-making power on treatment-seeking behaviour for children with febrile illnesses, and the importance of approaching malaria management in the community or household from a gender perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 168  
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Author Hijazi, Z.; Oldgren, J.; Andersson, U.; Connolly, S.J.; Ezekowitz, M.D.; Hohnloser, S.H.; Reilly, P.A.; Siegbahn, A.; Yusuf, S.; Wallentin, L. file  url
  Title Importance of persistent elevation of cardiac biomarkers in atrial fibrillation: a RE-LY substudy Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Heart (British Cardiac Society) Abbreviated Journal Heart  
  Volume (down) 100 Issue 15 Pages 1193-1200  
  Keywords Atrial Fibrillation/*blood/complications/physiopathology; Biological Markers/blood; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Incidence; Myocardium/*metabolism; Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/*blood; Peptide Fragments/*blood; Predictive Value of Tests; Prognosis; Prospective Studies; Stroke/blood/epidemiology/*etiology; Survival Rate/trends; Sweden/epidemiology; Troponin T/*blood  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic importance of transient or persistent elevations of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) and N-terminal-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained at randomisation and after 3 months in 2514 patients with AF in the RE-LY trial; median follow-up was 2.0 years. Patients were grouped based on levels at the two time points according to detectable cTnI levels (>/=0.01 microg/L) or NT-proBNP levels above median (>/=778 ng/L). These groups were related to occurrence of stroke or cardiovascular events evaluated with Cox models adjusting for established risk factors. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with detectable cTnI levels at both time points was 48.5%, at one time point 28.5% and at neither time point 21.0%. Patients with detectable cTnI at both time points had substantially higher rates of stroke compared with those with transient elevations and those with no elevation at either time point (p<0.005, effect of cTnI). Persistent elevation of either or both cardiac biomarkers at baseline and 3 months was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular events and mortality (p<0.0001). Prognostic prediction improved most with the use of repeated measurements of both cardiac biomarkers simultaneously (p<0.05) and achieved C-statistic 0.644 for stroke compared with 0.611 for CHADS2-score. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent elevation of troponin and NT-proBNP indicates a worse prognosis than transient elevations or no elevations of either marker. Prognostication of stroke, death and thromboembolic events is improved by the use of repeated determinations of cardiac biomarkers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:, NCT00262600.  
  Call Number Serial 1006  
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Author Grzybowski, S.J.; Wyczesany, M.; Kaiser, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The influence of context on the processing of emotional and neutral adjectives--an ERP study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Biological Psychology Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychol  
  Volume (down) 99 Issue Pages 137-149  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Arousal; Brain Mapping; Electroencephalography; Emotions/*physiology; Evoked Potentials, Visual/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Photic Stimulation; Principal Component Analysis; Visual Perception/*physiology; Young Adult; Lpp; Lateralization; N400; Negativity bias; P1; P2; P3; Positivity offset; Right hemisphere; Word processing  
  Abstract The study investigated brain responses to emotional and neutral adjectives within contexts of varying emotional valence. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 context groups where they viewed random sequences of emotional and neutral adjectives intermixed with: emotional pictures (emotional context), neutral pictures (neutral context) and blank screens (zero context). Within the emotional context group the P3 potential was more pronounced in response to positive than either negative or neutral adjectives, and positive picture context impacted positive and negative adjectives differently. In the neutral context group the P2 and P3 potentials were greater in response to the positive adjectives as compared to the neutral ones. There was also a greater negativity of the N400 potential in response to the neutral adjectives. Within the zero context group only the N400 effect was visible. The seeming preference for positive words can be explained in terms of the specific positivity offset phenomenon.  
  Call Number Serial 1094  
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Author Romero, C.D.; Chopin, S.F.; Buck, G.; Martinez, E.; Garcia, M.; Bixby, L. file  url
  Title Antibacterial properties of common herbal remedies of the southwest Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J Ethnopharmacol  
  Volume (down) 99 Issue 2 Pages 253-257  
  Keywords Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Gram-Negative Bacteria/*drug effects; Gram-Positive Bacteria/*drug effects; Humans; Medicine, Traditional; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; *Phytotherapy; Plant Components, Aerial; Plant Extracts/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Plant Roots; *Plants, Medicinal; Texas  
  Abstract Curanderismo, widely practiced in the southwest, is an alternative medical system that has been neglected by scientific research. This project analyzed the antibiotic properties of 23 common herbal remedies used in South Texas to treat wounds and infections. Ethanolic tinctures and aqueous extracts of each plant were prepared and applied to blank diffusion disks. These disks were desiccated and used in Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility tests on three bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Control disks contained solvent only. The efficacy of the tinctures and aqueous extracts was compared to that of commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion disks. No inhibition was observed with the aqueous extracts. The various tincture-saturated disks produced zones of clearance ranging from 1 to 5 mm. Ten plants consistently inhibited bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus. None of the plants tested produced consistent inhibition of the two Gram-negative species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. No zones of clearance were produced by the solvent-only control disks. The zones of clearance produced by commercial antibiotics were, on average, larger and more uniform than those produced by the tincture disks. Thus, it appears that some of the herbal remedies used in folk medicine are potentially effective antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus.  
  Call Number Serial 1529  
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Author Launiala, A.; Kulmala, T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The importance of understanding the local context: women's perceptions and knowledge concerning malaria in pregnancy in rural Malawi Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume (down) 98 Issue 2 Pages 111-117  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Malaria/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Malawi; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Questionnaires; Rural Population  
  Abstract A current problem of malaria prevention programmes is that not enough attention is paid to understanding the local socio-cultural context prior to programme implementation. The aim of this study is to discover how Yao women in rural Malawi understand and explain malaria in pregnancy, how they perceive it and what type of knowledge they have on it. Women's knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy is also investigated. At first phase a total of 34 in-depth interviews were conducted. At second phase a KAP survey (n=248) was conducted for cross-validation of the qualitative information. The findings showed that there is neither a vernacular word for malaria nor malaria in pregnancy. Women used a local word, malungo, to refer to malaria. Malungo is an ambiguous disease term because of its multiple meanings which are used interchangeably to refer to many types of feverish illnesses of various causes, not only malaria. Most women did not perceive malungo during pregnancy as a serious illness. There were several other diseases from anaemia, STDs to cholera etc. that were perceived to be more dangerous than malungo. The local meaning of malungo also entailed an assumption that it is a common but fairly harmless illness. Women had limited knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy, the best-known adverse effect being miscarriage (28%, 52/189). A socio-cultural understanding of the implementation context is prerequisite for planning meaningful programmes for the pregnant women in rural Africa.  
  Call Number Serial 164  
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Author Hall, A.C.; Rowan, K.C.; Stevens, R.J.N.; Kelley, J.C.; Harrison, N.L. file  url
  Title The effects of isoflurane on desensitized wild-type and alpha 1(S270H) gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Anesthesia and Analgesia Abbreviated Journal Anesth Analg  
  Volume (down) 98 Issue 5 Pages 1297-304, table of contents  
  Keywords Anesthetics, Inhalation/*pharmacology; Animals; DNA, Complementary/drug effects/genetics; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Isoflurane/*pharmacology; Kinetics; Mutation/genetics/physiology; Oocytes/metabolism; Receptors, GABA-A/*drug effects/*genetics; Xenopus  
  Abstract gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)-R) mediate synaptic inhibition and meet many pharmacological criteria required of important general anesthetic targets. During synaptic transmission GABA release is sufficient to saturate, maximally activate, and transiently desensitize postsynaptic GABA(A)-Rs. The resulting inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) are prolonged by volatile anesthetics like isoflurane. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on maximally activated and desensitized GABA(A)-R currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Wild-type alpha(1)beta(2) and alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2s) receptors were exposed to 600 microM GABA until currents reached a steady-state desensitized level. At clinical concentrations (0.02-0.3 mM), isoflurane produced a dose-dependent enhancement of steady-state desensitized current in alpha(1)beta(2) receptors, an effect that was less apparent in receptors including a gamma(2s)-subunit. When serine at position 270 is mutated to histidine (alpha(1)(S270H)) in the second transmembrane segment of the alpha(1)-subunit, the currents evoked by sub-saturating concentrations of GABA became less sensitive to isoflurane enhancement. In addition, isoflurane enhancements of desensitized currents were greatly attenuated by this mutation and were undetectable in alpha(1)(S270H)beta(2)gamma(2s) receptors. In conclusion, isoflurane enhancement of GABA(A)-R currents evoked by saturating concentrations of agonist is subunit-dependent. The effects of isoflurane on desensitized receptors may be partly responsible for the prolongation of IPSCs during anesthesia. IMPLICATIONS: Isoflurane enhances desensitized gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) currents, an effect that is subunit-dependent and attenuated by a mutation in an alpha(1)-subunit pore residue of the GABA(A)-R. As GABA release at inhibitory synapses is typically saturating, isoflurane modulation of desensitized receptors may be partly responsible for prolongation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents during anesthesia.  
  Call Number Serial 506  
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Author Nusslock, R.; Walden, K.; Harmon-Jones, E. file  url
  Title Asymmetrical frontal cortical activity associated with differential risk for mood and anxiety disorder symptoms: An RDoC perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume (down) 98 Issue 2 Pt 2 Pages 249-261  
  Keywords Anxiety Disorders/*diagnosis/physiopathology; Electroencephalography; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Functional Laterality/*physiology; Humans; Mood Disorders/*diagnosis/physiopathology; Risk Factors; Approach-motivation; Frontal EEG asymmetry; Mood/anxiety symptoms; RDoC  
  Abstract The recently launched NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to examine the relationship between core biobehavioral dimensions and symptom profiles that either cut across traditional disorder categories or that are unique to specific clinical phenomenon. A biobehavioral construct that has received considerable attention and that is directly relevant to the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC initiative is approach motivation. One way approach motivation is frequently operationalized is left versus right frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, with greater relative left frontal EEG activity reflecting increased approach motivation and decreased relative left frontal EEG activity reflecting decreased approach motivation or increased withdrawal tendencies. The objective of the present review paper is to examine the relationship between relative left frontal EEG activity and mood and anxiety related symptoms from an RDoC perspective. We first provide an overview of the approach-withdrawal motivational model of frontal EEG asymmetry. Second, we review evidence that relative left frontal EEG activity is associated with a differential risk for unipolar depression versus bipolar disorder. Third, and in line with the mission statement of the RDoC, we move beyond considering mood and anxiety disorders as unitary constructs or homogenous disorders and instead propose that individual differences in relative left frontal EEG activity may be uniquely associated with specific symptom clusters of depression (i.e., anhedonia), hypomania/mania (i.e., symptoms characterized by excessive approach motivation), and anxiety (i.e., anxious apprehension versus anxious arousal). Identifying the relationship between relative left frontal EEG activity and specific mood and anxiety-related symptom clusters has important implications for clinical science, assessment, and treatment.  
  Call Number Serial 1710  
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